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Presentation on theme: "ALLERGIC REACTIONS in the DENTAL OFFICE"— Presentation transcript:


2 Allergic Reactions Allergy is defined as a hypersensitive state aquired through exposure to a particular allergen, reexposure to which produces a heightened capacity to react

3 Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions range from mild, delayed reactions occuring as long as 48 hours after exposure, to immediate life-threatening reactions that occur within seconds after exposure

4 Classification of Allergic Reactions
Type Mechanism Time Example I Anaphylactic sec/min Angioedema II Cytotoxic Transfusion rx III Immune hrs Serum sickness complex IV Cell mediated 48 hrs Contact dermatitis

5 Most Common in Dental Office
Type I  Immediate Localized or Generalized Anaphylaxis - The Type I allergic reaction is subdivided into several forms based upon the response Type IV Contact Dermatits

6 Type I Immediate Hypersensitivity
Generalized (Systemic) Anaphylaxis Localized Anaphylaxis Urticaria Bronchial Asthma Food Allergy

7 Antigen A substance that elicits an allergic reaction

8 Antibody A substance in blood or tissue that responds and reacts with the antigen (different in structure than the antigen)

9 Atopy Clinical hypersensitivity state, subject to heredity (asthma, hay fever, etc.)

10 Urticaria Wheals (hives)
Smooth elevated patches surrounded by erythematous areas Pruritus (itching)



13 Angioedema Non-inflammatory edema involving
skin, subcutaneous tissue, underlying muscle & mucous membranes. Occurs in response to allergen Most critical in the larynx


15 Predisposing Factors in Allergic Reactions
Prior history of allergy Genetic predisposition to allergy - atopic patient Patient with multiple allergies Drug that is utilized

16 Drugs that Cause Allergic Reactions
Up to 70% of Allergic Reactions Penicillin Meprobamate Codeine Thiazide Diuretics

17 Other Substances Causing Reactions
Iodines Vaccines Insulin Heparin Salicylates Sulfonamides Opiates Local Anesthetics Venom from stinging insects

18 Antibiotic Allergy Highest incidence
Penicillins (anaphylactic reaction may prove fatal in 15 minutes) Sulfonamides Reactions to erythromycins rarely seen

19 Analgesic Allergy Incidence of true allergy to narcotics is low
"Allergy" is most often a side effect such as nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dysphoria, or constipation

20 Antianxiety Drug Allergy
Barbiturates -most common but occur less than aspirin and penicillin Reactions -hives, urticaria, blood dyscrasia (agranulocytosis / thrombocytopenia) Allergy occurs more frequently with a history of asthma, urticaria, and angioedema

21 Local Anesthetics Reactions occur most frequently with Esters
Preservatives also cause reactions

22 Ester Drugs Procaine Propoxycaine Benzocaine Tetracaine
Related compounds Procaine Penicillin G Procainamide

23 Amide Allergy The amide type anesthetic are essentially free of allergic reaction when given in their pure form Although true allergy to amide type anesthetic is extremely rare, patients have demonstrated allergic reaction to the contents of the dental cartridge

24 Ingredient - Function Anesthetic Agent - Conduction blockade
Vasoconstrictor - Decrease absorption of local anesthetic Sodium Metabisulfite - Preservative for vasoconstrictor Methylparaben - Preservative to increase shelf life; bacteriostatic Sodium Chloride - Isotonicity of solution Sterile Water - Diluent

25 Paraben Reactions Preservative found in many non-drug items
Allergic reactions to topical anesthetics are those of contact stomatitis; erythema, edema, ulcerations - almost exclusively a dermatologic type reaction



28 Clinical Options Determine type of “allergic” reaction
Substitute different drugs for those which cause the allergic reaction. Have patient evaluated by allergist

29 Management of Allergic Reactions
Most severe allergic reactions are immediate A number of organ oystems may be involved Skin Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestinal

30 Management of Allergic Reactions
Generalized anaphylaxis involves all of the previously mentioned systems When hypotension occurs, it is termed Anaphylactic Shock

