Presentation on theme: "AS Physics Unit 12 Waves Ks5 AS Physics AQA 2450 Mr D Powell."— Presentation transcript:
1 AS Physics Unit 12WavesKs5 AS Physics AQA 2450Mr D Powell
2 Chapter MapDon’t be confused by the necessarily transverse depiction of (longitudinal) sound waves on an oscilloscope.Differentiating between wavelength and time period is very important here.Also remember your units.
3 12.1 Waves and vibrationsSpecification link-up 3.2.3: Progressive waves;Longitudinal and transverse wavesWhat are the differences between transverse and longitudinal waves?What is a plane-polarised wave?What physical test can distinguish transverse waves from longitudinal waves?
5 Common examples:- Sound, slinky springs seismic p waves LongitudinalDirection of travelVIBRATIONThe direction of vibration of the particles is parallel to the direction in which the wave travels.Common examples:- Sound, slinky springs seismic p wavesLongitudinal waves cannot be polarisedJohn Parkinson
6 Common examples:- Water, electromagnetic, ropes, seismic s waves TransverseDirection of travelvibrationThe direction of vibration of the particles is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.Common examples:- Water, electromagnetic, ropes, seismic s wavesYou can prove that you have a transverse wave if you can polarise the wave (especially important with light (electromagnetic) as you cannot “see” the wave!!)John Parkinson
10 Using polarisation to measure concentration Some liquids are ‘optically active’ and rotate the electric vector.The liquid’s concentration is proportional to the electric vector rotation.SugarsolutionlaseranalyserpolariserJohn Parkinson
12 Stress AnalysisThe structure of certain plastics will show polarisation.When viewed under stress the structure polarises the light differently.The place where stress is greatest shows a more rapid colour change.Models can be made of complex components which are viewed with a polarising filter so engineers can design out the stresses.John Parkinson
17 12.2 Measuring waves Specification link-up 3.2.3: Progressive waves; Longitudinal and transverse wavesWhat is meant by the amplitude of a wave?Between which two points can the wavelength be measured?How is the frequency of a wave calculated from its period?
20 Practical - Measure the Speed of Sound AimsIn this experiment you will measure the speed of sound using a loudspeaker, a microphone and an oscilloscope. This will provide you with further experience of using an oscilloscope to observe wave patterns.Each student or group of students will require the following equipment:some sticky-tac or tapea dual-beam oscilloscope (or a single-beam oscilloscope with an x-input)a signal generatora loudspeaker (or hum into a mic)a microphone on a standconnecting wiresa metre ruler
21 Example Results... Output Frequency 6000Hz Start wavelength Freq Speed 0.03-0.0820.05260003120.140.0583480.1950.0553300.2540.0593540.30.046276Ave0.054324Look at your results of the example results and think about the errors in your exp?The percentage uncertainty in the speed of sound is equal to the sum of the percentage uncertainties in the measurement of frequency and wavelength.Note that measuring more than one wavelength minimises the uncertainty in the measurement.For example, measuring two wavelengths halves the measurement uncertainty and measuring three reduces it to a third.The speed of sound increases if the temperature of the air increases.How do you think an increase of the air temperature would affect your measurements?
22 Timings?360 o = radiansQ. A mains transformer vibrates the floor at 50Hz.What is the time for a complete cycle?
27 b) ¾ of cycle later Q would be at a trough point and returning to centre
28 12.3 Wave properties 1Specification link-up 3.2.3: Refraction at a plane surface; DiffractionWhat causes waves to refract when they pass across a boundary?In which direction do light waves bend when they travel out of glass and into air?What do we mean by diffraction?
29 Virtual Ripple Tanks…Use the virtual ripple tank here to explore wave properties.Use the ideas from the book on page 179 and also you can download the additional information sheet on the blog to help you explore the ideas.Make summary notes on what you find for each situation. You may decide to screenshot out the image to help you. (NB: pick a nice colour scheme)
35 12.4 Wave properties 2 Specification link-up 3.2.3: Superposition of waves, stationary waves; InterferenceWhat features of two waves must combine in order to produce reinforcement?What is the phase difference between two waves if they produce maximum cancellation?Why is total cancellation rarely achieved in practice?
36 The Trumpet Trumpet Chromatic Scale Period ms Frequency Hz (Calculated)BbC4250261BC#277D293Eb311E329F349F#3333370G392Ab415
37 Checking a Guitar’s Tuning.... Period msFrequency Hz(Calculated)E19041A0.0110055D0.0128373G0.01258098ThickthinStringNoteFrequency1 (thinnest)G3Hz2D3Hz3A255 Hz4 (thickest)E2HzNB: You need a guitar for this!
