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SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Lata Pandey, NCERT, New Delhi MULTILINUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF ORISSA – AN EVALUATION STUDY.

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Presentation on theme: "SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Lata Pandey, NCERT, New Delhi MULTILINUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF ORISSA – AN EVALUATION STUDY."— Presentation transcript:

1 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Lata Pandey, NCERT, New Delhi MULTILINUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF ORISSA – AN EVALUATION STUDY Lata Pandey, NCERT, New Delhi

2 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Mother Tongue As a Medium of Instruction International Evidence Children who are proficient in their mother tongue can adapt to other languages as well.(Thomas and Collier) Children perform better when they are taught in their mother tongue and through familiar examples.(Baker,2001 and Heugh,2003)

3 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency National Evidence National Curriculum Framework-2005 :The language teaching needs to be multilingual not only in terms of number of languages offered to children but also in terms of evolving strategies that would use the multilingual classroom as a resource. It is advantageous to have home language /mother tongue of children as the medium of learning in schools. Mother Tongue As a Medium of Instruction

4 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency National Evidence Right to Education Act-2009,emphasises that the language of instruction should be the mother tongue as far as possible Articles21A,29(1),46 and 350 of the constitution of India has also emphasized the benefits of imparting instruction in the mother tongue. Mother Tongue As a Medium of Instruction

5 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Multi Lingual Education (MLE) Programme, Orissa MLE Programme initiated to teach tribal children in their first language in the early grades /classes and gradually moves forward to include other languages such as Oriya (as second language) and English (as third language)

6 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency MLE GOALS Ensure equity and quality education to tribal children. Improve student learning through use of mother tongue in early classes. Develop reading and writing skills to acquire knowledge and information through mother tongue. Introduce state and national languages at early stages to main stream the tribal children in state wide education system. Develop respect for their language and culture. Empower tribal children to develop self-respect.

7 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Objectives of the Study 1.To understand the MLE implementation in the state of Orissa. 2.To identify specific MLE strategies that facilitated or impeded achievement of MLE Goals. 3.To ascertain impact of MLE programme, especially on learning achievement of the students. 4.To assess the extent of achievement of the other objectives of MLE and if there are other unplanned outcomes of the programme.

8 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Design of Study Evaluation Framework Evaluation question Indicators Data Source Methods & Instrument The notational of MLE evaluation design is as follows NR X O NR O1 Mixed methods approach based on Quantitative and Qualitative approach

9 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Questions 1.Is MLE implemented as intended? If not, why not? 2.To what extent the intended objectives of MLE have been realized? 3.What are the unintended outcomes attributable to the programme?

10 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Sampling DISTRICTLANGUAGEBLOCKSTOTAL SCHOOLS ( Phase- I, II, III ) PHASE-I PHASE-II COMPARISION GROUP GajapatiSaura2605/2005/2010 RayagarhaKuvi Saura / / KandhamalKui5605/20 10 MayurbhanjMunda, Santhali / /10 10/ KeonjharJuanga2305/10 10 MalkangiriBonda Koya /5 5/20 5/5 5/20 10 SambalpurKisan6405/195/1110 SundargarhOram Munda / / Districts10 Languages

11 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Data Collection Instruments/ Tools Instruments/ ToolsRespondents QuestionnaireTeachers (364) Children Record and Interview Schedule Students (1757) School Record ScheduleSchools (200) Interview schedulesHead masters(200),Teacher s (364),CRCCs/BRCCs (57) SPD/ SSA/ Direction SCERT/ State Coordinator(18) Parents/Community Members/ VEC (534) Classroom Observation ScheduleClasses (396) Rating scale for analysis of textbookSubject Experts(64) Checklist for Teacher Training ManualSubject Experts(64) Achievement Test (Language) Students (Oral-1827) (Written-1753) Achievement Test (Mathematics Subject)- Oral and Written Students (Oral-1710)(Written-1750) FGDCommunity (193) Field NotesField Investigators/ Supervisors (70)

