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Dr. Mohammad Naim Yaakub Director General

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1 Challenges of Education Towards The Realization of ASEAN COMMUNITY 2015
Dr. Mohammad Naim Yaakub Director General Colombo Plan Staff College for Technician Education

2 The Beginning of ASEAN The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on August 8, 1967 in Bangkok by the five original member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined on January 8, 1984, Vietnam on July 28, 1995, Laos and Myanmar on July 23, 1997, and Cambodia on April 30, 1999. Presentation includes: Introduction to the ASEAN Community by 2015 Higher Education Thrusts in Each Southeast Asian Country Future Higher Education Trends Future Policy Discussion Regional Engagement Strategies

3 The ASEAN region has a population of about 600 million, a total area of million square kilometers, a combined Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 1.8 trillion US dollar and a total trade of about 2 trillion US dollar.

4 ASEAN Community 2015 In 2009, ASEAN Nations signed the Roadmap for an ASEAN Community 2015, to achieve the goal, “One Vision, One Identity, One Community” This section provides an overview of the ASEAN Community by This gives a grounding of the ASEAN framework around education over the next 4 years. 4

5 ASEAN Community Goals Political and Security Community
The ASEAN Community shall be established comprising three pillars, namely political and security community, economic community, and socio-cultural community that are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing for the purpose of ensuring durable peace, stability, and shared prosperity in the region. Political and Security Community Economic Community Socio-cultural Community The ASEAN Community is established comprising of three pillars, namely political and security community, economic community, and sociocultural community that are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing for the purpose of ensuring durable peace, stability, and shared prosperity in the region.


7 ASEAN Community Education Objectives
creating a knowledge based society; achieving universal access to primary education; promoting early child care and development; and enhancing awareness of ASEAN to youths through education and activities to build an ASEAN identity based on friendship and cooperation. Actions In close collaboration with the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and the ASEAN University Network (AUN) Promote and continue education networking in various levels of educational institutions Enhance and support student and staff exchanges and professional interactions Create research clusters among ASEAN institutions of higher learning Under the broader strategic objective of ‘ensuring the integration of education priorities into ASEAN’s development agenda’, the ACCC Education Objectives aim to advance and prioritise education and focus on: creating a knowledge based society; achieving universal access to primary education; promoting early child care and development; and enhancing awareness of ASEAN to youths through education and activities to build an ASEAN identity based on friendship and cooperation.

8 Emerging Trends and State of Higher Education (HE) in ASEAN Countries
Beginning with the higher education thrusts and national policies of each country.

9 Brunei Darussalam Emerging Trends in HE
3 HEI’s offering certificate, diploma and degrees Introduction of ‘Discovery Year’ Vision 2035 “ to build a first class education system that provides opportunities for every citizen and residence…” Aiming for 40% participation rate Brunei has 3 HEI’s offering certificate, diploma and degrees Introduction of ‘Discovery Year’ - an overseas mobility year. Vision 2035 “ to build a first class education system that provides opportunities for every citizen and residence…” Aiming for 40% participation rate in higher education To ensure that our higher educational institutions prepare students who will meet the human resource needs of our country

10 HE in Cambodia Higher Education only 30 years old
Variety of degrees and academic awards HE and TVET HEIs are supervised by 12 different ministries or government institutions Privatization and quality identified as key issues Characteristics of HE The system of higher education in Cambodia is only 30 years old due to upheaval in recent history. Types of qualifications (eg cert/dip/deg) There are different types and titles of degrees and diplomas delivered by institutions of Higher Education. Some titles used include Master’s degrees, Bachelor’s degrees, professional diplomas, postgraduate diplomas and diplomas. The extraordinary variety of degrees and academic awards in Cambodia can be attributed to the various influences in the country in the past 30 years. The French and then the Soviet and Vietnamese influences are clear. Recently, higher education institutions in the region have also lent their influence to the system. Cambodia would like to be at par with international standards and this is an essential effort of the Higher Education Reform. HE Highlights - Cambodia HE and TVET HEIs are supervised by 12 different ministries/Govt. Institutions MoEYS concerns for HE quality,as privatization in HE & Private HEIs.