39 Definitions...TASK...Use this information to MAP the similarities and differences between progressive & standing waves.You can also refer to your book as well.A progressive wave is one where the waveform travels, as opposed to a standing wave (or stationary wave) where the waveform is fixed in place.Most familiar waves are usually progressive: light, sound, and water transmit energy along their direction of travel, though it is possible to set up standing waves for each of these.A plucked string fixed at both ends vibrates in a standing wave though the musical sound it generates is a progressive wave.Progressive waves, despite the name, can travel backwards as well as forwards. A standing wave is equivalent to two equal and opposite progressive waves. It can be either a transverse wave or a longitudinal wave, depending on which direction the vibrations go compared to the direction of travel of the wavefront. The wavefront represents the pattern that is moving along.
40 Principal of Superposition The resultant displacement at any point is the sum of the separatedisplacements due to the two waves Eg: with a slinky coil springsupercrest
45 InterferenceTwo dippers in a ripple tank can cause circular wavefronts to re-inforce or cancel:Re-inforcement(constructive interference)Cancellation(destructive interference)Coherent sources (of the same frequency and phaserelationship) produce a stable interference pattern.
46 Experiments with microwaves: Regions ofreinforcementExperiments with microwaves:a) The intensity of the receiver signal decreases with distance from the transmitter.b) Microwaves are reflected off metal plates – similar to light on a mirror.c) Diffraction occurs at each slit (slit width is of similar magnitude to the wavelength)d) An interference pattern forms with regions of constructive and destructive interference
47 Experiments with microwaves: Regions ofreinforcementExperiments with microwaves:a) The intensity of the receiver signal decreases with distance from the transmitter.b) Microwaves are reflected off metal plates – similar to light on a mirror.c) Diffraction occurs at each slit (slit width is of similar magnitude to the wavelength)d) An interference pattern forms with regions of constructive and destructive interference
48 Experiments with microwaves: Regions ofreinforcementRegions ofcancellationExperiments with microwaves:a) The intensity of the receiver signal decreases with distance from the transmitter.b) Microwaves are reflected off metal plates – similar to light on a mirror.c) Diffraction occurs at each slit (slit width is of similar magnitude to the wavelength)d) An interference pattern forms with regions of constructive and destructive interference
49 rarefaction compressions Two loud speakers emitting the same note can causeloud and quietareas in frontof the speakersrarefactioncompressions
50 Regions of reinforcement (LOUD) Two loud speakersemitting the samenote can causeloud and quietareas in frontof the speakersrarefactioncompressionsRegions of reinforcement (LOUD)
51 rarefaction compressions Two loud speakers emitting the same note can causeloud and quietareas in frontof the speakersrarefactionWhen compressions(or rarefactions)arrive in phase fromboth speakers,constructiveinterference occurs,creating a loud regioncompressionsRegions of reinforcement (LOUD)Regions of cancellation (QUIET)
57 12.5 Stationary and progressive waves Specification link-up 3.2.3: Progressive waves;Superposition of waves, stationary wavesWhat is the necessary condition for the formation of a stationary wave?Is a stationary wave formed by superposition?Why are nodes formed in fixed positions?
58 Practical Investigation... Take a ruler and investigate the sound wave it creates by “twanging” it with your fingers.(Take caution not to break it)Think about the relationship between pitch (frequency) and length.Then make a verbal prediction for what might happen with a string or tube?Write three sentences to your conclusions...
59 Wave examples Progressive or Standing.... Cornstarch is a shear thickening non-Newtonian fluid meaning that it becomes more viscous when it is disturbed. When it's hit repeatedly by something like a speaker cone it forms weird tendrils. The speaker cone was vibrating at 30 Hz.The Rubens Tube The classic physics experiment involving sound, a tube of propane and fire. Push the tube to 449 Hz then higher frequencies, then some jazz and then some rock. This is real life sound visualization....Chladni plate: Fine sand sprinkled on the plate gathers at the nodes. Similar to a wobble card (Rolf Harris)Jelly A large cubic shape shot by a BB gun.
60 How Science Works – “Ernst Chladni” Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (German pronunciation: November 30, 1756 – April 3, 1827) was a German physicist and musician.His important works include research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases.One of Chladni's best-known achievements was inventing a technique to show the various modes of vibration on a mechanical surface. Chladni repeated the pioneering experiments of Robert Hooke of Oxford University who, on July 8, 1680, had observed the nodal patterns associated with the vibrations of glass plates. Hooke ran a bow along the edge of a plate covered with flour, and saw the nodal patterns emerge.
