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12.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 12 MANAGING KNOWLEDGE: KNOWLEDGE WORK AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.

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Presentation on theme: "12.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 12 MANAGING KNOWLEDGE: KNOWLEDGE WORK AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 12.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 12 MANAGING KNOWLEDGE: KNOWLEDGE WORK AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

2 12.2 © 2002 by Prentice Hall LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPLAIN ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTEXPLAIN ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT DESCRIBE USEFUL APPLICATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTING, CREATING, SHARING KNOWLEDGEDESCRIBE USEFUL APPLICATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTING, CREATING, SHARING KNOWLEDGE EVALUATE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTEVALUATE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT*

3 12.3 © 2002 by Prentice Hall LEARNING OBJECTIVES DEMONSTRATE HOW ORGANIZATIONS USE EXPERT SYSTEMS, CASE-BASED REASONING TO CAPTURE KNOWLEDGEDEMONSTRATE HOW ORGANIZATIONS USE EXPERT SYSTEMS, CASE-BASED REASONING TO CAPTURE KNOWLEDGE DEMONSTRATE HOW NEURAL NETWORKS & OTHER TECHNIQUES IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE BASEDEMONSTRATE HOW NEURAL NETWORKS & OTHER TECHNIQUES IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE BASE*

4 12.4 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATIONKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMSINFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE OTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUESOTHER INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES*

5 12.5 © 2002 by Prentice Hall KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: SYSTEMATICALLY & ACTIVELY MANAGING AND LEVERAGING STORES OF KNOWLEDGE IN AN ORGANIZATION *

6 12.6 © 2002 by Prentice Hall KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: Organizational learning mechanisms Processes to create, gather, store, maintain, disseminate knowledge CHIEF KNOWLEDGE OFFICER (CKO) DIGITAL FIRM: Substantial use of info technology enhances ability to sense, respond to environment *

7 12.7 © 2002 by Prentice Hall KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: Office Automation Systems (OAS) Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) Group Collaboration Systems (GCS) Artificial Intelligence Applications (AI) *

8 12.8 © 2002 by Prentice Hall INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS INFORMATION WORK: Work consists primarily of creating, processing information DATA WORKERS: People who process & disseminate organizations paperwork KNOWLEDGE WORKERS: People who design products or services or create new knowledge for organization *

9 12.9 © 2002 by Prentice Hall KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SHARE KNOWLEDGE DISTRIBUTE KNOWLEDGE CREATE KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE, CODIFY KNOWLEDGE GROUP COLLABORATION SYSTEMS OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS NETWORKS DATABASES PROCESSORS SOFTWARE

10 12.10 © 2002 by Prentice Hall MAJOR ROLES OF OFFICES COORDINATE WORK OF LOCAL PROFESSIONALS AND INFORMATION WORKERSCOORDINATE WORK OF LOCAL PROFESSIONALS AND INFORMATION WORKERS COORDINATE WORK ACROSS LEVELS AND FUNCTIONSCOORDINATE WORK ACROSS LEVELS AND FUNCTIONS COUPLE ORGANIZATION TO EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTCOUPLE ORGANIZATION TO EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT*

11 12.11 © 2002 by Prentice Hall OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS MANAGING DOCUMENTS: CREATIONCREATION STORAGESTORAGE RETRIEVALRETRIEVAL DISSEMINATIONDISSEMINATION TECHNOLOGY: Word processing, desktop publishing, document imaging, Web publishing, work flow managersTECHNOLOGY: Word processing, desktop publishing, document imaging, Web publishing, work flow managers*

12 12.12 © 2002 by Prentice Hall OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS SCHEDULING: FOR INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS: ELECTRONIC CALENDARSELECTRONIC CALENDARS GROUPWAREGROUPWARE INTRANETSINTRANETS*

13 12.13 © 2002 by Prentice Hall OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS COMMUNICATING: INITIATING, RECEIVING, MANAGING: VOICEVOICE DIGITALDIGITAL DOCUMENTSDOCUMENTS TECHNOLOGY: , voice mail, digital answering systems, GroupWare, intranetsTECHNOLOGY: , voice mail, digital answering systems, GroupWare, intranets*

14 12.14 © 2002 by Prentice Hall OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS MANAGING DATA: EMPLOYEES, CUSTOMERS, VENDORS: DESKTOP DATABASESDESKTOP DATABASES SPREADSHEETSSPREADSHEETS USER-FRIENDLY INTERFACES TO MAINFRAME DATABASESUSER-FRIENDLY INTERFACES TO MAINFRAME DATABASES*

