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April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 1 Summary BIOMEDEA I (Eindhoven) and Whitaker Summit (BEESII) Dick W Slaaf Department of Biomedical Engineering Eindhoven University.

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Presentation on theme: "April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 1 Summary BIOMEDEA I (Eindhoven) and Whitaker Summit (BEESII) Dick W Slaaf Department of Biomedical Engineering Eindhoven University."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 1 Summary BIOMEDEA I (Eindhoven) and Whitaker Summit (BEESII) Dick W Slaaf Department of Biomedical Engineering Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Biophysics University of Maastricht

2 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 2 Summary BIOMEDEA I (Eindhoven) and Whitaker Summit (BEESII) Combination of: Presentation given at BEES II: –Biomedical Engineering Education in Europe, containing information of BIOMEDEA I Essential contents of BEES II program, indicating the various issues touched upon.

3 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 3 Biomedical Engineering Education in Europe Most BME educational programs in Europe started from a single parent discipline, which delivered methods, theories, instrumentation, structure, and organization. Life sciences were added at a later stage of the education program.

4 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 4 Biomedical Engineering Education in Europe In Europe, BME education is still typically a specialization at the end of the education in the parent engineering discipline, mostly Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Physical Engineering, or a graduate education.

5 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 5 How diverse is BME within Europe? More than 150 Universities, Universities of Applied Science, Polytechnic Schools, Academies, offer programs at all levels with almost no coordination of contents and required outcome qualifications. After JH Nagel

6 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 6 Bologna Declaration, 1999 Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees in order to promote European citizens employability and the international competitiveness of the European higher education system.

7 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 7 Bologna Declaration, 1999 System of two main cycles: undergraduate and graduate. –First cycle: minimum of three years. Degree relevant to the European labor market. –Second cycle: requires completed first cycle. Master and/or doctorate degree. Masters degree usually 2 years. Credit system to allow student mobility.

8 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 8 Bologna Declaration and European Higher Education Area (EHEA) require: International recognition of certain professional qualifications of BME graduates. Student mobility. To stimulate Faculty participation in this process, IFMBE has stimulated the foundation of EAMBES.

9 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 9 EAMBES (founded in 2004) EAMBES aims to serve and promote MBES education, training, and accreditation of programs, and to establish and maintain liaison with national and European governments and agencies. EAMBES has initiated meetings on education, harmonization, and accreditation to further BME harmonization in Europe and to facilitate student mobility ( e.g. BIOMEDEA ).

10 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 10 BIOMEDEA Joachim Nagel, Jan Wojcicki, Dick Slaaf Project with 3 meetings. Objective: –to support harmonization of educational programs through cooperation and organization of seminars for all partners involved in MBES education, training and continuing education (life-long learning). –to develop and establish consensus on European guidelines for harmonization of high quality MBES programs, their accreditation and for certification of professionals working in health care systems.

11 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 11 BIOMEDEA Harmonization, NOT standardization. Define: –Core competences, –Exit levels. No prescribed courses. –Harmonization allows for heterogeneity of programs and stimulates diversity, –Given good harmonization, mutual recognition of credits will be facilitated and student mobility will be stimulated. However, this may result in lack of recognition in some fields, e.g., Clinical Engineer.

12 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 12 Warning Harmonization should lead to international recognition of -educational degrees and -professional qualifications. However, this process should NOT lead to a reduction in the heterogeneity of the programs and hamper student mobility. Again, heterogeneity has its negative sides.

13 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 13 BIOMEDEA I General Information: 49 registered participants 20 countries Supported by: Department BME of TU/e IFMBE Under auspices of EAMBES

14 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 14 BIOMEDEA I Reports: BIOMEDEA I Website: – IFMBE News Intense discussions demonstrating considerable differences between various countries and programs. Diversity seems guaranteed; unification, however, will be very difficult.

15 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 15 BIOMEDEA I General: Definition of required BME education will depend on specific requirements of a job. Knowledge basis: –Mathematics, –Physics, –Engineering, –Life sciences, –(Bio) chemistry. BME graduates cannot acquire knowledge in each of these disciplines at level of engineers fully trained in the specified field: –Choices have to be made. BME has become a discipline, way of thinking, in itself.

16 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 16 BIOMEDEA I For jobs in research, a specific combination of courses may be excellent in one situation and insufficient in another. Health care systems must be able to fully rely on the qualifications suggested by the degree to guarantee patient safety. Fixing one problem seems to create another one.

