4AirmanshipAirmanship is more than simply having the requisite knowledge and skills; it is also about having an appropriate attitude, self-discipline and a desire to perform optimally at all times.Airmanship is an approach to aviation, which manifests itself in excellent performance.“Airmanship Training for Modern Aircrew”(Louise Ebbage and Phil Spencer)
5Airmanship“Airmanship Training For Modern Aircrew” by Louise Ebbage & Phil SpencerOutstanding Airmanship The will to be excellentSuperior AirmanshipSituation Management (Foresight, problem solving, situational awareness etc)BasicAirmanshipBasic Competence(Foundation of knowledge, skills etc - evolves further through continuous improvement)
6Airmanship The Elements of Airmanship – Ebbage & Spencer Flying skills Automation skillsInformation managementNavigation skillsCommunication skillsSituational AwarenessProblem solvingMental workloadForesightSelf-improvementVigilanceCo-operationConfidence
8Airmanship Definition A measure of a pilot’s awareness of theAircraftFlight environmentHer/his own capabilitiesBehavioural characteristics,Flying skills,Combined with good judgement,Wise decision making,Attention to detail,High sense of self-discipline.
9Develop Airmanship Pilots need to develop basic skills to Aviate NavigateCommunicateManage systems/tasks/workload/CRMIn the increasingly complex operational environment, during normal and non-normal operations
10Developing Pilot Skills Skills need to be developed over time and require:KnowledgeApplicationPracticeOnce acquired, pilot skills need to be practiced to maintain Proficiency and Fluency
11Proficiency & Fluency Competency – Demonstrated Ability Proficiency - Attained after several repeats in several different eventsFluency – Ability to use in the “Heat of Battle”Only attained after a maneuver can be properly completed after numerous repetitions, without error, over timeIf the maneuver cannot be done properly after the passage of time, that pilot by definition is not "fluent" although they may be proficient after one or more repeats.
12FluencyFluencyTraining/Evaluation standard for a small sub-set of critical events that can lead to a catastrophic loss of control if unrecognized and recovered appropriatelyNon-procedural in natureAs long as the aircraft is returned to a proper state of control, even if the crew omitted or committed a procedural step, it is fluentOnly applied to truly "critical" maneuversAll non-critical maneuvers may continue to be trained to proficiencySafety and training data can provide data which will show which tasks are critical
13FluencyFluency can be attained by offering realistic training events of such critical events in established training cycles, and offering enough repetitions for each pilot that they can demonstrate adequate recognition and recovery skills.The evaluation of the standard of “fluency” is then demonstrated by evaluation of the crew performance when given a “surprise” and un- announced critical event in the course of realistic operationally-oriented simulator training.
14Pilot SkillsKnowledge and skills come from more than training. They also come fromOperational experienceMentoringHangar flying… and other ways
15Technology is not a Silver Bullet Primary Pilot Skills to be developed and maintainedManual Flight OperationsTask ManagementFlight Path / Energy ManagementManaging MalfunctionsCrew Resource ManagementDecision Making
16System-of-Systems Manager Managing tasks within the flight deck is complex and requires managing:flight deck workload,distractions, andtasks generated by others inside and outside the flight deckToday’s technology and training does not always prepare the pilot to be a system-of-systems manager
17PROFILE OF PROFICIENCY * PERSONALITYPHYSIOLOGICALFatigueRest break scheduleRest break facilitiesTime off between tripsCircadian rhythmCrew MealsPERFORMANCEORIENTATIONPilot focus / lack ofperformance initiativeEMOTIONALDepressionAnxietyLoss of confidenceLife eventsEXPERIENCETotal flying experienceTime on aircraftYears of serviceTRAININGQuality of trainingTransference of trainingFrequency and durationLocation and typePROFICIENCYA thorough competencederived from trainingand practicePRACTICEExposure to aircraftExposure to simulatorFrequency and durationMOTIVATIONProfessionalismOutside distractionsOutside employmentPERFORMANCE FAILUREDownward spiral(multiple failures)Isolated from othersLoss of confidenceBid restrictionsASSIGNED CREW DUTIESRoles and responsibilitiesCommand dutiesChange of commandAIRLINE SYSTEMSTRUCTURETerm limitsBiddingSchedulingSeniority systems*This model addresses proficiency of all pilots in an augmented crew. Shaded boxes reflect factors that will not be investigated in the current study.
