2Pre-primary education This educational level is regarded as the first level of the school system.It concerns children from 3 to 6years of age. Six-year-old children are obliged to complete a year of preparation for primary education (under municipal responsibility) called “0 grade”.The classes are attached either tokindergartens or primary-schools.Both private and public schools can be fee-paying, however in the latter case the conditions specified in the legislation apply.
3Education in Poland starts at the age of seven in primary school Education in Poland starts at the age of seven in primary school. Next there is the lower secondary level consisting of three years in school called gymnasium starting at the age of 13, and ending with an exam. This is followed by the upper secondary level, which has several alternatives. The most common is a three-year liceum or a four-year technikum. They both end with a maturity examination (matura, roughly equivalent to Britisch A-level examination). We used to have the system of marks from 2 to 5 which was extended by adding a plus or a minus.
6In the early 1990 the system was extended by adding new marks, 1 and 6 In the early 1990 the system was extended by adding new marks, 1 and 6. Now we have marks from 1 to (is insufficient) 2 (is poor) 3 (is sufficient) 4 (is good) 5 (is very good) 6 (is excellent) In the new system, 1 is the failing grade, and 6 means that the student exceeded the expectations. In the first stages of primary school (I – III classes) there are no marks. The teachers write descriptions of their pupils’ abilities.
7A primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. In Poland children attend primary school from the age of 7 to 12.
9A gymnasium is a type of school providing lower secondary education A gymnasium is a type of school providing lower secondary education. In Poland pupils attend gymnasium at the age of 13 –16 and after passing the final exam they go to liceum.
10Liceum is an upper secondary school where young people stay for 3 years. The school prepares the students to enter a university. At the end of school pupils pass the exam called matura (3 compulsory subjects and from 1 to 3 optional subjects). Some pupils after gymnasium attend four-year technical schools called technikum . Except the subjects of science, languages and Polish literature they can study technical subjects like electronics, mechanics, automation, computer technologies.
12Technikum trains low-level industrial managers (foremen, technical supervisors etc.) or specializes in occupations that require more advanced skills. Some pupils may attend vocational schools preparing them to some physical jobs. Those students can’t continue their education in universities and collages.
16Jagiellonian University The oldest university in Poland.
17High schools may be followed by several forms of upper education: colleges, universities and polytechnics leading to licencjat (Polish equivalents of Bachleor’s degree), magister (Polish equivalent of Master’s degree)The most ambitious students may continue the education and award the Ph.D. degree or even the title of professor.