61 So what is the necessary condition for the formation of a stationary wave? In essence it is simply that we must have a reflected wave of the same frequency which returns in the opposite direction.When we think of a rope fixed on a wall or an elastic band the features are clear with a clear point where you get a node and antinode effect.The amplitude varies from position from zero to +/-AThe phase difference between particles (or displacement position +/-x is...Zero between adjacent nodes, or an even number of nodes180 or if two particles are separated by an odd number of nodes
62 Why are nodes formed in fixed positions? Hopefully you can see that as the wave passes through the reflected wave they cancel at certain points only where the phase is matched.This animation really shows it well as the blue/red waves interfere to produce the black wave. Then you can see the nodes where there is no net movement...
63 Is a stationary wave formed by superposition? Yes it is and you can see by looking at this graphic. The two waves interfere when the meet.They can either constructively add togetherDestructively cancelWork to some comprises.Look the combined wave trace for each case....Think about “Mr Powell’s bathtub model”
64 Why are nodes formed in fixed positions? “ Finding the Speed of Sound”
65 Speed of Sound 343 dry air 20oC Now try out the experiment as shown. You will have have to be very accurate to make sure it works.Use ICT to make the spreadsheet....343 dry air 20oCFrequency (Hz)Length (m)Wavelength (m)Velocity (ms-1)288.00.2751.100328304.40.2851.140335320.00.2501.000320341.30.2290.916313271.20.3001.200325Ave324
66 Data Trends...Discuss this data with a partner. Can you see a trend in the numbers?Can you comment on...Gas -> Liquid -> Solidthe mass of the molecules or compounds? (as best you know)Ethanol C2H5OHChloroform CHCl3Glass SiO2The bonding or strength of the structuresYou can use the periodic table to help you?
67 Can you explain this?Imagine you are holding a rope at one end which is attached to a brick wall at the other.You are sending regular oscillations down the rope and something weird is happening.You cannot see the top image but only the bottom one.Words to help...Frequency, amplitude, phase, node, antinode, super crest, super trough, reflection, cancel, reinforce,
73 12.6 Stationary waves on strings Specification link-up 3.2.3: Superposition ofwaves, stationary wavesWhat boundary condition must be satisfied at both ends of the string?What is the simplest possible stationary wave pattern that can be formed?How do the frequencies of the overtones compare with the fundamental frequency?
74 Why are nodes formed in fixed positions? Hopefully you can see that as the wave passes through the reflected wave they cancel at certain points only where the phase is matched.We are in effect looking at resonance points where we can fit in parts of waves or full waves.The first or “fundamental pattern” can be found as 0.Then you simply work out the proportion of the wavelength that fits into L
75 Data Table? Frequency String Length Number of Nodes Lambda Wave Speed 10.00234567891011Ave
76 Example Results?FrequencyString LengthNumber of NodesLambdaWave Speed4.42.4214.8421.328267.843.431.6170.057.941.2126.96.36.19968.883.160.8167.095.470.6966.0Ave68.3
77 The Real WorldA tuning fork produces a note with only one frequency. The shape of the wave on the oscilloscope is very smooth.However, the frequency of the harmonics in a real instrument may be twice, three times, four times or even more times the fundamental frequency. All these frequencies together make up the note. The bottom line here shows the wave pattern formed by the fundamental and harmonic frequencies when the note is played on the instrument.
78 Real SoundsclarinetWe now know that we can convert our longitudinal sound wave to a transverse wave to show on a screen. If we look at these three traces of a middle C note (261Hz) we can see they are all different but seem to have similar pattern in terms of frequency as up and 1 down takes (1/261)th of a second or the length of an arrow! You need to try an ignore the funny fluctuations, this is due to the timbre of the notes – or richness that some from the instrument itselfviolinsaxophone
79 11.5b HarmonicsA tuning fork produces a note with only one frequency. The shape of the wave on the oscilloscope is very smooth.
80 Tension of Wire – Extension? By increasing the frequency of the vibratorDifferent stationary wave (s.w.) patternsare seen.Boundary condition for s.w.on a string is thatthere must be a node at each end.Velocity of a transverse wave in a wire or string:We find that....T = Tension (N) = mass/ unit length kg/m
81 Extension QuestionA wire of mass per unit length kgm-1 has a tension of 60 N and is 50 cm long.Calculate the velocity of any transverse wave in the wireCalculate the frequency of the fundamental note.If nodes are at 17cm and 34cm find the frequency of the vibrating wire.What must the tension be if a note an octave above the fundamental is required? ( 2x fundamental frequency)
82 Revision…Visit the sites show below and then write a paragraph and numerical example for each.Inverse square law calculation:Geological example of sound reflection:Pitch:Loudness of wave:String properties:Wave properties and more :