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The BRAC Experience: Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

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Presentation on theme: "The BRAC Experience: Inclusive Education in Bangladesh"— Presentation transcript:

1 The BRAC Experience: Inclusive Education in Bangladesh
1 The BRAC Experience: Inclusive Education in Bangladesh A presentation made in the Round Table 1 in E9 Meeting held in New Delhi on 9 November 2012 By Dr. Safiqul Islam Director, Education, BRAC

2 Presentation structure
3 Units Background: Bangladesh and BRAC as an organisation BRAC Education :An Inclusive Approach Results, Lessons & challenges S-2

3 Bangladesh and BRAC as an organisation

4 1 S-4

5 Context: Contd. Bangladesh made significant progress in basic education: Net enrollment in primary is >93% and girls represent 51% of student body both in primary & secondary Number of-out-of-school children is on decline but still high Difficulties in measuring progress: Most household surveys suggest lower level of achievement than most school data(c.f.BBS 2011) S-5

6 Context: contd. Progress has been uneven: rural-urban; rural-rural; rich-poor; girls-boys, etc.(WB 2010) Even more uneven in terms teaching learning and quality Strongly associated with factors related to teacher; contact hours; spending pattern and poverty. Requires special arrangements S-6

7 BRAC: Organisation Established in 1972 in Bangladesh
Operates multi-dimensional programmes including education; health; micro-finance; WASH, Gender; in partnership with the Govt through a network of more than 2,500 branch offices Now operates in another 10 countries: Afghanistan; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Philippines; Sierra Leone; Liberia; Southern Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda and Haiti S-7

8 BRAC Education: Bangladesh
Pre-Primary Schools Primary Schools Adolescent Development Programme Support to Mainstream Rural Secondary Schools Multipurpose Community Learning Centres S-8

9 Current Reach Programme Current learners/ schools/ centres
Graduates/ completed Total % Female Pre-Primary Schools 433,658 students (15164 schools) 4.35 million 62% Non-Formal Primary Schools 670,815 students (22,618 schools) 4.95 million 65% Adolescent Development 202,251 members (8016 centres) NA Support to Mainstream Secondary Schools 1.34 mil students (3,689 schools) 39,472 teachers trained 12% Multipurpose Community Learning Centres 1,060,356 members (2,489 centres) S-9

10 BRAC Non-Formal Primary Education: An Inclusive approach

11 Inclusive: Concept A constantly evolving process of change within the education system to make education more welcoming, learner- friendly, and beneficial for ……male and female; disabled and non-disabled; from different ethnic, language, religious or financial backgrounds…(source: EENET website). S-11

12 Non-Formal Primary A 4-years, 2nd chance, programme to complete a 5 year primary cycle for children 9 years to 13 years Delivery : 1 room 1 teacher school/centre with a maximum of 33 children Teacher: Local lady with SSC/HSC. Teacher stays with the class for the entire 4 years S-12

13 Children Out of school children with majority girls and are first-generation learners Children from urban slums and relatively remote/ difficult locations (e.g. north; north-east and south east) From ethnic communities, and with mild & moderate disability S-13

14 Children … Separate schools for ethnic children Teacher is from the same community For students of mixed communities there are 2 teachers from 2 different community Separate schools for urban slums children Do not differentiate schools by religion, however,there are schools where all students are from one religion S-14

15 Children … At least 1 disable/differently able child in each school, or seek special permission Blackboard is properly placed and coloured so that children with moderate eye-site problem can see Each class is divided into 5 small groups and initially all group leaders are girls but rotate later on S-15

16 1 School/Classroom 1 room with at least 336 sft and 250 sft for school-boat Calendar, world map, alphabet, number table and other charts displayed Various class formations including U &O shaped Class decorated by student artwork and stories S-16

17 Curriculum: Values & skills
Respecting others Success through hard work Social awareness - health and environment Skills: Cooperative learning Leadership skills (e.g. small group) Public speaking – comfortable speaking in front of strangers Life skills, including how to deal with oneself, others and relationships, and work in an effective manner (Social and Emotional Learning) S-17

18 Curriculum: contd National curriculum as core
BRAC-wide special supplements, mostly story books(total 94), both for general and special situations (e.g. remote, ethnic): Language is fundamentally important for all subjects Situation/community specific materials S-18

19 Special materials for ethnic population
Local rhymes in local languages but in Bangla script for 14 communities Local stories in Bangla for 18 communities which are delivered in local language Chakma language in all subjects in grade 1 & 2 and language primer grades 3 to 5 (pilot intervention) S-19

20 MLE for Chakma All primers and classroom communication in Chakma language in preprimary, Bangla as a 2nd language in class 1 and English in class 2 Language Progression Mother Tounge Bangla English S-20

21 Teachers development Continuous and rigorous process
Foundation training to change attitude and develop child-friendly delivery skills Monthly in-service-problem solving refreshers Peer-learning and reflective pedagogy in refreshers training session Independent monitoring of training quality and post-training classroom application (at 2 levels: programme and central) S-21

22 Cost structure Core common with need-based cost
in view of teachers honorarium (urban higher) and per student allocation Teachers development; monitoring and research are organic part of cost Common strategy (at least once a week visit) but situation specific supervision structure: lower number of schools in remote areas S-22

23 Results, lessons and challenges

24 Primary Schools in Urban, Remote and Ethnic Areas (% of total)
1 Primary Schools in Urban, Remote and Ethnic Areas (% of total) Plain Land Area Remote Area S-24

25 BRAC Primary Schools Religious status of students-teachers S-25

26 Learning achievement Learning assessment represents one of the least researched areas. Grade 5 completion tests needs research and comparing those to competency studies. Available results indicate that in general urban children do slightly better than rural children and similarly in most situations boys do better than girls. However, there are rare exceptions (c.f. EFAMR 2010; BRAC RED, Nath 2011) S-26

27 Learning achievement Similar differences have been recorded between ethnic and non-ethnic children (c.f.op.cit). The mean number of competencies achieved by ethnic students (20 of 27) was marginally lower compared to their counterparts (22 competencies) (c.f. op.cit) Subject-wise results suggest that ethnic boys are ahead of their Bangalee counterparts in geometric figures( op.cit. annex 56) S-27

28 Learning achievement: contd
Reasons for the above indicated achievement gaps are unclear and worth studying Experiences indicate that speaking a minority language is often associated with low levels of achievement as the tests are taken in a language that they do not speak at home (c.f. EFA GMR 2010, pp 159) S-28

29 Lessons and challenges
Typical arrangements (e.g. strategy or school architecture) are unlikely to work in most difficult- to-reach-situation both in terms of population and location. A targeted approach with appropriate incentives deliver results An inclusive approach may incorporate slum children besides commonly agreed population S-29

30 Lessons & challenges: contd.
Children are spontaneous in classroom and feel encouraged to attend school when delivery is in their own language Preparing materials based on local culture pose a challenge due to limited expertise on those areas/communities A differentiated per child cost policy is essential to address the need of inclusive approach S-30

31 End S-31

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