Diversity & Equity Today Defining and Meeting the Challenge Heather Broderick Will Carter Paula Listrani Robin Sullivan
Introduction: Inequity and Inequality –Equity-fair –Equality-equal American society has historically struggled with the questions of equity and equality
Liberal Ideology: Meritocracy Reexamined New Debate Origins of inequality GI Bill Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Michael Harringtons 1962 bestseller, The Other America Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and urban riots that followed his murder
The Coleman Report Survey by James Coleman –concerning lack of availability of equal educational opportunity for individuals by reason of race, color, religion, or national origin. Initiated new debate on equity Summary of findings Flaws in Coleman Report The Cultural Deprivation studies
The Political-Economic Context Demographics of modern American society Race, ethnicity, and the limits of language Ethnicity, income, wealth Ethnicity and employment Ethnicity and family Statistics
Gender Gender and employment –Glass-ceiling –Increase role of women as professionals. Gender and income –Do women make the same income as men in the same profession? Gender and living situation –Implications for working mothers –Family Medical Leave Act (1993)
Socioeconomic Class Class and income –Designating class by income bracket Class and power – Thomas Dyes research findings –Power-elite
Education: Ethnicity, Gender, and Class How does membership in ethnic, economic, social class, gender, and handicapping conditions influence how individuals learn and the equality of education?
Education: Ethnicity, Gender, and Class Race, ethnicity, and education Socioeconomic class and education Equity, education, and handicapping conditions Gender and education & societal definitions of gender
Race, Ethnicity, and Education Are there fundamental differences in the way African-Americans, white, Indian, Latino, or Asian children experience the institution of schooling?
Race, Ethnicity, and Education Statistical information among racial and ethnic groups Language barriers: Asians & Hispanics Desegregation: Was it successful?
Race, Ethnicity, and Education Progress in formal education Today, most if not all educators believe that high-school graduation rate of 86% is no longer satisfactory
Race, Ethnicity, and Education Subdivision among racial groups
Socioeconomic Class and Education Are there fundamental differences between the experiences of the rich and poor?
Socioeconomic Class and Education Thomas Toch Discussion Topic: Do you think that the school districts in the suburbs and the city is modern day segregation? Consider: Teachers attitudes Parents attitudes School facilities & resources
Equity, Education, and Handicapping Conditions Do Schools provide equitable treatment to students who are judged to have physical disabilities, psychological disabilities or handicapping conditions?
Equity, Education, and Handicapping Conditions Labeled individuals Education for All Handicapped Children Act ( EHA) Implications Discussion Topic: What is the problem with identifying students with a handicap condition?
Gender and Education & Societal Definitions of Gender Are there fundamental differences between the experiences of male and female?
Gender and Education & Societal Definitions of Gender Gender stereotypes Gender vs. Sex Social expectations & gender roles begin at birth Sex roles in early education Gender bias in secondary schools
Gender and Education & Societal Definitions of Gender Womens Educational Equity Act (1972) Implications -Advances in gender equality -Gender equality today
Does Social Inequality Necessarily Determine Educational Outcomes? Individuals succeed or fail due to their native abilities and applied efforts, but also on the basis of their membership in one or more ethnic, gender, or economic groups.
Jane Elliot's Experiment Taught students what prejudice and discrimination were Blue-eyed vs. brown and green-eyed children Students realized how a feeling of inferiority can be destructive and how it can destroy motivation
Theories of Social Inequality Genetic Inferiority Theory Cultural Deficit Theory Critical Theory Cultural Difference Theory Cultural Subordination Theory Resistance Theory
Bilingual and ESL Instruction as Bridges to English Proficiency LEP students have sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language The U.S. Dept. of Ed. Identified over 2.1 million public school students in the U.S. as LEP Of all schools with LEP students, 76% provide programs in ESL, while 36% offer bilingual education programs
BEV Language and Cultural Subordination A child who says, "They be mine" is speaking a dialect known as Black English Vernacular (BEV) There is a mismatch between African-American culture and the dominant Anglo culture of America The language one speaks is not biologically determined, but a function of one's cultural background
Pedagogical Approaches to Pluralism Ignore differences Eliminate differences Sensitivity to differences –Uses cultural resources as a bridge
Examining Gender Theory as an Illustration of Sensitivity to Difference 1 st phase –gender-free approach 2 nd phase –equalizing gender differences 3 rd phase –looking for ways to overcome differences, and differences are recognized and respected
Examples of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (Grant & Ladson-Billings) A culturally relevant educators conception of themselves and others Conceptions of social relations Conceptions of knowledge All students are capable of academic success Pedagogy as an art See themselves as members of the community Teaching as a way to give back to the community Freirean notion of teaching as mining or pulling knowledge out, not putting it in Fluid student-teacher relationships Demonstrate connectedness with all students Develop a community of learners Encourage students to learn collaboratively and be responsible for each other Knowledge is not static_it is shared, recycled, and reconstructed Knowledge must be viewed critically Be passionate about knowledge learning Assessment must be multifaceted, incorporating multiple forms of excellence
Assimilationist & Pluralistic Approaches to Achieving a Pluralistic Education (Sleeter & Grant) Teaching the exceptional & culturally different Human relations Single-group studies Multicultural education Multicultural and social reconstructionist education
What can be done? (Sleeter & Grant) Reflect and celebrate diversity Curriculum should regularly include contributions of diverse groups Curriculum equally accessible to all groups Build on students learning styles Use cooperative learning
What can be done? (Sleeter & Grant) Develop positive self-concept in all students Evaluation should be used for improving instruction not sorting Develop home/community relations Extracurricular activities should not perpetuate race and sex stereotypes
Teachers who have been successful with high-poverty children were found to: (Knapp) Maintain classroom order Respond effectively to diverse cultural backgrounds Teach for meaning
Diversity, Equity, and Special Education Ongoing debate since 1960 Labeling raises equity issues The Education for All Handicapped Students Act (1975) Labels say more about the system than about students
Political Economy Social inequalities Diversity across and within groups Inequalities in employment and pay Effects of poverty and racism on families Income vs. wealth differences Ed. For All Handicapped Children Act Language and dialect difference Schooling Achievement testing Advanced placement tests SAT & ACT exams Antiracist education Culturally responsive pedagogy Bilingual education ESL instruction Multicultural education Inclusion of all children Ideology Equal opportunity for all Meritocracy Genetic deficit theory Cultural deficit theory Racism/Sexism Disability bias Social construction of which human differences matter Analytic Framework
Conclusion Teachers must devise an environment that will support students with very different skill levels and interests
Links to Internet Resources: Recognizing and Celebrating Diversity Equity resources on the web Diversity lesson plans Multicultural lesson plans Inclusion: how to teach everyone Students with special needs Gender equity in education Gender equity resources: girls in science, math, engineering and technologyGender equity resources: girls in science, math, engineering and technology