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Pilot Education The Key to Airmanship

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Presentation on theme: "Pilot Education The Key to Airmanship"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pilot Education The Key to Airmanship
Captain Dave McKenney Director, Pilot Training Programs Air Line Pilots Association, Int’l Training, Standardization & Compliance Conference July 17, 2012

2 Overview Airmanship Pilot Education Flight Deck Automation
Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) Using AQP for Pilot Education

3 Airmanship

4 Airmanship Airmanship is more than simply having the requisite knowledge and skills; it is also about having an appropriate attitude, self-discipline and a desire to perform optimally at all times. Airmanship is an approach to aviation, which manifests itself in excellent performance. “Airmanship Training for Modern Aircrew” (Louise Ebbage and Phil Spencer)

5 Airmanship “Airmanship Training For Modern Aircrew” by Louise Ebbage & Phil Spencer Outstanding Airmanship The will to be excellent Superior Airmanship Situation Management (Foresight, problem solving, situational awareness etc) Basic Airmanship Basic Competence (Foundation of knowledge, skills etc - evolves further through continuous improvement)

6 Airmanship The Elements of Airmanship – Ebbage & Spencer Flying skills
Automation skills Information management Navigation skills Communication skills Situational Awareness Problem solving Mental workload Foresight Self- improvement Vigilance Co-operation Confidence

7 Redefining Airmanship by Anthony Kern

8 Airmanship Definition
A measure of a pilot’s awareness of the Aircraft Flight environment Her/his own capabilities Behavioural characteristics, Flying skills, Combined with good judgement, Wise decision making, Attention to detail, High sense of self-discipline.

9 Develop Airmanship Pilots need to develop basic skills to Aviate
Navigate Communicate Manage systems/tasks/workload/CRM In the increasingly complex operational environment, during normal and non-normal operations

10 Developing Pilot Skills
Skills need to be developed over time and require: Knowledge Application Practice Once acquired, pilot skills need to be practiced to maintain Proficiency and Fluency

11 Proficiency & Fluency Competency – Demonstrated Ability
Proficiency - Attained after several repeats in several different events Fluency – Ability to use in the “Heat of Battle” Only attained after a maneuver can be properly completed after numerous repetitions, without error, over time If the maneuver cannot be done properly after the passage of time, that pilot by definition is not "fluent" although they may be proficient after one or more repeats.

12 Fluency Fluency Training/Evaluation standard for a small sub-set of critical events that can lead to a catastrophic loss of control if unrecognized and recovered appropriately Non-procedural in nature As long as the aircraft is returned to a proper state of control, even if the crew omitted or committed a procedural step, it is fluent Only applied to truly "critical" maneuvers All non-critical maneuvers may continue to be trained to proficiency Safety and training data can provide data which will show which tasks are critical

13 Fluency Fluency can be attained by offering realistic training events of such critical events in established training cycles, and offering enough repetitions for each pilot that they can demonstrate adequate recognition and recovery skills. The evaluation of the standard of “fluency” is then demonstrated by evaluation of the crew performance when given a “surprise” and un- announced critical event in the course of realistic operationally-oriented simulator training.

14 Pilot Skills Knowledge and skills come from more than training. They also come from Operational experience Mentoring Hangar flying … and other ways

15 Technology is not a Silver Bullet
Primary Pilot Skills to be developed and maintained Manual Flight Operations Task Management Flight Path / Energy Management Managing Malfunctions Crew Resource Management Decision Making

16 System-of-Systems Manager
Managing tasks within the flight deck is complex and requires managing: flight deck workload, distractions, and tasks generated by others inside and outside the flight deck Today’s technology and training does not always prepare the pilot to be a system-of-systems manager

PERSONALITY PHYSIOLOGICAL Fatigue Rest break schedule Rest break facilities Time off between trips Circadian rhythm Crew Meals PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION Pilot focus / lack of performance initiative EMOTIONAL Depression Anxiety Loss of confidence Life events EXPERIENCE Total flying experience Time on aircraft Years of service TRAINING Quality of training Transference of training Frequency and duration Location and type PROFICIENCY A thorough competence derived from training and practice PRACTICE Exposure to aircraft Exposure to simulator Frequency and duration MOTIVATION Professionalism Outside distractions Outside employment PERFORMANCE FAILURE Downward spiral (multiple failures) Isolated from others Loss of confidence Bid restrictions ASSIGNED CREW DUTIES Roles and responsibilities Command duties Change of command AIRLINE SYSTEM STRUCTURE Term limits Bidding Scheduling Seniority systems *This model addresses proficiency of all pilots in an augmented crew. Shaded boxes reflect factors that will not be investigated in the current study.