15 12.15 © 2002 by Prentice Hall DOCUMENT IMAGING SYSTEMS: Systems convert documents, images into digital form (e.g.: optical character recognition; microfiche)DOCUMENT IMAGING SYSTEMS: Systems convert documents, images into digital form (e.g.: optical character recognition; microfiche) JUKEBOX: Storage & retrieving device for CD- ROMs & other optical disksJUKEBOX: Storage & retrieving device for CD- ROMs & other optical disks INDEX SERVER: Imaging system to store / retrieve documentINDEX SERVER: Imaging system to store / retrieve document* OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS MANAGING DATA:

16 12.16 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CREATE KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE WORK SYSTEMS: INFORMATION SYSTEMS THAT AID KNOWLEDGE WORKERS TO CREATE, INTEGRATENEW KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIZATION INFORMATION SYSTEMS THAT AID KNOWLEDGE WORKERS TO CREATE, INTEGRATENEW KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIZATION *

17 12.17 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CREATE KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE WORKERS: KEEP ORGANIZATION UP-TO-DATE IN KNOWLEDGE: Technology; science; thought; the artsKEEP ORGANIZATION UP-TO-DATE IN KNOWLEDGE: Technology; science; thought; the arts INTERNAL CONSULTANTS IN THEIR AREASINTERNAL CONSULTANTS IN THEIR AREAS CHANGE AGENTS: Evaluating; initiating; promoting change projectsCHANGE AGENTS: Evaluating; initiating; promoting change projects*

18 12.18 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing: Provides precise control over industrial design, manufacturingCAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing: Provides precise control over industrial design, manufacturing VIRTUAL REALITY: Interactive software creates photorealistic simulations of real world objects (Virtual Reality Modeling Language: VRML) VIRTUAL REALITY: Interactive software creates photorealistic simulations of real world objects (Virtual Reality Modeling Language: VRML)* CREATE KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS:

19 12.19 © 2002 by Prentice Hall INVESTMENT WORKSTATIONS: High-end PCs used in finance to analyze trading situations, facilitate portfolio managementINVESTMENT WORKSTATIONS: High-end PCs used in finance to analyze trading situations, facilitate portfolio management* CREATE KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS:

20 12.20 © 2002 by Prentice Hall SHARE KNOWLEDGE GROUP COLLABORATION SYSTEMS: GROUPWARE: Allows interactive collaboration, approval of documentsGROUPWARE: Allows interactive collaboration, approval of documents INTRANETS: Good for relatively stable information in central repositoryINTRANETS: Good for relatively stable information in central repository TEAMWARE: Group collaborative software to customize team effortsTEAMWARE: Group collaborative software to customize team efforts*

21 12.21 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CAPABILITIES OF GROUPWARE PUBLISHING, REPLICATIONPUBLISHING, REPLICATION DISCUSSION TRACKINGDISCUSSION TRACKING DOCUMENT MANAGEMENTDOCUMENT MANAGEMENT WORK-FLOW MANAGEMENTWORK-FLOW MANAGEMENT SECURITYSECURITY PORTABILITYPORTABILITY APPLICATION DEVELOPMENTAPPLICATION DEVELOPMENT*

22 12.22 © 2002 by Prentice Hall ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) SYSTEMS: AI: COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS WITH ABILITIES TO LEARN LANGUAGE, ACCOMPLISH TASKS, USE PERCEPTUAL APPARATUS, EMULATE HUMAN EXPERTISE & DECISION MAKING * AI

23 12.23 © 2002 by Prentice Hall AI FAMILY NATURAL LANGUAGE ROBOTICS PERCEPTIVE SYSTEMS EXPERT SYSTEMS INTELLIGENT MACHINES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AI

24 12.24 © 2002 by Prentice Hall AI BUSINESS INTERESTS IN AI PRESERVE EXPERTISEPRESERVE EXPERTISE CREATE KNOWLEDGE BASECREATE KNOWLEDGE BASE MECHANISM NOT SUBJECT TO FEELINGS, FATIGUE, WORRY, CRISISMECHANISM NOT SUBJECT TO FEELINGS, FATIGUE, WORRY, CRISIS ELIMINATE ROUTINE / UNSATISFYING JOBSELIMINATE ROUTINE / UNSATISFYING JOBS ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE BASEENHANCE KNOWLEDGE BASE*

