Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 The Age of Reform"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 21 The Age of Reform 1880-1920 Section 1: Early Reforms in TexasSection 2: James Hogg & the PopulistsSection 3: Progressivism & James FergusonPages
2Section 1 Early Reforms in Texas With the development of industry and transportation, life in Texas was changing dramatically. As a result, Texas laws and politics needed to change as well.
3Reforms Many people moving to cities….much new industry Texas government had to change to keep up with the times…needed reformReform: changes made to improve somethingReforms includedlimits placed on power of governorState officials had to be elected, not appointedReduced taxes…but cuts had to be made
4Improving Education Education Constitution of 1876 set aside money for schools from land salesSet aside money for school taxes, like Poll Tax and school taxPoll Tax: a tax that each person must pay in order to voteIn 1884, counties could create own school districts, school population grew rapidlyEmphasis placed on job training in schoolsColleges were created in 1870s-1880sTexas A & MUniversity of Texas at Austin
5Prohibition Prohibition Movement Temperance Movement Started in1866 …closed saloons on SundaysThought drinking led to poverty, crime, and family violenceTemperance MovementSupported total ban on alcoholTexas women started the Women’s Christian Temperance UnionKeep alcohol out of Texas, dry counties/wet countiesProhibition: a national movement to banmanufacture, sale, transportation, or useof alcoholic beveragesTemperance: avoidance of alcohol
6Prohibition, con’tWorld War I started…worried about effects on soldiers away from homeIn 1918, Texas closed all saloons and ratified 18th amendment to US Constitution18th AmendmentProhibited manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages
7Women’s Christian Temperance Union Prohibition and theWomen’s Christian Temperance Union
8Women’s SuffrageWomen were becoming very active in Texas politics but still denied suffrageSuffrage: the right to voteIn 1903, Texas Equal Right’s Suffrage Association startedResult: in 1918,women could vote in PrimariesPrimary: an election held to determine who will serve as a political party’s candidate in a major electionIn 1919, US voted on 19th Amendment:19th Amendment gave women right to vote
9Section 2 James Hogg & the Populists After enduring the unfair practices of railroads and other corporations, citizens rose up and demanded that the rights of the average Texas citizen be protected.
10Railroad AbusesRailroads helped farmers but railroad companies took advantage of farmers by charging high prices and giving favors to politicians, etcPeople wanted that stoppedMembers of The Grange wanted to stop the abuseAn organized group of farmersMade of farmers to talk about crops, livestock, etc.Also, could purchase farm products in bulk for cheaperStarted putting pressure on railroad leaders to stop unfair practices
11Hogg’s Fight for Freedom James S. HoggFrom Rusk, TX; was district attorney and then became attorney generalFought for reform of large corporationsInsurance industry: lawsuits if didn’t follow lawRailroad industry: wanted to break up the railroad trust that controlled high prices for customersTrust: a group of companies in the same industry that set prices and reduce competitionHogg thought the railroad trust was a monopolyMonopoly: one company’s complete control over a type of product or service in a marketHe fought for a state antitrust law to make monopolies illegalAntitrust: opposed to large corporations that control or limit business activities
12The Railroad Commission Hogg was elected governor in 1890Also created reforms (Hogg Laws)Forcing large corporations to sell landLimited amount of debt a city could haveIncreased school year from 4 to 6 monthsIncreased funding for schools/collegesChanged way decisions were made about pardons for prisonersEstablished the Texas Railroad CommissionTo oversee all railroad activity in state…helped to lower prices, shipping costs, etc. The Railroad Commission also regulates the oil and gas industry in Texas.
13Hogg and the PopulistsHogg was successful because of people’s belief in PopulismPopulism: a political party for the common people that resulted in the formation of the People’s Party or Populists (1892)This party helped mainly farmers and ranchersThe Populist Party:Called for regulation of businessPublic ownership of railroads, telephone/telegraphElimination of national banking systemWanted public warehouses for crop storage till prices increasedWanted labor reformWanted direct election of SenatorsWanted a Graduated Income TaxGraduated Income Tax: a tax set according to how much a person earns
14Hogg and the Populists, con’t Populist Party never controlled Texas state governmentBut did have Populist senators, House of Representative membersNational Democratic Party started adopting Populist IdeasState economy did improve after Populist pressureRead about “Miss Ima Hogg” on page 446
16Section 3 Progressivism and James Ferguson During the early 1900s, populism expanded into the Progressive movement. Progressives wanted the government to operate more like a business. A number of politicians joined this effort, including controversial governor James E. Ferguson.
17During 1900s, Populist ideas changed into Progressive movement Progressives wanted government more like a businessGovernor James Ferguson supported this ideaReform began to spread to citiesBetween s…cities grew rapidly…businesses grew and generated more taxes for Texas governmentBeliefs about social, economic, and political reforms were known as ProgressivismProgressivism: social reform movement based on improving society through power of the government
18Disaster Leads to Change Hurricane at Galveston in 1900…wiped out most of city (see page 448)People knew old style of government could not handle rebuilding of GalvestonStarted a new style called a city commissionCommission: a group of government officials elected to perform specific dutiesCity commissioners made decisions about how to run the cityVery successful and adopted by other cities
21Progressives Push for Change Created state banking systemBetter conditions in Texas prisonsBetter (more fair) way to tax propertyPassed laws to have food/drugs inspected for safety before they could be soldTexas labor laws changedNumber of hours a person could work in a dayChild Labor LawsKids under 12 could not work in industrial plantsKids under 16 could not work in mines, distilleries, or breweriesCould not use blacklists to discriminate against labor unionsBlacklist: a list of persons who are to be punished or boycotted
22“Farmer Jim” Takes Office 1915…Jim Ferguson elected as governorLawyer and banker; no political experienceCampaign for governor focused on helping poor tenant farmers…where nickname came fromDid good things as governorLimited amount of rent landowner could chargeCreate State Dept of ForestryImproved rural schools and increased fundingfor Texas collegesExpanded labor laws and education reformsBut he made powerful enemies
23Ferguson is Impeached2nd term as governor, got into verbal fight with University of Texas Board of RegentsThey wouldn’t fire some professors who had opposed him in electionFerguson vetoed university’s funding from stateSo, impeachment process startedCharges were mainly over misuse of moneyImpeach: to bring formal charges of misconduct against a public official to remove him from officeHe resigned before he could be impeached but he was impeached anyway
24African Americans Seek Reform Things still weren’t good for many African AmericansEconomic conditions were bad for themDemocrats did things to keep them from votingPoll Tax hurt them because they couldn’t pay tax to voteNew laws were passed in that were unfairLaws segregated waiting rooms, railroad cars, water fountains, restrooms, schools, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, etcThese laws were known as the Jim Crow LawsTo fight back, African Americans joined labor unions and formed the NAACP