18 Pilot Education

19 Pilot Education Training and Education are not interchangeable
Training - Develops Response Structures Education – Develops Airmanship The regulatory and corporate model of the pilot’s role favors an anti-intellectual approach to learning and a minimalist approach to procedural training

20 Pilot Education Need more focus on combining a thorough Education with Training Leverage Technology to Train competency in technical and non-technical skills Develop Airmanship skills On-going pilot improvement education – that spans a career

21 Professional Pilot Requires Training Competency and Fluency in
Technical Skills Non-Technical Skills Airmanship This requires formal initial and recurrent education in airmanship skills as well as proper on-going airline mentoring by well-qualified pilots. Training and obtaining certain flying skills (Manual Handling) alone does not make a professional pilot.

22 Pilot Education To develop skills for Airmanship and Flight Deck Resource Management We need a paradigm shift Emphasis should be on shifting away from a pilot betting their license and move toward facilitating a learning environment Encourage continuous improvement and strive for perfection, not settle for just passing the Checkride

23 Pilot Education Individual Programs, Courses, Professional Development, etc. should be components of a quality continuous improvement program for pilots that is constantly monitored and improved by the Training Management System

24 Training Management System (TMS)
Modeled after core principles of SMS Provides a structured management system to control risk in operations Allow operators to use a well-defined system to identify, construct and deliver curriculum that is relevant and fresh, without wasting resources on items that are NOT. System Definition Integrated networks of people and other resources that accomplish the same mission/goal

25 Training Management System
Mission -> Quality Pilot Education Major Stakeholders Operator - responsible for compliance Regulator - responsible for oversight Pilots - provide a “real-world” perspective Training Roundtable Data-driven approach to establish training priorities and objectives Examine Operational, training data, and safety data “Steering and Oversight Committee” Assess effectiveness of Training System Assess effectiveness of Training Management System

26 Validate Training Effectiveness
Use valid evidence to determine whether your training system actually contributes to improved pilot education and performance

27 Scenario-Based Training
Purpose of scenario-based training Emphasize the development of critical thinking, flight management, and flying skills during normal line operations rather than solely on traditional part-task maneuver-based skill training.

28 Scenario-Based Training
Result of scenario-based training Accelerates the acquisition of higher-level decision-making skills and airmanship by requiring the pilots to apply their entire acquired training knowledge and skill sets during line-oriented flight training Excellent way to evaluate Fluency of critical maneuvers Line Oriented Evaluation

29 Scenario-Based Training
Elements of Scenario-based Training Include scenarios from accident, incident, and safety data to provide realistic opportunities for pilots to see how threat situations may develop and how they should be managed during line operations. Prevention (Avoidance and Recognition): Emphasize proper aeronautical decision making, CRM skills, enhancing a pilot’s situational awareness Do not brief pilots ahead of time that they are receiving scenario- based training or what events are going to happen. Good training tool to introduce a Startle/Surprise event during realistic line-oriented flight training in the simulator. Allows Pilots to practice Threat and Error management (TEM)

30 Flight Deck Automation

31 Inadequate Pilot Knowledge
Understanding of flight director, autopilot, autothrottle/autothrust, and flight management system/computer: Knowledge of systems and limitations Operating procedures Need for confirmation and crosscheck Mode transitions and behavior Crew Resource Management Unusual attitude recognition and recovery, including high altitude Speed and energy management Operations into uncontrolled airspace and airfields

32 Operational Experience
Pilots often mitigate operational risk – and we appropriately rely on that Vulnerability areas: Autoflight mode confusion Flight management system programming and use Manual handling Crew communication Task management, including managing distractions Managing malfunctions

33 Flight Path Management
Regulatory requirements focus on performing discrete maneuvers instead of operational tasks Many programs don’t train pilots how to use the automated systems to help fly the airplane Few programs explicitly address managing off-path deviations

34 Vulnerability Areas related to Automated Systems
Pilots sometimes abdicate too much responsibility to automated systems Why? Perceived lack of trust in pilot performance by operators Policies that encourage use of automated systems over manual operations Insufficient training/experience/judgment Result: pilots may not be prepared to handle non-routine situations

35 Vulnerability Areas related to Automated Systems
Mode confusion Pilot bias to use information from automated systems instead of other sources Perception that automating a task in equipment design will eliminate pilot error Information automation (e.g., moving map displays) has provided significant safety contributions but may have disadvantages depending on implementation and use Future: increase in information automation may introduce additional vulnerabilities

36 Findings - Notes Many different types of automated systems
Automated systems have significantly contributed to safety and efficiency Some issues may not be because the systems are automated Complexity can contribute to vulnerabilities Tasks Interrelationships between onboard systems (and their interfaces) Integration into the airspace