11 HE in Indonesia 4 types of Higher Education Institutions
Academic and Vocational tracks Diploma, Graduate Diploma, Masters, Doctorate, Islamic specialist Information system and database Scale and size of the institutions and disparity of capacity M-I-T Mobility Project Types of HEI There are 4 kinds of HEI: Academy, Polytechnics, School of Higher Learning (Sekolah Tinggi), Institute, and University Vocational/Diploma track: 1, 2, 3, 4 Academic track: S-1: 4 year, minimum 144 credit unit S-2: 2 year, minimum 46 credit unit (Master & Specialist) S-3: 3 year Types of qualifications Diploma, Graduate Diploma, Masters, Doctorate, Islamic specialist Highlights Information system/database Implementing a HE database, based on an on-line report that every academic program submits each term. The report forms a national database system that can be used to monitor and evaluate study program performance. It includes data related to HE resources, management, and program implementation. Data from EPSBED is used not only for operational permit extension but also a basic requirement for any institution/program to apply for competitive fundings and other incentives from Department of Higher Education. Current challenges Scale and size of the institutions Disparity of capacity Thrusts: Very active in student mobilty space, with 77 outbound students under the M-I- T Programme

12 HE in Lao PDR Emerging Trends
160 colleges and 5 universities offering higher diplomas, bachelors, masters and PhDs - of which 77 HEI’s are private Highlights include recent increase of general education to 12 years Key Thrusts: Producing good quality human resources Contributing to the nation’s development Developing appropriate higher education policies Providing fair access to education Relevance, quality and efficiency Governance and financing. Characteristics of HE Colleges and 5 Universities are offering Higher Diploma program, Bachelor degree, Master Degree and PHD. - Of which 77 are private . Higher education institutions are public and are managed by the government directly. Because of the government’s policy for expanding education at all levels, there are many post-secondary education institutions that can award bachelor’s degrees under the control of the Ministry of Education. Highlights – aiming to Increase length of general education to 12 years The major challenges faced in higher education in Laos are to produce and provide good quality of human resources meeting the level of international standard in support to the country’s socio-economic development goals, reducing poverty and graduating from the least developed country status by Also to realize the long term goals in turning the country to the industrialization and modernization, developed education is regarded as the means and tools. Currently, higher educational institutions in Laos are described as to have a lack of clear vision, appropriate policy and strategy, and master plan used for higher education development as to meet that of regional and international higher education in terms of quality, relevance and capacity in attractiveness and competitiveness. Higher education is the key to economic development as it plays significant and important roles in turning the country into industrialization and modernization. Seeing this importance, higher educational institutions, in the future, are to be strengthened and improved in the following areas: (1) provision of fair equitable access to higher education, (2) relevance, quality and efficiency, (3) governance, financing and service.

13 HE in Malaysia Emerging Trends
Mixture of public and private universities, colleges, foreign universities, polytechnics, and community colleges Aiming for World Class Status by 2020 7 Strategic Thrusts: - widening access and equity - improving quality of teaching and learning -Enhancing research and innovation - Strengthening higher education institutions - Intensifying internationalisation - Enculturation of lifelong learning - Reinforcing delivery systems of the Ministry Characteristics of HE in Malaysia Public-HEI – Public Universities, Polytechnics, Community Colleges and Public Colleges Private-HEI – Private Universities, Private Colleges and Foreign University Branch Campuses Aiming for World Class Status by 2020 with the National Higher Education Action Plans 7 Strategic thrusts to focus on improving and empowerment in HE キ Widening of access and increasing equity キ Improving the quality of teaching and learning キ Enhancing research and innovation キ Strengthening of higher education institutions キ Intensifying internationalisation キ Enculturation of lifelong learning キ Reinforcing delivery systems of the Ministry

14 HE in Myanmar Mission “ To create an education system that can generate a learning society capable of facing the challenges of the Knowledge Age.” Introducing new assessment techniques Current challenge is developing research and developing quality assurance Characteristics of HE “ To create an education system that can generate a learning society capable of facing the challenges of the Knowledge Age.” Highlights Introduce new assessment techniques to test depth and breadth of knowledge, creativity and analytical thinking of students Current challenges to create a University environment with strong research activities by expanding activities of research centers extending international collaborations

