Presentation on theme: "Evaluating Project Value Streams Christopher L. Johnson Consulting Director September 12, 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Evaluating Project Value Streams Christopher L. Johnson Consulting Director September 12, 2006
Introduction Lean Office, Value Stream Mapping (VSM) - What is it? The Role of Lean Office, and VSM in IT –Agency Value –The Value Stream Mapping Process –Where is the waste? From Outcomes to Initiatives: VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management Agenda
What is Lean Office, What is Value Stream Mapping? Lean Office and VSM are a set of activities that help establish a culture of continuous improvement at the agency, where the value of an agencies work streams are understood, optimized, and waste is minimized. How does this relate to IT? Once undertaken, and the continuum of improvement is established, the value of an agencies IT projects and their departmental touch-points should be clearly understood. How does this help? If an agencies work streams or projects values are not clearly understood, then the work streams or projects should be reevaluated or eliminated, allowing the agency to deploy its valuable resources and budget allocation elsewhere Introduction to Lean Office, Value Stream Mapping
Lean Office and Value Stream Mapping (VSM) are tools commonly used in the manufacturing community in order to identify and eliminate waste during the development of products and services One of the major benefits of VSM/Lean is that it enables an organization to view itself holistically – it is a top down exercise This presentation will provide a view of how these tools can be used: –To develop a better understanding of an organizations core business processes management, and techniques to identify areas for improvement –Create a value system which will be used for prioritizing projects –Establish of an optimized project portfolio, and program management strategy Introduction to Lean Office, Value Stream Mapping Where does Lean Office come from?
IT practitioners can learn improvement techniques in areas that may not be as immediately obvious, e.g. manufacturers can see their processes In the Agencies IT department, VSM and Lean manufacturing principles can be adopted to help identify issues more readily apparent on the manufacturing floor: –Where are the bottlenecks? –Is the project on schedule? –Is anything missing? Introduction to Lean Office, Value Stream Mapping Why look to other industries?
The of Era Lean Production – 1955 to ??? Employees aligned with a system-wide view of how value is created Employees assigned responsibility for cross-functional teams Decentralized control with measurements established centrally Specialized tools to increase productivity Standards govern people, processes, tools CraftsmanMass ProductionLean Introduction to Lean Office, Value Stream Mapping
Principles Its not the people – its the flow of work – Most people are ready to do a good job – Its the flow of work that: Separates people from understanding their customers needs Inhibits people from better meeting customer needs Its not the job functions – its the flow of information – With sufficient skills and education, job functions can be performed – Good information flow: Provides sufficient facts necessary to perform the function Is timed to coincide with execution readiness The Role of Lean Office and VSM in IT
Operations (order processing, customer service, etc.) –Focused on the flow of information –Step by step execution –Well defined roles & responsibilities Innovation (marketing, information technology, etc.) –Focused on the flow of ideas –Ad-hoc activities as needed –Roles & responsibilities vary by project Lean Office (VSM) activities are primarily focused in two areas: The Role of Lean Office and VSM in IT
Value Stream Mapping and Business Process Management (BPM) - Whats the difference? Lean / VSM focuses on information flows and the value created by the organization –Identify customers value today and how to increase it –Look for ways to better leverage the use of information –The end state is optimized customer value creation BPM focuses on the activities performed and decisions made by the organization –Look for solutions to problems –Look for ways to reduce functional overlaps –The end state is optimized decision making and efficient processes The Role of Lean Office in IT
The Top Down Lean Office Approach Customer Value Value Stream Mapping Wheres the Waste? Continuous Improvement Techniques, and Project Portfolio Management The Role of Lean Office in IT
The Customer Value Equation: Value Received = Created Value - Created Waste Where: Value Received = The perceived value of products or services (defined by the customer) Created Value = The perceived value of product or services produced (defined by the organization) Created Waste = 1)Anything produced by an organization that a customer does not value 2)Anything produced by an organization that reduces created value The Role of Lean Office in IT: Customer Value
What do your Customers Value? Value Statements: –Self-Service – customer transactions through an automated interface –Profitability – maintain a high return on equity –Predictability – consistently meet customer expectations –Integrity – conduct all activities with honesty and candor –Responsiveness – Able to rapidly respond to customer requests The Role of Lean Office in IT: Customer Value
Value Across the Organization: Aligned in Priority Whats the value of the quoting process? A.Establish a price? B.Create an innovative solution to the customer's problem? C.Establish the timeframe for performing the work? D.Asses the risk of performing the work as specified? Is everyone aligned with the same value priorities? The Role of Lean Office in IT: Customer Value
VSM Basics: Tasks are assigned vertically within each department Work processes flow horizontally from one department to the next Lean maximizes value by managing the cross-flow of tasks and work Dept Work Tasks Process The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
Dept. Work Flow Role Flow Role Establish Roles Each unique touch point or hand-off in the process Roles can be part-time or require 10 full-time people Establish Flows The movement of information from touch point to touch point Flows can be of one or many sources & types The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
Role Information System Flow Paper File Off-Page Connector Sample Value Stream Map - Shapes The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
Value Stream Mapping Rules There is no wrong map – but strive to keep it simple There is no going back – the value stream always move forward; but it can restart at an earlier location if there is an error or customer change Roles are not people – they are touch points along the value stream Roles are black boxes – what occurs inside does not impact the map (this is a BPM activity) Capture all inputs/outputs to a role – the information flows in and out of a role define the role; once all are captured, then name the role Name roles after actions, flows after content – roles define what is done; flows define what is sent or received Every output leads to an input – if you have an output trace it forward to an input; and visa versa Start the map anywhere – tracing all the inputs and outputs from roles will create the value stream map regardless of which role which is used to start The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