37 Opportunities for Improvement
Develop Airmanship training Partial system failures Transition between manual and automated flight Train for the unknown More “no-jeopardy” training Prevention Startle/surprise

38 Advanced Qualification Program

39 Advanced Qualification Program
AQP – Voluntary Safety Program Continuous Improvement Process Safety Management System (SMS) Safety Culture Workload Data Analysis Task Analysis Scenario Development Challenge to Keep AQP Program Fresh and Relevant


41 Advanced Qualification Program
Preamble SFAR 58 – October 2, 1990 “Allows a certificate holder to establish an AQP with training curriculums that depart from current requirements and take advantage of the most advanced training techniques….” Preamble AQP Rule – Subpart Y September 16, 2005 “Based on a documented analysis of operational requirements, a certificate holder under AQP may propose to depart from traditional practices with respect to what, how, when, and where training and testing is conducted.”

42 AQP NPRM Preamble AQP NPRM – subpart Y March 30, 2005
AQP offers several long-range advantages: Flexibility to tailor training and certification activities to a carrier’s particular needs and operational circumstances. AQP encourages innovation in developing training strategies. It includes wide latitude in choice of training methods and media… Approved means for the applicant to replace FAA mandated uniform qualification standards with carrier-proposed alternatives…

43 Paradigm Shift – Risk Management
Safety Management System (SMS) Measuring, mitigating and managing risk, not just safety events. Process definition of safety to accompany product definition...beyond regulatory compliance. Regulations as risk controls. Voluntary Safety Programs (VSP) Incentives Trust Information Protection

44 AQP & Safety Fully Integrates Continuous Improvement Process
Crew Resource Management (CRM) Threat & Error Management (TEM) Continuous Improvement Process Navigation Errors (Training Procedure) Low Visibility Takeoff (Training Policy) Go-Arounds (More Practice)

45 Using AQP for Pilot Education

46 Using AQP for Pilot Education
Scenario-based Training Integrate the use of CRM skills throughout training Threat and Error Management Instead of only providing scripted training on discrete maneuvers, leverage technology and safety data to also provide Unscripted training, to include surprise Training for the unknown Practice of difficult and crisis situations Flight Deck Resource Management Skills

47 Using AQP for Pilot Education
Train like you Fly -> Fly like you Train Airmanship Surprise / Startle Train for the Unknown Train Flightpath / Energy Management Continuous Improvement Process Develop a Training Management System

48 Some Airmanship Questions
How well does the training system develop airmanship skills? How do we evaluate Airmanship in “Checking” events? How do we identify pilots who have airmanship deficiencies and what help is available to them to help improve their airmanship qualities?

Factors that affect pilot proficiency are very complex - simply maintaining landing currency on an airplane does not necessarily maintain a pilot’s overall proficiency. On highly automated aircraft, a pilot’s proficiency is defined not only by how well the pilot manipulates the controls, but also by how well the pilot interfaces with the automation in the role as both the pilot flying (PF) and the pilot-monitoring (PM).

The proficiency and experience gained in performing PM duties on highly automated aircraft has a direct positive correlation on a pilot’s proficiency in performing PF duties. Currency should be re-defined to reflect proficiency of both PF and PM duties. PM duties be included in the currency requirements

51 Selecting the Right Training Device*
Keep training objectives at the center of the decision Some devices may be more effective than others at teaching certain tasks, and therefore matching the right training tool to the right training objective will be key * Courtesy Research Integrations – “Flight Crew Training for NextGen Automation” 2011 Report by Research Integrations on “Flight Crew Training for NextGen Automation” states: Keep the objectives of training at the center of the decision about which training tools and devices to use. Some devices may be more effective than others at teaching certain tasks, and therefore matching the right training tool to the right training objective will be a key consideration.

52 Employing Improved Technology
Pilot training But just as important Training managers Instructor pilots Training program All must understand the training objectives, tools, platforms and methodologies used

53 Training Pilots must be trained well above the minimum acceptable proficiency level to allow for proficiency stagnation and loss. Proficiency loss is inevitable, especially when practice opportunities are few. A pilot who is initially trained to a higher level will cope with proficiency loss better than those trained to the minimum level.

54 Practice What training is done to prepare the pilot(s) for taking over from Autopilot? What recent experience did they have “hand-flying” the airplane at high altitude with turbulence? Lack of discussion on failure modes of systems or of crew training requirements to handle these failures. Multiple Failures

55 Training A pilot trained to the minimum proficiency level will fall below the minimum acceptable safe level when their proficiency declines.

56 Contact Information Captain Dave McKenney Director, Pilot Training Programs Air Line Pilots Association, Int’l

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