Presentation on theme: "Robert Kegan Harvard University Ph.D., 1976 (Psychology and Education)"— Presentation transcript:
1Robert Kegan Harvard University Ph.D., 1976 (Psychology and Education)
2Profile: Teach life span human development, adult development, to doctoral and masters level psychologists and educators at the Harvard Graduate School of Education Central interest is transformational learning and adult development in the context of the professions and organizational life.
3Profile (cont’d):Kegan serves as educational chair of theInstitute for Management and Leadership inEducation.He is a licensed psychologist and practicingTherapist.His major work is The Evolving Self whichhe wrote in 1982.
4Theory BackgroundKegan’s work is in the tradition of Piaget and subsequent neo-Piagetian theorists such as Kohlberg
5Theory Background“ I wanted to bring these things together and create a richer developmental psychology that was both powerfully descriptive from the outside, but also powerfully descriptive from the inside — the internal experience of being a growing person and thinking about the context and support of development….”
6Theory BackgroundKegan argues that people make progressive qualitative shifts in how they construct and understand the world around them → a process that both defines and influences identity, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships
7Theory Backgroundsimilar to Piaget and Kohlberg, Kegan argues that each progression in development builds on and subsumes earlier stagesThat is, later stages cannot be achieved until earlier cognitive stages have been fully developed
8Theory Background How does each stage development occur? “Each qualitative change, hard won, is a response in further recognition of how the world and I are yet again distinct —— and thereby more related.”
9Theory BackgroundKegan uses Piaget’s work to develop the nature of the subject-object relationship,subject to us when we are controlled by it, or identify with aspects of its meaning,object to us when we can take a perspective on it and show responsibility for that perspective → no longer captive
10Theory BackgroundKegan wanted to bring together cognitive development with his own sense that it held “a very fascinating phenomenon” → the gradual complexity of mind… Next: Kegan’s Developmental Theory…
11In The Evolving Self, Kegan presents a model of psychological development which consistsof the following six “equilibrium stages”:Stage 0: The IncorporativeBalanceSubject: reflexesObject: nothingI am my environment:My environment is me
12perceptions Stage 1: The Impulsive Balance Subject: impulses, Object: reflexesI am my impulse!!!
13Stage 2: The Imperial Balance Subject: needs, interests, desiresObject: impulsive, perceptionsI am my needs
14Stage 3: The Interpersonal Balance Subject: interpersonal relationships, mutualityObject: needs, interests, desiresYou are my mirror
15Stage 4: The Institutional Balance Subject: authorship, identity, ideologyObject: interpersonal relationships,mutualityI AM
16Stage 5: The Interindividual Balance Subject: “the interpenetrability ofself systems”Object: authorship, identity, ideologyWe Are
17Helix Model of Evolutionary Traces we move back and forth in a struggle with lifelong tension (i.e. between the yearnings for inclusion and exclusion); our balances are slightly imbalancedIt is because each of these temporary balances is slightly imbalanced that each is temporary; each self is vulnerable to being tipped over
18Helix Model of Evolutionary Traces This model depicts a better way for the understanding the nature of our vulnerability to growth at each levelThis model also recognizes the equal dignity of each yearning, and in this respect offers a corrective to all present developmental frameworks which define growth in terms of
19Helix Model of Evolutionary Traces This model also recognizes the equal dignity of each yearning, and in this respect offers a corrective to all present developmental frameworks which define growth in terms of differentiation, separation, increasing autonomy and lose sight of the fact that adaptation is equally about integration, attachment and inclusion.
21Summary Notions About Development: Development is evolutionary motion Focuses on the changes in the way people differentiate between their sense of self and their environment--boundary issuesDevelopment is a life long process of differentiation and integrationMovement to make meanings, resolve discrepancies, preserve and enhance personal integrityMovement out of "embeddedness"
22Critiques - Positivedoes not discount previous theories, instead builds on them using new knowledge, techniques and applications
23Critiques - PositivePractical uses in counseling/teaching —can show effective empathy when we can relate to where a client is developmentally instead of projecting our own level on them.
24Critiques - Positivelifespan: adult development → we talk about maturity levels and demands/rigours of life and acquisition of wisdom with age → perhaps a credible claim that this is indeed developmental
25Critiques - Negativeculture as a school is powerful, but it works against his assertion that everyone has two insatiable needs for autonomy and inclusion
26Critiques - NegativeOnly relevant to the middle class in developed countries → where does this leave people who are not subject to modern life as we know it?Are they capable of progression throughthe stages even when some of their basicneeds are not being met?
27Critiques - Negative Do all people the world over go through the same stages? Or is this theory anartifact of western society? A goodorganizing schema for modern G8 life?
28Critiques - Negativeonly a few can understand Kegan’s higher stage explanationonly 20-30% of adults reach stage 4 (Institutional)higher stage to lower stage communication — higher will not give attention to issues that involve the subject of the lower stage person
29Critiques - Negativemiscommunication as a result of “not on the same wavelength”development means to assist in moving persons along in their evolution between stages and figuring out why blockers to their development exist
30Critiques - Negativegender: Demetrion points out that the “valorization of the autonomous’ self may be interpreted as a bias towards male development which deprecates the emphasis on women” ways of knowing and organizing their experiences through connectednessKegan response: autonomy does not mean separateness
31Critiques - Negativeat what competency level does the world operate at?Putting people into molds?How can we recognize these transitions? Are they situation specific? Can one regress? Can one skip stages?
32Critiques - Negative What does Kegan mean by “ fully evolved”? Is this too subjective a measurement?
33Applications/Conclusion ‘“enhances our capacities to take another person’s perspective” and “increases the accuracy of our empathy”’question: “Are you imposing your current way of making sense when it may not be the (student’s) way of making sense?”
34Applications/Conclusion helps to “have a more accurate sense of what the (student’s) growing edge is and supporting that growth when it wants to occur”
35Applications/Conclusion questions in scaffolding/bridging change:“what are the biggest risks for the person making these kinds of changes?”“how can I create a relationship that serves as a bridge from where they have been to where they are going” → not where I want them to be ( Brophy goals, facilitator, scaffolding)
36Applications/Conclusion groups/challenge: tuning into each other, cooperating with one another → acknowledge perspectives beyond their own; received where they are but drawn into more complex experiences
37Applications/Conclusion Kegan seeks to resolve what seems like a contradiction between the goals of ‘self-directed learning’ and the many “practical” reasons that adults return to school“educate for the order of mental complexity that enables it”
38Applications/Conclusion satisfy the need for “growth” with the development of various skills to function more effectively in the “real world”
39Applications/Conclusion “Kegan believes that if schools and districts are going to change fundamentally, their leaders will need to too”“ more than inloading new skills… It’s going to require that everyone in a school system… be supported to keep growing and developing”
40Applications/Conclusion “If wanting to change and actually being able to are so uncertainly linked… why should we expect that even the most passionate school leader’s aspiration to improve instruction or close achievement gaps is going to lead to the changes actually occurring”
41Applications/Conclusion professional development of teachers — need to be trained to meet the students where they are at in their development and help them evolve into higher stages
44“When we see that we are not made up by the other's experience, we then have the capacity not to take responsibility for what is now genuinely and for the first time not ours. And as a result, we can get just as close to the other's experience (even the other's experience of how disappointing, enraging, or disapprovable we are!) without any need to react defensively to it or be guiltily compliant with it. “Robert Kegan Source: In Over Our Heads : The Mental Demands of Modern Life, Page: 127