Presentation on theme: "Interactive learning for early education and childcare students"— Presentation transcript:
1Interactive learning for early education and childcare students Jerome BrunerInteractive learning for early education and childcare students
2Contents Section 1 Background information Section 2 Spiral curriculum Section 3 ScaffoldingSection 4 Modes of representationSection 5 Summary
3Background information Jerome Bruner was born in New York in 1915 and continues to play an important role in the study of children’s development and learning. He developed earlier work carried out by Lev Vygotsky in the 1920s and 30s. Bruner believed that knowledge and learning were gained most effectively when children learned through personal discovery rather than being ‘taught’.
4Spiral CurriculumBruner stated that ‘any subject can be taught to any child at any age in some form that is honest’ (Bruner 1977)At a simple level, the ‘science’ of baking scones would allow children to discover the texture of dry ingredients e.g. flour & sugar, oily nature of margarine and the wet ingredient of milk. Combining ingredients to form a mixture would change the texture and finally the addition of heat from the oven would alter the consistency permanently.Now look carefully at the pictures in a similar but different context and decide how the children’s learning could be honest.
5The science of waterApply your knowledge about spiral curriculum and note the learning opportunities linked to the pictures on the student activity sheet.
6More water fun!Think about how these learning situations could be honest for young children.Remember there may be a variety of answers!
7ScaffoldingBruner believed that adults can support children by ‘scaffolding’ their learning. He advocated that the adult should assist the child to move from where they are to where they want to go. It should stem from the child’s interests and desires and scaffolding should support their learning.
8Images of scaffolding ?Which picture is the odd one out and why?
9Modes of representation When adults represent something they are bringing back information from a previous experience. Bruner believes that this recall is processed in 3 inter-related ways.Enactive modeIconic modeSymbolic mode
10Enactive modeWhen we represent things through doing this is termed the enactive mode. This is an important aspect of early education and staff often focus on process rather than product.
11Iconic modeChildren in early education and childcare settings are often encouraged to record experiences using photographs, pictures and now video tape.How might children record experiences of making dough?
12Symbolic modeBruner explains that children use the symbolic mode to represent something. When we write the word ‘girl’ to mean a girl and the numeral ‘4’ to represent the number four. In other words, children are using a ‘code’ to show what they mean.How might children express themselves continuing with the dough scenario?
13Variety of codesChildren use a variety of symbolic codes to express themselves includingDrawing & paintingDancingImaginative playMaking modelsLanguageNumeracy
14Check your learningNow check your learning by matching the statements in this exercise.Without the web, you could try this matching activityNow check your overall knowledge with a quiz just for fun!Without the web, you could try this quiz just for fun!
15Links to practice Spiral curriculum Spiral curriculum remains valid in early educationDry/wet sandScience of doughBuilding blocksThink how the above topics could be explored in early education and childcare settings.
16RevisionScaffolding works if staff are alert and responsive to children’s learning needs. Adults need to be clued in to children's thoughts in a sensitive manner and nurture the child’s learning rather than impose their ideas on it. It is almost an intuitive experience.
17Revision Enactive mode – by doing Iconic mode – by making an image/pictureSymbolic mode – by using symbols/codes
18Modes of representation in practice Encourage children to be active in the nursery.Promote recording of experiences through photographs/videotape.Provide opportunities for scribbling and early writing skills.‘It is stillness we have to justify not action’
19SummaryThe work of Jerome Bruner remains influential in early education settings today as he continues to explore how children play, learn and develop.Now you have had an introduction to his work, look at the books and find out more!
20ReferencesBruce, T.(2005). 3rd edition Early Childhood Education. London: Hodder Arnold.Lindon, J. ( 2001). Understanding Children’s Play. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.