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Chapter 21 The Age of Reform

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1 Chapter 21 The Age of Reform 1880-1920
Section 1: Early Reforms in Texas Section 2: James Hogg & the Populists Section 3: Progressivism & James Ferguson Pages

2 Section 1 Early Reforms in Texas
With the development of industry and transportation, life in Texas was changing dramatically. As a result, Texas laws and politics needed to change as well.

3 Reforms Many people moving to cities….much new industry
Texas government had to change to keep up with the times…needed reform Reform: changes made to improve something Reforms included limits placed on power of governor State officials had to be elected, not appointed Reduced taxes…but cuts had to be made

4 Improving Education Education Constitution of 1876
set aside money for schools from land sales Set aside money for school taxes, like Poll Tax and school tax Poll Tax: a tax that each person must pay in order to vote In 1884, counties could create own school districts, school population grew rapidly Emphasis placed on job training in schools Colleges were created in 1870s-1880s Texas A & M University of Texas at Austin

5 Prohibition Prohibition Movement Temperance Movement
Started in1866 …closed saloons on Sundays Thought drinking led to poverty, crime, and family violence Temperance Movement Supported total ban on alcohol Texas women started the Women’s Christian Temperance Union Keep alcohol out of Texas, dry counties/wet counties Prohibition: a national movement to ban manufacture, sale, transportation, or use of alcoholic beverages Temperance: avoidance of alcohol

6 Prohibition, con’t World War I started…worried about effects on soldiers away from home In 1918, Texas closed all saloons and ratified 18th amendment to US Constitution 18th Amendment Prohibited manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages

7 Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Prohibition and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union

8 Women’s Suffrage Women were becoming very active in Texas politics but still denied suffrage Suffrage: the right to vote In 1903, Texas Equal Right’s Suffrage Association started Result: in 1918,women could vote in Primaries Primary: an election held to determine who will serve as a political party’s candidate in a major election In 1919, US voted on 19th Amendment: 19th Amendment gave women right to vote

9 Section 2 James Hogg & the Populists
After enduring the unfair practices of railroads and other corporations, citizens rose up and demanded that the rights of the average Texas citizen be protected.

10 Railroad Abuses Railroads helped farmers but railroad companies took advantage of farmers by charging high prices and giving favors to politicians, etc People wanted that stopped Members of The Grange wanted to stop the abuse An organized group of farmers Made of farmers to talk about crops, livestock, etc. Also, could purchase farm products in bulk for cheaper Started putting pressure on railroad leaders to stop unfair practices

11 Hogg’s Fight for Freedom
James S. Hogg From Rusk, TX; was district attorney and then became attorney general Fought for reform of large corporations Insurance industry: lawsuits if didn’t follow law Railroad industry: wanted to break up the railroad trust that controlled high prices for customers Trust: a group of companies in the same industry that set prices and reduce competition Hogg thought the railroad trust was a monopoly Monopoly: one company’s complete control over a type of product or service in a market He fought for a state antitrust law to make monopolies illegal Antitrust: opposed to large corporations that control or limit business activities

12 The Railroad Commission
Hogg was elected governor in 1890 Also created reforms (Hogg Laws) Forcing large corporations to sell land Limited amount of debt a city could have Increased school year from 4 to 6 months Increased funding for schools/colleges Changed way decisions were made about pardons for prisoners Established the Texas Railroad Commission To oversee all railroad activity in state…helped to lower prices, shipping costs, etc. The Railroad Commission also regulates the oil and gas industry in Texas.

13 Hogg and the Populists Hogg was successful because of people’s belief in Populism Populism: a political party for the common people that resulted in the formation of the People’s Party or Populists (1892) This party helped mainly farmers and ranchers The Populist Party: Called for regulation of business Public ownership of railroads, telephone/telegraph Elimination of national banking system Wanted public warehouses for crop storage till prices increased Wanted labor reform Wanted direct election of Senators Wanted a Graduated Income Tax Graduated Income Tax: a tax set according to how much a person earns

14 Hogg and the Populists, con’t
Populist Party never controlled Texas state government But did have Populist senators, House of Representative members National Democratic Party started adopting Populist Ideas State economy did improve after Populist pressure Read about “Miss Ima Hogg” on page 446

15 The Hogg Family Ima Hogg Governor James Hogg

16 Section 3 Progressivism and James Ferguson
During the early 1900s, populism expanded into the Progressive movement. Progressives wanted the government to operate more like a business. A number of politicians joined this effort, including controversial governor James E. Ferguson.

17 During 1900s, Populist ideas changed into Progressive movement
Progressives wanted government more like a business Governor James Ferguson supported this idea Reform began to spread to cities Between s…cities grew rapidly…businesses grew and generated more taxes for Texas government Beliefs about social, economic, and political reforms were known as Progressivism Progressivism: social reform movement based on improving society through power of the government

18 Disaster Leads to Change
Hurricane at Galveston in 1900…wiped out most of city (see page 448) People knew old style of government could not handle rebuilding of Galveston Started a new style called a city commission Commission: a group of government officials elected to perform specific duties City commissioners made decisions about how to run the city Very successful and adopted by other cities

19 Hurricanes and Humans Video

20 The Galveston Hurricane

21 Progressives Push for Change
Created state banking system Better conditions in Texas prisons Better (more fair) way to tax property Passed laws to have food/drugs inspected for safety before they could be sold Texas labor laws changed Number of hours a person could work in a day Child Labor Laws Kids under 12 could not work in industrial plants Kids under 16 could not work in mines, distilleries, or breweries Could not use blacklists to discriminate against labor unions Blacklist: a list of persons who are to be punished or boycotted

22 “Farmer Jim” Takes Office
1915…Jim Ferguson elected as governor Lawyer and banker; no political experience Campaign for governor focused on helping poor tenant farmers…where nickname came from Did good things as governor Limited amount of rent landowner could charge Create State Dept of Forestry Improved rural schools and increased funding for Texas colleges Expanded labor laws and education reforms But he made powerful enemies

23 Ferguson is Impeached 2nd term as governor, got into verbal fight with University of Texas Board of Regents They wouldn’t fire some professors who had opposed him in election Ferguson vetoed university’s funding from state So, impeachment process started Charges were mainly over misuse of money Impeach: to bring formal charges of misconduct against a public official to remove him from office He resigned before he could be impeached but he was impeached anyway

24 African Americans Seek Reform
Things still weren’t good for many African Americans Economic conditions were bad for them Democrats did things to keep them from voting Poll Tax hurt them because they couldn’t pay tax to vote New laws were passed in that were unfair Laws segregated waiting rooms, railroad cars, water fountains, restrooms, schools, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, etc These laws were known as the Jim Crow Laws To fight back, African Americans joined labor unions and formed the NAACP

25 Jim Crow Video

26 Hispanic Texans Many Hispanics were victims of Jim Crow Laws
They faced discrimination just like African Americans

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