15 HE in the Philippines & Emerging Trends
Significant Number of Higher Education Institutions Large College Population Diversity in Program Offerings Key Challenge - Supply of Qualified Faculty Emerging Trends: Ensuring adequate Governance and Management Rationalization of Quality Assurance Mechanisms in Higher Education Improving Quality Assurance and Standards Increasing Access to Higher Education Characteristics of HE Significant Number of Higher Education Institutions and Large College Population Diversity in Program Offerings Supply of Qualified Faculty Emerging Trends Governance and Management. The new leadership put primacy on the efficient use of resources through the collaboration of local, regional and international stakeholders. This is to attain productivity, focused national direction, alignment of objectives, harmonization of procedures, approaches and a coherent financing arrangement for higher education sector. The Commission commits its support in facilitating and in taking its role, responsibilities and duties in facilitating the requirements and necessary steps in improving the country’s higher education sector. Specifically, implementation of reforms that enable acquisition of knowledge, development of skills, values and attitudes, which will enhance productivity, globalization and competitiveness of graduates. 2. Rationalization of Quality Assurance Mechanisms in Higher Education The Commission on Higher Education has embark on rationalizing the country’s existing quality assurance processes and procedures for higher education sector both program and institution-based. On increasing access to quality higher education Improve and expand government assistance to students and teachers in private education (GASTPE); Alternative learning system (ALS); Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program (ETEEAP); and Ladderized Education Program (LEP).

16 HE in Singapore & Emerging Trends
Internationalization as a matter of bold national policy Ability-driven education system Degree program, diploma & certificate courses Highlights include aim 30% subsidized places by 2015 and Quality Assurance Framework Key Trends: Increasing cohort participation rates Enhancing continuing education and training landscapes Maintaining affordability of higher education Cross-border higher education ASEAN Credit Transfer system Building up research clusters Characteristics of HE Boldly promoted internationalisation as a matter of national policy, recruited prestigious foreign universities to establish local campuses, with the goal of expanding access for the local student and becoming a ‘hub’ for the region. Singapore has an ability-driven education system that provides multiple pathways for students to develop their fullest potential. For Higher Education landscape, public and private Higher Education Institutions in Singapore offer degree programme, diploma courses, certificate courses, and other post-secondary qualifications across a wide range of disciplines. Highlights government’s aim to increase the number of subsidised university places to 30% of the cohort by 2015, The Quality Assurance Frameworks for publicly-funded HEIs are designed to encourage continuous self-learning, quality enhancement and development within respective institutions, and sectors. Through the QAFs, MOE ensures that publicly-funded HEIs within sectors are strong and consistently seeking institutional excellence. Increasing Cohort Participation Rates through increased spending. Enhancing Continuing Education and Training Landscape. The aim is to quadruple the annual training capacity by 2010, from 22,000 to 80,000 workers. Maintaining Affordability of Higher Education - The government will set aside more money to help more students from the lower- and middle-incomes families cope with the increasing costs of higher education. CROSS-BORDER HIGHER EDUCATION – creating more collaboration opportunities at the institution-level among higher education systems in ASEAN. ASEAN Credit Transfer System - Currently, all three Singaporean universities, the National University of Singapore (NUS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Singapore Management University (SMU), are members of the ASEAN University Network (AUN). In the area of student exchange, NUS and NTU are also part of the AUNACTS (ASEAN Credit Transfer System) structure that allows students to access exchange programmes offered by all AUN member universities on a single portal. The AUN also has an ASEAN Visiting Professor Programme which facilitates faculty exchange between member universities Building up SEAMEO Research Clusters – building up research clusters in the areas of : Urban, Environment and Sustainability Issues Health and Medical Issues c. Social Sciences

17 HE in Thailand & Emerging Trends
Public and private universities and colleges of higher education offering certificate to doctorates Several research universities Key Trends: High Competencies Workforce Regional Research Leaders Regional Hub in Higher Education Provision Key Trends: High Competencies Workforce High Competencies Workforce provides venues for students to ensure that they will stay competitive in the international market place such as Cooperative Education, Work Integrated Learning for New Generation Workforce which foster links between higher education and the world of work. Also scholarships to aid manpower development and capacity building. Regional Research LeadersAiming to accelerate development of university research activities nation-wide to enhance national competitiveness. This will be done through creating National Research Universities Initiative Research Promotion in Higher Education Project with financial support under the RTG Stimulus Package 2 Plan.Regional Hub in Higher Education ProvisionThe latest development of Thai higher education which is currently undergoing the second decade of the national education reform with the goal to aspire toward quality of education. Ultimately, Thailand aims to become regional education hub in South-East Asia with the aim of increasing foreign students in Thailand up to 100,000 from the current figure of 20,000. The Royal Thai Government has given high priority to upgrade quality of Thai universities to achieve international standards of excellence while upholding their academic freedom and social responsibility. Strength of ICT infrastructure for improving quality of higher education Including through the use of the Inter-University Network, Thailand Cyber University, the e-library ThaiLIS and the National Education Network (Ned-Net).