19Pilot Education Training and Education are not interchangeable Training - Develops Response StructuresEducation – Develops AirmanshipThe regulatory and corporate model of the pilot’s role favors an anti-intellectual approach to learning and a minimalist approach to procedural training
20Pilot EducationNeed more focus on combining a thorough Education with TrainingLeverage Technology toTrain competency in technical and non-technical skillsDevelop Airmanship skillsOn-going pilot improvement education – that spans a career
21Professional Pilot Requires Training Competency and Fluency in Technical SkillsNon-Technical SkillsAirmanshipThis requires formal initial and recurrent education in airmanship skills as well as proper on-going airline mentoring by well-qualified pilots.Training and obtaining certain flying skills (Manual Handling) alone does not make a professional pilot.
22Pilot EducationTo develop skills for Airmanship and Flight Deck Resource ManagementWe need a paradigm shiftEmphasis should be on shifting away from a pilot betting their license and move toward facilitating a learning environmentEncourage continuous improvement and strive for perfection, not settle for just passing the Checkride
23Pilot EducationIndividual Programs, Courses, Professional Development, etc. should be components of a quality continuous improvement program for pilots that is constantly monitored and improved by the Training Management System
24Training Management System (TMS) Modeled after core principles of SMSProvides a structured management system to control risk in operationsAllow operators to use a well-defined system to identify, construct and deliver curriculum that is relevant and fresh, without wasting resources on items that are NOT.System DefinitionIntegrated networks of people and other resources that accomplish the same mission/goal
25Training Management System Mission -> Quality Pilot EducationMajor StakeholdersOperator - responsible for complianceRegulator - responsible for oversightPilots - provide a “real-world” perspectiveTraining RoundtableData-driven approach to establish training priorities and objectivesExamine Operational, training data, and safety data“Steering and Oversight Committee”Assess effectiveness of Training SystemAssess effectiveness of Training Management System
26Validate Training Effectiveness Use valid evidence to determine whether your training system actually contributes to improved pilot education and performance
27Scenario-Based Training Purpose of scenario-based trainingEmphasize the development ofcritical thinking,flight management, andflying skillsduring normal line operations rather than solely ontraditional part-task maneuver-based skill training.
28Scenario-Based Training Result of scenario-based trainingAccelerates the acquisition of higher-level decision-making skills and airmanship byrequiring the pilots to apply their entireacquired training knowledge and skill setsduring line-oriented flight trainingExcellent way to evaluate Fluency of critical maneuversLine Oriented Evaluation
29Scenario-Based Training Elements of Scenario-based TrainingInclude scenarios from accident, incident, and safety data to provide realistic opportunities for pilots to see how threat situations may develop and how they should be managed during line operations.Prevention (Avoidance and Recognition): Emphasize proper aeronautical decision making, CRM skills, enhancing a pilot’s situational awarenessDo not brief pilots ahead of time that they are receiving scenario- based training or what events are going to happen.Good training tool to introduce a Startle/Surprise event during realistic line-oriented flight training in the simulator.Allows Pilots to practice Threat and Error management (TEM)
31Inadequate Pilot Knowledge Understanding of flight director, autopilot, autothrottle/autothrust, and flight management system/computer:Knowledge of systems and limitationsOperating proceduresNeed for confirmation and crosscheckMode transitions and behaviorCrew Resource ManagementUnusual attitude recognition and recovery, including high altitudeSpeed and energy managementOperations into uncontrolled airspace and airfields
32Operational Experience Pilots often mitigate operational risk – and we appropriately rely on thatVulnerability areas:Autoflight mode confusionFlight management system programming and useManual handlingCrew communicationTask management, including managing distractionsManaging malfunctions
33Flight Path Management Regulatory requirements focus on performing discrete maneuvers instead of operational tasksMany programs don’t train pilots how to use the automated systems to help fly the airplaneFew programs explicitly address managing off-path deviations
34Vulnerability Areas related to Automated Systems Pilots sometimes abdicate too muchresponsibility to automated systemsWhy?Perceived lack of trust in pilot performance by operatorsPolicies that encourage use of automated systems over manual operationsInsufficient training/experience/judgmentResult: pilots may not be prepared to handle non-routine situations
35Vulnerability Areas related to Automated Systems Mode confusionPilot bias to use information from automatedsystems instead of other sourcesPerception that automating a task in equipmentdesign will eliminate pilot errorInformation automation (e.g., moving mapdisplays) has provided significant safetycontributions but may have disadvantagesdepending on implementation and useFuture: increase in information automation mayintroduce additional vulnerabilities
36Findings - Notes Many different types of automated systems Automated systems have significantly contributed to safety and efficiencySome issues may not be because the systems are automatedComplexity can contribute to vulnerabilitiesTasksInterrelationships between onboard systems (and their interfaces)Integration into the airspace
37Opportunities for Improvement Develop Airmanship trainingPartial system failuresTransition between manual andautomated flightTrain for the unknownMore “no-jeopardy” trainingPreventionStartle/surprise
39Advanced Qualification Program AQP – Voluntary Safety ProgramContinuous Improvement ProcessSafety Management System (SMS)Safety CultureWorkloadData AnalysisTask AnalysisScenario DevelopmentChallenge to Keep AQP Program Fresh and Relevant
41Advanced Qualification Program Preamble SFAR 58 – October 2, 1990“Allows a certificate holder to establish an AQP with training curriculums that depart from current requirements and take advantage of the most advanced training techniques….”Preamble AQP Rule – Subpart Y September 16, 2005“Based on a documented analysis of operational requirements, a certificate holder under AQP may propose to depart from traditional practices with respect to what, how, when, and where training and testing is conducted.”