17 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 17 BIOMEDEA I How diverse is BME within Europe? Parent discipline sometimes dominates type of courses, –Narrow education. Large variability in amount of life sciences. Local program dominates the expressed minimum requirements for a good bachelor in BME.

18 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 18 BIOMEDEA I BME Bachelor in Europe Average contents of program: 180 ECTS (3 years) –Life sciences: 17 ECTS, –Mathematical foundations: 25 ECTS, –Science and Engineering foundations: 57 ECTS, –BME: 46 ECTS, –Languages: 5 ECTS, –General competencies: 14 ECTS, –Computer programming: 8 ECTS, –Lab practical: 8 ECTS. Engineering is the key word. Context of the living material. Flexibility in proportions desirable; content depends on exit track. Emphasis on underlying concepts.

19 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 19 BIOMEDEA I Research in BME Bachelor education Involve research in education process: –To be taught by researchers is stimulating, –Research compartment is growing. Learn to do research by doing research. Working in a research lab with advanced equipment is stimulating.

20 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 20 BIOMEDEA I Do Bachelors continue to Masters program? Varies from 15-25% (UK) to almost 100% (Italy, Netherlands, Poland), Sometimes limited admission (Germany; in some states only 30% admitted). Admission to Master: Applicants with – backgrounds in areas related to BME courses can usually be admitted directly, –Other backgrounds or students from abroad will usually need further preparation before admission. Further preparation may be via electives within BME course, or from classes/modules in other courses.

21 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 21 BIOMEDEA I Does Masters degree qualify for a specific profession? National variations (e.g. clinical engineer/medical physicist). Should be academic; specific training afterwards on the job. Academic research important: –Learn through doing, –Does not exclude job in development and design, –Ability to work autonomously and within a team. Master in BME aims at providing knowledge and skills to solve BME problems in research, clinical and professional environments.

22 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 22 BIOMEDEA I BME Master in Europe Average content: 120 ECTS (2 years). Lectures: –Mandatory: 39 ECTS, –Elective: 37 ECTS; varies from none to all. Research projects: 15 ECTS. Thesis: 29 ECTS, –Usually 30-40; extremes 3 and 60.

23 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 23 BIOMEDEA I BME Master in Europe Lectures: –Reflect the heterogeneity of the various Master programs, –If Masters degree is required for specific job, many BME degrees will not cover the right courses. Need for specific profession requirements. Students: chose the right program!

24 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 24 BIOMEDEA I BME Master in Europe Parent discipline sometimes dominates the type of courses. Entrance requirements typical of parent discipline. –Seems reasonable if profession at which is aimed requires this.

25 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 25 Exchange of students: Europe USA Many pitfalls, even if credits recognized. What fits the best for exchange? –Bachelor/Master phase? –Projects, research and specific course work. What to do with tuition fees? –Pay at home institution?! Synchronization: –semester and trimester systems. Language –Master phase often in English.

26 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 26 Future Challenges for BME Education Expectation of Governmental agencies: A variety of new disciplines is about to emerge and will fill the gaps between highly specialized medicine and engineering. Diversify BME to accommodate such newly developing disciplines. Differentiation of BME after the long integrative process.

27 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 27 Whitaker summit: BEES II Lansdowne, VA., March 4-6, 2005 Invitation only Most US programs, many European programs Broad program with: Plenary sessions, Break-out sessions, Reports from these sessions The titles of the sessions provide insight in new developments and challenges in the field.

28 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 28 Whitaker summit: BEES II Plenary talks John Bransford (University of Washington) Efficiency, Innovation and Transfer: Enhancing the development of adaptive expertise John Linehan (The Whitaker Foundation) The Biomedical Engineer for 2020 Peter Katona (The Whitaker Foundation) BME Education: Trends and Challenges John Abele (Boston Scientific Corporation) Surviving in Technological Nirvana Cato Laurencin (University of Virginia) Critical Issues for the Future of Biomedical Engineering Education and Tissue Engineering Research

29 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 29 Whitaker summit: BEES II Plenary talks Rebecca Richards-Kortum (Rice University) WARNING: Insufficient Bioengineering Education Can be Hazardous to Your Health James Collins (Boston University) Synthetic Biology and Systems Biology: Biomedical Engineers Wanted Eugene Schnell (Johns Hopkins University) The Emotionally Intelligent BioEngineer Wendy Newstetter (Georgia Institute of Technology) The Nature of Learning on the Frontiers of Science Paul Yock (Stanford University) Teaching BME Students to Fail (And Other Key Steps to Innovation)