12 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Key Findings-Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not? Components: 1.Curriculum and Material Development 2.Teacher Training 3.Community Participation 4.Monitoring and Evaluation 5.Awareness about MLE 6.School Facilities 7.Teacher Practices

13 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not? 1.Curriculum and Material Development A large number of children (73-100%) except from the Bonda tribe took part in the development of TLMs Community members took part in the development of material. Participation ranged from 100% in Kisan and Koya to 10% in Santhali language More than 60% of teachers reported that material were relevant to the curriculum A large number of responses from teachers confirmed their satisfaction with the quality of material

14 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not? 1. Curriculum and Material Development Most of the teachers (100%) were involved in the development of material in most of the languages except in Bonda (80%) Subject experts (2), tribal coordinators (8)and teacher educators (52)gave following comments with respect to the materials: – Textbooks were developed in accordance with MLE objectives – Quality of reading materials, illustrations, binding and texture of paper was satisfactory – The content of the textbooks was age appropriate and contextual to tribal culture

15 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not? 1. Curriculum and Material Development Textbooks were made available in nearly all schools except in Oram speaking areas (50%) TLMs were found to be available in most of the schools except in Bonda (40%) and Oram (40%) speaking schools Majority of teachers (91%) reported that they had received training manuals during the training programme 80% of teachers and students were involved in the development of supplementary reading mat erial

16 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not? 2. Teacher Training Majority of teachers felt that the content of training modules addressed their needs Majority of teachers were satisfied with the interaction with the resource persons. Regarding the usefulness of training in terms of conceptual understanding and usefulness for classroom transactions 28% teachers were of the opinion that the training was not useful and 45% felt that it was less useful. 50% teachers considered the duration of training was adequate

17 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 3. Community Participation Community members were involved in material development and setting up of cultural museums 54% community members took interest in classroom transactions 61% Headmasters reported that Community members provided support Less community participation was found in Santhali language schools Other issues discussed-attendance of students and teachers, availability of textbooks, and the use of TLM Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not?

18 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 4. Monitoring and Evaluation Head teachers monitored implementing of MLE by discussing the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction and its impact on language learning with students, teachers, meeting with VEC members, monitoring classroom activities, planning and preparation of lesson plans by teachers Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not?

19 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Monitoring and Evaluation (Contd…) Head teachers revealed that teachers faced some difficulties in preparing lesson plans for big (32%) and small books (27%) Almost all teachers of Juanga, Koya, Kuvi, Bonda, Munda reported that infrastructure facilities were monitored in their schools. But very few teachers from Saura, Kuvi, Santhali and Oram teachers had the same opinion Almost all teachers reported about monitoring the various records of the schools

20 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Monitoring and Evaluation(contd…) The level of monitoring and support provided by CRCCs and BRCCs varied from district to district Head teachers indicated that they needed more academic support (75%) Schools were visited by higher authorities and other agencies (81%) Schools received feedback and guidance from them

21 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 5. Awareness about MLE Majority of stakeholders were well aware of MLE programme and its objectives Teachers were not aware of certain issues State level senior officers were well aware of the policies as to how to address the needs of children in linguistic minorities Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not?

22 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 6. School Facilities Basic facilities (e.g.) drinking water, urinals/ toilets and electricity are lacking in some schools Availability of infrastructure and academic support facilities varies between schools Plenty of variations between language groups were found in terms of availability of academic support facilities such as learning corners, wall hangings, libraries and play magazines School boundaries, playgrounds and ramps were also lacking in many schools Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not?

23 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 7.Teacher Practices Strategies Adopted Activity Based Teaching Teaching systematically from simple to abstract concepts. Using Big and Small books. Learning through the use of mother tongue. Using childrens experiences. Language of instruction is mother tongue. Majority of the student reported that they received praise from teachers. Evaluation Question 1: Is Multilingual Education programme implemented as intended? If not, why not?