31 Affected Area - Manifestation
Skin Urticaria-Wheal & Flare pruritis, angioedema, erythema Respiratory Dyspnea,wheezing,flushing, cyanosis,perspiration,tachycardia, increased anxiety,use of accessory muscles of respiration

32 Affected Area - Manifestation
Gastrointestinal Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, incontinence Cardiovascular Pallor, light-headedness, palpitations, tachycardia, hypotension, dysrhythmias, loss of consciousness, arrest

33 Sequence of Reaction 1. Skin reaction 2. Smooth muscle spasm
(GI, GU, and bronchial) 3. Respiratory distress 4. Cardiovascular collapse

34 Type of Reaction Quick Onset==> Rapid Progression==> Intense Reaction Delayed Onset==> Slow Progression==> Less Severe Reaction

35 Drugs Used in Allergic Reactions

36 Epinephrine Has Alpha and Beta adrenergic effects
Acts as a physiologic antagonist to the events that occur during an allergic reaction

37 Epinephrine Actions Include Bronchodilation Increased heart rate
Arterial constriction Cutaneous, mucosal, and splanchnic vasoconstriction Reverses rhinitis and urticaria

38 Epinephrine Risks of repeated use:
Excessive elevation of blood pressure CVA Cardiac rhythm abnormalities

39 Antihistamine Benadryl (chlorpheniramine) most often used H-1 blocker
Inhibits action of histamine released during reaction to allergen

40 Corticosteroids Hydrocortisone used most often
Stablilizes cell membranes against actions of histamines, bradykinins, and prostaglandins Supplements adrenal steroid output during stress

41 Treatment of Immediate Skin Reactions
Epinephrine 0.3 mg IM or SC (0.3ml of a 1:1000 Solution) Antihistamine Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) 50 mg IM

42 Treatment of Immediate Skin Reactions
Obtain medical consultation Observe patient for at least one hour Prescribe oral antihistamines Benadryl 50 mg PO Q6H for 3-4 days

43 Treatment of Delayed Skin Reactions
Antihistamine Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) 50 mg IM Prescribe oral form Q6H for 3-4 days Arrange medical consultation

44 Treatment of Respiratory Reactions
Bronchial Constriction Terminate dental treatment Sit patient upright Oxygen 6 L/min Epinephrine aerosol or 0.3 mg IM or SC (0.3 ml of a 1:1000 solution)

45 Treatment of Respiratory Reactions
Bronchial Constriction (cont.) Observe for at least 1 hr Antihistamines - Benadryl 50 mg IM Obtain medical consulatation Prescribe oral antihistamines (Q6H for 3-4 days)

46 Treatment of Respiratory Reactions
Laryngeal Edema Sit patient upright Epinephrine 0.3 mg IM or IV Maintain airway Summon medical assistance

47 Treatment of Respiratory Reactions
Laryngeal Edema (cont.) Oxygen 6 L/min Cricothyroidotomy Additional drug therapy Diphenhydramine 50mg &/or Hydrocortisone 100 mg

48 Generalized Anaphylaxis with Signs of Allergy
Place patient in a supine postion Basic Life Support (ABCs) Administer epinephrine 0.3 mg IM or SC (0.3 ml of a 1:1000 solution) Summon medical assistance - call 911

49 Generalized Anaphylaxis with Signs of Allergy
Monitor vital signs Additional drug therapy Antihistamines Corticosteroids Repeat epinephrine Q5min prn

50 Generalized Anaphylaxis without Signs of Allergy
Place patient in a supine position Basic Life Support Monitor vital signs Summon medical assistance prn

51 Generalized Anaphylaxis without Signs of Allergy
Consider possible causes of unconsciousness Syncope Overdose Reaction Hypoglycemia CVA Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

52 Prevention of Allergic Reactions
HISTORY - a thorough, complete history of any previous allergic response or tendency prior to starting treatment will avoid most emergencies

53 Other Means of Prevention
Medical consultation Dental office skin testing (not foolproof and not advisable)

54 Take Home Lessons All positive responses to an allergy history are true until exact nature is determined! Patients reporting allergies should be critically evaluated -refer for allergy testing if history, reaction, or management are suspect. Be prepared to manage difficulties! Always!


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