30 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 30 Whitaker summit: BEES II Plenary talks William New (The Novent Group) Intertwined Degrees: MD + PhD + MBA Dick Slaaf (Technical University of Eindhoven) (representing EAMBES) Biomedical Engineering Education in Europe Douglas Lauffenburger (MIT) The Molecular Basis for Modern Bioengineering: Sequence, Structure, and Systems Jennifer West (Rice University) Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Nanotechnology Katherine Ferrara (University of California, Davis) Biomedical Imaging: Molecular, Structural, and Functional Approaches

31 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 31 Whitaker summit: BEES II Plenary talks Tom Skalak (University of Virginia) Multi-Scale Systems Integration from Cells to Tissues: A Critical Link in the Full Circle from Knowing to Seeing to Preventing Disease Dawn Applegate (RegeneMed, Inc) Translating Biomedical Engineering Education through Imagination and Invention to Improve Life Peter Davies (University of Pennsylvania) Clinical Preceptorships for BME Students: Breadth and Depth Kristina Ropella (Marquette University) Cooperative Education: University-Industry Partnerships

32 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 32 Whitaker summit: BEES II Plenary talks Matthew Glucksberg (Northwestern University) BME Projects for the Developing World: Engineering Global Health Don Giddens (Georgia Institute of Technology) The Biomedical Engineering Department of 2020 Kenneth Lutchen (Boston University) Synthesizing Philosophy and People to Achieve Institutionally Driven Multi-Scale BME Education and Science

33 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 33 Whitaker summit: BEES II Workshops Workshops were attended by 20-50 people. Opinions could be quite different. Common opinion was hard to find. Solutions will vary between programs.

34 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 34 Whitaker summit: BEES II Workshops Biomechanics Biomechanics Robert Sah (University of California, San Diego), Clark Hung (Columbia University) Molecular & Cellular Engineering Molecular & Cellular Engineering Daniel Hammer (University of Pennsylvania), Richard Waugh (University of Rochester) Devices and Instruments Yongmin Kim (University of Washington), Michael Neuman (Michigan Technological University) Biomedical Imaging Biomedical Imaging Cynthia Paschal (Vanderbilt University), Kristina Ropella (Marquette University) Kathy Nightingale (Duke University) Biosystems and Signals Kenneth Lutchen (Boston University), Edward Berbari (Indiana U./Purdue U. at Indianapolis)

35 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 35 Whitaker summit: BEES II Workshops Teaching Methods Wendy Newstetter (Georgia Institute of Technology), Sean Brophy (Vanderbilt University) Interestingly, the discussion about Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Design-Centered Learning (DCL) was similarly critical of the method as in Eindhoven. A definite difference in opinion between those exposed to the methods and those without experience.

36 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 36 Whitaker summit: BEES II Workshops Design and Innovation Paul Yock (Stanford University), Arthur Rosenthal (Boston Scientific Corporation & Boston University), Bruce KenKnight (Guidant Corporation & University of Minnesota), Amy Lerner (University of Rochester) Laboratories Mitchell Litt (University of Pennsylvania), Eric Perreault (Northwestern University), Ann Saterbak (Rice University) Societal Issues & Ethics Thomas and Miriam Budinger (University of California, Berkeley)

37 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 37 Whitaker summit: BEES II Workshops ABET Eric Guilbeau (Arizona State University), Paul Hale (Louisiana Tech University), John Enderle (University of Connecticut) Bio-Nano/Micro Bio-Nano/Micro Jennifer West (Rice University), Rebekah Drezek (Rice University), Christopher Chen (University of Pennsylvania) Tissue engineering Tissue engineering Linda Griffith (MIT), Sean Brophy (Vanderbilt University) Systems Biology - Cell to Organ Trey Ideker (University of California, San Diego), Douglas Lauffenburger (MIT), Raimond Winslow (Johns Hopkins University)

38 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 38 Whitaker summit: BEES II Workshops Imaging Katherine Ferrara (University of California, Davis), Angie Louie (University of California, Davis), Joseph Izatt (Duke University), Norbert Pelc (Stanford University) Drug Delivery Tejal Desai (Boston University), Mark Saltzman (Yale University) Drug Delivery Neuroengineering Neuroengineering Daryl Kipke (University of Michigan), Ravi Bellamkonda (Georgia Institute of Technology)

39 April 15, 2005BIOMEDEA II 39 Whitaker summit: BEES II The program of BEES II provides a nice overview of challenges in future BME education and research. Details of the presentations and summaries of the discussions in the break-out sessions can be found on the Whitaker website:

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