24 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 2: To what extent have the intended objectives of the Multilingual Education programme been realized? 1. Enhancing learning of tribal children 2. Increase in enrolment of tribal children 3. Enhancing self respect of tribal children

25 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 2: To what extent have the intended objectives of the Multilingual Education programme been realized? 1.Achievement in Languages MLE had a positive impact on student achievement in language and mathematics in most tribal languages Oral, written and total tests were found significant for seven tribal languages, namely, Saura, Kui, Juanga, Munda, Santhali, Kisan and Oram Significant effects were noticed for Bonda and Koya languages on written tests and total language scores. However, the impact was non significant with respect to oral tests in these two languages

26 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 1.Achievement in Mathematics Significant differences were found between MLE and non-MLE oral and written mathematic test scores in most of the language areas No significant differences found in Bonda for total (oral and written) tests and for Koya in oral mathematics Evaluation Question 2: To what extent have the intended objectives of the Multilingual Education programme been realized?

27 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 1.Stakeholders' Perception regarding Learning Achievement of Tribal Children Development of self-respect and self-confidence among children Development of literacy skills (listening, reading and writing) Use of mother tongue Childrens interaction with peers Achievement of accurate knowledge, conceptual understanding. Ability to easily switch over from the use of mother tongue to Oriya and vice-verse Evaluation Question 2: To what extent have the intended objectives of the Multilingual Education programme been realized?

28 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 2. Enrolment and Retention of Tribal Children Retention rate increased in all 10 tribal language groups BRCCs/ CRCCs stated that there was an increase in retention after the introduction of MLE, but this varied according to language groups Evaluation Question 2: To what extent have the intended objectives of the Multilingual Education programme been realized?

29 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency 3. Enhancing Childrens Self Respect Majority of the teachers (87%) said that MLE activities helped students to enhance their self respect 95% teachers believed that teaching through mother tongue was helpful in enhancing students self esteems Almost all children (98%) said that they were praised by their teachers for their correct responses Evaluation Question 2: To what extent have the intended objectives of the Multilingual Education programme been realized?

30 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Evaluation Question 3: What are the unintended outcomes attributable to the programme? 1.Positive Unintended Outcomes (i)Improvement in relationships among teachers and students,(ii)Increased motivation and eagerness among students 2. Negative Unintended Outcomes (i)Decreased retention for children from other castes, (ii)Preference for the Oriya language over the mother tongue.

31 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Recommendations Differences among Languages Variability demonstrated among the 10 languages included in the MLE program in terms of both its implementation and the outcomes need to be investigated and addressed MLE Materials Cultural inputs need to be insured in all kinds of TLMs for MLE classes Material should be available to the children at appropriate time

32 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Recommendations (Contd…) Teacher Training Ensured timely availability of the training materials and in adequate quantities Duration of training needs to be increased Issue of equitable quality education should be addressed significantly during training programme Planning and development of lesson plan and classroom management topics should be included in the training programme

33 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Recommendations (Contd…) Teacher Training (Contd…) Follow up of the training programme for effective teaching Staff MLE teachers need to be appointed Recruitment of teachers from local community Enhancement in salary Formation of management committee

34 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Recommendations (Contd…) Community Participation More community participation in material development and in school activities Development of a systematic monitoring system Establishment of monitoring in all the offices of the state/ district/ BRCCs and CRCCs Monitoring and supervision should be more frequent

35 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Recommendations (Contd…) NCERT should provide resources, more academic and professional support Involvement of teachers in action research on various aspects of MLE Discussion on findings with the monitoring team in monthly resource day meetings Monitoring and Supervision (Contd.) Increase monitoring and supervision of the MLE programme in all areas Systematically monitor and supervise offices of state / district / BRCC and CRCC Monitoring and follow-up activities to be continuous and ongoing

36 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Recommendations (Contd…) Infrastructure and academic support facilities Improvements in basic infrastructure facilities All the MLE schools should be provided with adequate resources and academic support facilities Unintended Outcomes Attention should be paid to children from other castes to restrict their drop out More attention and support to be given to children with special needs

37 SSA- TC Fund- Technical Services Agency Limitations of the Study Absence of clearly defined and operationalized objectives Absence of baseline data Difficulty in data collection from Naxal infected areas such as Malkangiri Language related problems lead to questions being misunderstood Interviews were not recorded Non translation of field notes and interviews in English


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