Actual VSM Example The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
VSM can be used not only to define the current state, but also show an optimized future state Current State Future State The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
Value Stream Measurements Work Role Flow Touches The number of times work is handed off Touches Cycle Time The wall-clock time from start to finish Work Time The actual labor time to complete the role Work Time Work-in-Process (WIP) The unfinished work in the process WIP The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
Value Stream Map with Measurements The Role of Lean Office in IT: VSM
VALUE EQUATION REMINDER – Waste is the Opposite of Value The value equation is: Received Value = Created Value - Created Waste Therefore, –VALUE in the value equation is determined by the customer –WASTE is anything the receiving customers do not value The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Seven Wastes 1.Defects – Any error or rework or workaround that occurs 2.Work-in-Process – Work in the system that has not yet completed 3.Overproduction – Producing more work than immediately needed 4.Transportation – Movement or motion from one place to another 5.Waiting – Someone or something waiting with nothing to do 6.Unnecessary Processes – Activities performed but no longer needed 7.Variation – Multiple methods or tools for performing the same activity The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Defects – Sometimes schedules do not allow sufficient time or money to do things right the first time Defects: –Reduce the value of the product or service –Tend to be discovered at the worst time – when the job is almost done Examples of defects: –A mistake in how a process is designed –An incomplete requirement specification –Incorrectly entered customer data The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Work-in-Process – It seems like having queues or extra materials around helps to balance the workload, and insure there is always plenty to do Work-in-process: –Does not create value while it is waiting to be processed – although it does have a cost to the balance sheet –Defects are not found until later when they are more difficult to fix Examples of work-in-process: –Duplicate forms to do the same thing –Any queue or pile of paper that builds up between work steps –A backlog of work that no one has time to do The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Overproduction – Sometimes it appears it is better to get ahead on something, to avoid being behind later Overproduction: –Produces work that can turn out later to longer be of value –Produces excess work-in-process Examples of overproduction: –Making enough copies of a form to last for several days –Completing a request 2 days before it is needed –Doing anything – just in case The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Transportation – Sometimes it is necessary to walk the length of the building to give information to someone who needs it Transportation: –Time does not contribute to customer value –Items or information can be lost during transport Examples of transportation waste: –Central filling cabinets that contain work-in-progress –People in different locations requiring constant communication –Handing off and then receiving the same work many times The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Waiting – Sometimes it seems impossible to schedule many interrelated tasks without causing someone to wait Waiting: –Is a lost opportunity to create customer value –Can lead to overproduction when doing something just to stay busy Examples of waiting waste: –Waiting for a meeting to start or end –Waiting for instructions on how to proceed –Any waiting – this is easy to spot The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Unnecessary Processes – Sometimes it seems better to perform an extra task every time, because once-in-awhile it avoids creating a defect Unnecessary processes: –Add complexity, cost, and quality issues without corresponding benefit –Never seem to go away, but keep building up on top of each other –Linger on because This is the way we have always done it! Examples of unnecessary process waste: –Creating a report that is no longer read –Measuring something to 1% degree of accuracy when 10% will do –Processes in place to avoid a rarely occurring defect that is easy to fix The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
The Waste of Variation – Sometimes it seems better to allow people to do a task their way so they can each exercise creativity Variation: –Causes defects to be easier to make and harder to find –Reduces predictability – increasing operational overhead –Is sometimes caused by creativity run amuck Examples of Variation Waste: –Multiple forms for the same information –The same activity performed different ways by different people –The inability to predict when a process will complete The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
So - Wheres the Waste? WIP Waiting Overproduction Variation Unnecessary process Transportation The Role of Lean Office in IT: Where is the Waste?
From Outcomes to Initiatives 1.What outcomes are necessary to drive the efficiency & effectiveness of the organization 2.What capabilities are needed to deliver the outcomes? 3.Which process areas rely on those capabilities? 4.What are the issues/impacts that create quality barriers within the process areas? 5.What are the initiatives to reduce or eliminate the issues/impacts? VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
Start with the outcomes and drive to the initiatives…Execute the initiatives to deliver the outcomes… VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
Result: Prioritizing the most important Outcomes 1.What outcomes are necessary to drive the efficiency & effectiveness of the organization VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
Result: Prioritizing the most important Capabilities Impact 2.What capabilities are needed to deliver the outcomes? VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
Result: Prioritizing the most important Process Areas 3.Which process areas rely on those capabilities? Impact VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
Result: Prioritizing the most important Issues/Impacts Impact 4.What are the issues/impacts that create quality barriers within the process areas? VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
Result: Prioritizing the most important Initiatives Impact 5.What are the initiatives to reduce or eliminate the issues/impacts? VSM and IT Project Portfolio Management
General Lean Results Cycle Time Reduction Percentage Improvement Achieved over a Three Year Period Productivity Increase Work-in-Process Reduction Quality Improvement 3 Year Return-on-Investment Customer Satisfaction
BPM toolset Placeholder List SIQ BPM Practice description and material here.
PMO - Agile Put Agile Methodology description here.