Joint Review of the Education Sector Goal To achieve Economic Development and Poverty Reduction through Quality Education Objectives To review progress in the education sector towards meeting the GoRs economic development and poverty reduction goals; To assess sector development progress in key sub sector areas and discuss emerging priority areas identified in the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS); To review the systems and processes of the sector wide approach and its commitment to donor coordination and harmonisation.
Challenges in Primary Education The EFA and MDG goals for primary education call for universal completion of quality primary education: 52% in Rwanda is below the SSA rate and of course only half of the target Dropout (15 %) and repetition (18%) rates are unacceptably high Teacher pupil ratio is increasing (from 1:69 in 2005 to 1:74 in 2007 Transition rates from P6 (50%) unacceptably low, especially for girls
Why do girls drop out of school? Child labour - girls are kept home to fetch water, collect firewood, help in the garden, care for sick siblings and parents and grandparents suffering from HIV/Aids Parent attitudes - culturally education is not so important for girls because they get married early and they go to their husbands family The toilets are often quite inadequate and girls stay home during their menstrual periods Girls education policy is now approved by Cabinet and an implementation strategy is being developed
Statistics at a glance (Secondary) EDUCATION DATA 2007 / Secondary INDICATORS200520062007 Number of Students218,517239,629267 Boys52.852.552.4 Girls47.247.547.6 Teacher- student Ratio (Public) (Tronc commun)29.63222.2 Teacher - student Ratio (Private)27.628.921,7 Qualified Teacher student ratio55.558.741.3 Gross Enrolment Rate16.60%18.40%20.50% Net Enrolment Rate9.00%10.10%13.10% Repetition Rate Transition rate to tertiary (15 %) 8.70%7.70 %
Challenges in Secondary Education Untrained teachers Inadequate classrooms Few science laboratories Only 40% of girls transit to government secondary schools as against 60% of boys Private schools are expensive
Challenges in TEVT Responsibilities and budgets shared across two ministries Limited budget Courses do not match market demand Geographic location of colleges Poorly trained teachers Private sector not involved Limited equipment and materials
Challenges in Tertiary Education Gross Enrolment Rate for Higher Education in Rwanda is currently only 3.5 percent Net Enrolment Rate is one percent (compared with 5 percent in Sub Saharan Africa) Quality very low Secondary students ill prepared for tertiary education Limited equipment Qualifications of staff poor Gender issues – staff and students
Challenge of Teachers Only 52 percent of teachers in the workforce are qualified Teachers colleges are graduating 1090 teachers a year but 2,600 are needed Teachers earn half of what civil servants at an equivalent level earn - $73 a month Most teachers leave the teaching service after three years - little motivation to stay in classrooms Acute shortage of teachers in science subjects Conditions and performance of 1600 contract teachers
Challenge of Teachers Teachers are trained and familiar with didactic, interrogatory methods rather than learner-centred participative approaches Limited inservice training Recognition, appreciation, incentives and support are needed to motivate and retain teachers Teaching Service Commission has been established and a Teachers Management and Development policy is being developed
Other Education Challenges The funding gap Curriculum The gap between teacher supply and demand Textbooks – supply and distribution Education Management and Information System (EMIS) Quality standards Monitoring and Evaluation
EMIS - Education Management Information System Importance of data for planning purposes and to improve quality Need for sex-disaggregated data to monitor girls progress Challenges in getting data from schools Connectivity and electricity Lack of capacity at national, district and local levels
Sector as a whole The JRES concluded that there is need to further consider the education sector as a whole, within one holistic analysis, to explain and remedy phenomena such gender disaggregated drop-out, transition rates, learning achievement, TVET and higher education - Nursery, primary, secondary, TVET, tertiary – Budget share 45% 20.7% 0.1% 23.8%
SNV Rwanda Goal : Poverty reduction and good governance Mission : SNV is dedicated to a society where all people enjoy the freedom to pursue their own sustainable development. Our advisors contribute to this by strengthening the capacity of local organisations.
Education in SNV Rwanda Two broad impact areas Access to basic services (BASE) - Education - Water, sanitation and hygiene - Biogas Income, production and employment (PIE) - Coffee - Beekeeping - Pro-poor tourism
Focus for impact Human resources increased from one to five full-time advisers Focus on five districts in the South and one in the City of Kigali - Nyarugenge - Nyamagabe - Ngororero - Gisagara - Ruhango
² A has a partnership with B A provides funds to B A participates in B Other type of relationship A provides capacity services to B PTAs Schools Local NGOs national KIE RAUW FAWE MINEDUC GoR Institutions (Ministries, NISR, RIAM,..) FBO District Teacher colleges International UN Institutions (UNICEF, UNIFEM…) DFID International organisations (World Vision, SCFI, CIDA, Care Int'l, VSO, Concern, AAIR…) EKN FBOs International orgs represented at local level APEFE Umurenge District VVOB meso BTCCTB micro FAWE SNV Education Team RIAM SNV Education Team Educatio n Cluster RIAM, CIDA, SNV, RAUW
Bridging the macro-micro divide At national level, supporting the Ministry of Education in policy development and implementation - Parent and teacher association policy - Joint Action Forum Education Subcommission policy - Girls education policy implementation - Non-government collaboration – NGO forum and NGO cluster
Bridging the macro–micro divide At meso level building capacity in District Education Directors - Support to improve functioning of JAFESC - Support to improve functioning of school management boards - Support to improve the functioning of PTAs
Outputs Outcomes Impact Inputs Activities SNV and other education stakeholders Capacity building of clients Data available Reports available Policies elaborated Improved client performanceImproved enabling environment Improved and applied management strategies Improved school board functioning Improved parent teacher association (PTA) participation Improved access to and quality of education for boys and girls Improved capacity in policy making Improved M&E tools available Improved girls education policy Improved PTA policy Improved NGO coordination at national and district levels Improved educational environment Wider access to education Improved quality of premises, teachers, teaching materials Improved motivation for boys and girls to learn and go to school
Outputs Outcomes Impact Improved client performance Positioning choice Primary education Improved participation of parents and teachers in decision making Quality M&E done in school Advice to improve functioning of PTAs Support to DEUs to organise school management Competences and quality of interventions of members improved SNV, LCBs, Partners Improved access for the poor Improved well being of the poor Yr. 1-2 Yr. 2-3 Inputs Support to DEUs to organise JAFESCs Support DEUs to organise PTA training program Improved quality of education Improved functioning of PTAs Quality school management organised Quality PTA training programs organised Support to Policy making in Mineduc Support to baseline data collection Dropout and repetition reduced, transition increased More educated boys and girls Quality of service delivery improved School Business Plans available Self reliance of schools realized JAFESCs operational Coordination of education interventions at District level Harmonization, synergy higher result of input Policies available in Mineduc Good functionin g of PTAs Girls education improved Specific issues on girls education addressed More girls complete primary and transit to secondary education Reliable databases available Good planning in schools Quality of and equity in education improved Support to Mineduc to organise NGO forums and clusters NGO forums and clusters operational Coordination of education interventions at National level Improved enabling environment
Importance of educating girls Improving womens literacy and the education of girls are basic to achievement of all Millennium Development Goals. Quality education will equip people with knowledge and skills needed to knowledge and skills - improve their lifestyle - enhance their job opportunities - protect themselves from diseases - take an active role in social, economic and political decision-making.