18 HE in Vietnam & Emerging Trends
Junior colleges, universities, institutions and research institutes offering Vocational, Bachelor, Master and Doctorate courses Current challenges include lack of academic staff and forging links to industry Key Trends: Structural adjustment New programs and teaching/learning methods Workforce development - lecturing staff and managers Increase in research activities New financial mechanisms Increasing autonomy, social accountability and competitiveness Increasing international integration and competitiveness Adjustment structures of system of universities -Renovation of higher education programs and teaching/learning methods -The development of lecturing staff and higher education managers -The increase in research and implementation activities in order to improve training quality, directly address issues arising from socio-economic development and earning revenues for higher education institutions: -The reform in financial mechanism of higher education establishments in order to diversify resources and improve investment efficiency -The renovation of higher education management in the direction of increasing the autonomy, social accountability and competitiveness of higher education institutions -Improvement in competitiveness of higher education system in international integration process

19 Challenges in Higher Education among ASEAN
Lack of qualified faculty staff Limited experience of quality assurance processes Ensuring equitable access for all students Geographic spread and diversity of universities Lack of infrastructures Increase usage of English language

20 Educational Initiatives towards ASEAN Community 2015

21 Regional Accreditation (APACC)
Accreditation is very important in higher education National frameworks on qualifications and accreditation systems must be required among the ASEAN nations The Asia Pacific Accreditation and Certification Commission (APACC), aims to accredit and certify TVET institutions through the standardization and harmonization of education and training systems across national borders in the region Unified Education Framework Establish ASEAN standards for HEI’s including curriculum, equipment and facilities Revise curriculum and delivery modes in all programs to meet labor market needs A unified curriculum in the ASEAN region is highly recommended Responding to mass demands has driven many of the key transformations of past decades. This expansion has been driven by the shift to post-industrial economies, the rise of service industries and the knowledge economy. The impacts of massification are: - cope with meeting demand, need for infrastructure, larger teaching corps. - Implications of diversity. How to access subgroups not being included or appropriately served. - Increasing competition for scarce resources, ranking, decline in academic community.

22 Develop Quality of Education
Strengthened collaboration with other regional and international educational organizations to enhance the quality of education Quality assurance, accountability and qualification frameworks The need for internationally recognized standards in education among and between nations has become urgent Greater emphasis on technical and vocational education and training. Scholarship for students / Faculty Exchange more programs on scholarship grants on students from all the regions develop their potential and equip them with skills that will enable them to confidently step into the new millennium competent teaching force is maintained to deliver quality education through educating teachers with advanced competencies Promote academic exchange and student mobility

23 Regional Skills Competition
Encourage the participation in the conduct of skills competitions such as the ASEAN Skills Competition to support workforce development and to achieve regional standards competency Enhance the quality and skills of workers in all ASEAN Member Countries Increase usage in English language Language is the most important key towards the development of Association of South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) An important tool of communication of ASEAN Community 2015 In order to fulfill the three pillars of the ASEAN community, education, especially on English is needed

24 E-Learning/Online/Distance /Open Learning
The role of the internet in communicating knowledge Increase access at the higher education through open learning Distance learning being transformed by ICT Universal Education ( access, equity and quality ) ASEAN countries provide free education to all students Education in Brunei Darussalam is free of charge for all citizens from the age of 5 years to the university level. Asian countries have tremendous success in expanding access to primary and secondary schooling. Ensuring the quality of education

25 Thank you for your participation and attention
ASEAN Community must have a vision and must come to agree upon common shared goals, that bind us together, and not drive us apart. Together we can reach ASEAN Community 2015 Thank you for your participation and attention

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