25 12.25 © 2002 by Prentice Hall EXPERT SYSTEMS EXPERT SYSTEMS KNOWLEDGE - INTENSIVE CAPTURES HUMAN EXPERTISE IN LIMITED DOMAINS OF KNOWLEDGE * AI

26 12.26 © 2002 by Prentice Hall EXPERT SYSTEMS EXPERT SYSTEMS KNOWLEDGE BASE: Model of Human KnowledgeKNOWLEDGE BASE: Model of Human Knowledge RULE - BASED EXPERT SYSTEM : AI system based on IF - THEN statements (Bifurcation); Rule Base: Collection of IF - THEN knowledgeRULE - BASED EXPERT SYSTEM : AI system based on IF - THEN statements (Bifurcation); Rule Base: Collection of IF - THEN knowledge KNOWLEDGE FRAMES: Knowledge organizes in chunks based on shared relationshipsKNOWLEDGE FRAMES: Knowledge organizes in chunks based on shared relationships* AI

27 12.27 © 2002 by Prentice Hall EXPERT SYSTEMS EXPERT SYSTEMS AI SHELL: Programming environment of expert systemAI SHELL: Programming environment of expert system INFERENCE ENGINE: Search through rule baseINFERENCE ENGINE: Search through rule base –FORWARD CHAINING: –FORWARD CHAINING: Uses input; searches rules for answer –BACKWARD CHAINING: –BACKWARD CHAINING: Begins with hypothesis, seeks information until hypothesis accepted or rejected* AI

28 12.28 © 2002 by Prentice Hall EXPERT SYSTEMS EXAMPLES: EXPERT SYSTEMS EXAMPLES: BLUE CROSS BLUE SHIELD: Automated medical underwriting systemBLUE CROSS BLUE SHIELD: Automated medical underwriting system COUNTRYWIDE FUNDING CORP.: Loan underwriting expert systemCOUNTRYWIDE FUNDING CORP.: Loan underwriting expert system UNITED NATIONS: Employee salary calculationsUNITED NATIONS: Employee salary calculations* AI

29 12.29 © 2002 by Prentice Hall EXPERT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS: EXPERT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS: Often reduced to problems of classificationOften reduced to problems of classification Can be large, lengthy, expensiveCan be large, lengthy, expensive Maintaining knowledge base criticalMaintaining knowledge base critical Many managers unwilling to trust such systemsMany managers unwilling to trust such systems* AI

30 12.30 © 2002 by Prentice Hall CASE - BASED REASON (CBR) AI USES DATABASE OF CASES: USER DESCRIBES PROBLEMUSER DESCRIBES PROBLEM SYSTEM SEARCHES DATABASE FOR SIMILAR CASESSYSTEM SEARCHES DATABASE FOR SIMILAR CASES SYSTEM ASKS MORE QUESTIONSSYSTEM ASKS MORE QUESTIONS FINDS CLOSEST FITFINDS CLOSEST FIT MODIFIED AS REQUIREDMODIFIED AS REQUIRED* AI

31 12.31 © 2002 by Prentice Hall OTHER APPROACHES NEURAL NETS FUZZY LOGIC GENETIC ALGORITHMS INTELLIGENT AGENTS * AI

32 12.32 © 2002 by Prentice Hall NEURAL NETWORKS: Software attempts to emulate brain processesNEURAL NETWORKS: Software attempts to emulate brain processes FUZZY LOGIC: Tolerates ambiguity using nonspecific MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONSFUZZY LOGIC: Tolerates ambiguity using nonspecific MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS GENETIC ALGORITHMS: Use models of organisms to promote evolution of solutionGENETIC ALGORITHMS: Use models of organisms to promote evolution of solution HYBRID AI SYSTEMS: CombinationsHYBRID AI SYSTEMS: Combinations* AI OTHER APPROACHES

33 12.33 © 2002 by Prentice Hall INTELLIGENT AGENT INTELLIGENT AGENT PROGRAM WITH BUILT-IN, LEARNED KNOWLEDGE BASE TO DO SPECIFIC, REPETITIVE, PREDICTABLE TASKS FOR: INDIVIDUALINDIVIDUAL BUSINESS PROCESSBUSINESS PROCESS SOFTWARE APPLICATIONSOFTWARE APPLICATION* AI

34 12.34 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 12 MANAGING KNOWLEDGE: KNOWLEDGE WORK AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


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