42AQP NPRM Preamble AQP NPRM – subpart Y March 30, 2005 AQP offers several long-range advantages:Flexibility to tailor training and certification activities to a carrier’s particular needs and operational circumstances.AQP encourages innovation in developing training strategies. It includes wide latitude in choice of training methods and media…Approved means for the applicant to replace FAA mandated uniform qualification standards with carrier-proposed alternatives…
43Paradigm Shift – Risk Management Safety Management System (SMS)Measuring, mitigating and managing risk, not just safety events.Process definition of safety to accompany product definition...beyond regulatory compliance.Regulations as risk controls.Voluntary Safety Programs (VSP)IncentivesTrustInformation Protection
46Using AQP for Pilot Education Scenario-based TrainingIntegrate the use of CRM skills throughout trainingThreat and Error ManagementInstead of only providing scripted training on discrete maneuvers, leverage technology and safety data to also provideUnscripted training, to include surpriseTraining for the unknownPractice of difficult and crisis situationsFlight Deck Resource Management Skills
47Using AQP for Pilot Education Train like you Fly -> Fly like you TrainAirmanshipSurprise / StartleTrain for the UnknownTrain Flightpath / Energy ManagementContinuous Improvement ProcessDevelop a Training Management System
48Some Airmanship Questions How well does the training system develop airmanship skills?How do we evaluate Airmanship in “Checking” events?How do we identify pilots who have airmanship deficiencies and what help is available to them to help improve their airmanship qualities?
49CURRENCY DOES NOT EQUATE TO PROFICIENCY Factors that affect pilot proficiency are very complex - simply maintaining landing currency on an airplane does not necessarily maintain a pilot’s overall proficiency.On highly automated aircraft, a pilot’s proficiency is defined not only by how well the pilot manipulates the controls, but also by how well the pilot interfaces with the automation in the role as both the pilot flying (PF) and the pilot-monitoring (PM).
50CONCEPT OF CURRENCY RE-DEFINED The proficiency and experience gained in performing PM duties on highly automated aircraft has a direct positive correlation on a pilot’s proficiency in performing PF duties.Currency should be re-defined to reflect proficiency of both PF and PM duties.PM duties be included in the currency requirements
51Selecting the Right Training Device* Keep training objectives at the center of the decisionSome devices may be more effective than others at teaching certain tasks, and therefore matching the right training tool to the right training objective will be key* Courtesy Research Integrations – “Flight Crew Training for NextGen Automation”2011 Report by Research Integrations on “Flight Crew Training for NextGen Automation” states:Keep the objectives of training at the center of the decision about which training tools and devices to use.Some devices may be more effective than others at teaching certain tasks, and therefore matching the right training tool to the right training objective will be a key consideration.
52Employing Improved Technology Pilot trainingBut just as importantTraining managersInstructor pilotsTraining programAll must understand the training objectives, tools, platforms and methodologies used
53TrainingPilots must be trained well above the minimum acceptable proficiency level to allow for proficiency stagnation and loss.Proficiency loss is inevitable, especially when practice opportunities are few.A pilot who is initially trained to a higher level will cope with proficiency loss better than those trained to the minimum level.
54PracticeWhat training is done to prepare the pilot(s) for taking over from Autopilot?What recent experience did they have “hand-flying” the airplane at high altitude with turbulence?Lack of discussion on failure modes of systems or of crew training requirements to handle these failures.Multiple Failures
55TrainingA pilot trained to the minimum proficiency level will fall below the minimum acceptable safe level when their proficiency declines.
56Contact InformationCaptain Dave McKenneyDirector, Pilot Training ProgramsAir Line Pilots Association, Int’l