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The Significance of Education, ODL & ICTs to the People of Developing Nations Clayton R. Wright, PhD

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Presentation on theme: "The Significance of Education, ODL & ICTs to the People of Developing Nations Clayton R. Wright, PhD"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Significance of Education, ODL & ICTs to the People of Developing Nations Clayton R. Wright, PhD

2 UN Declaration 2 The Significance of Education, ODL & ICTs to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright Every person has a right to an education Article 26, 1948 C. R. Wright

3 Impact of Education Educated girls are less likely to marry or have children early; they are better able to protect themselves from HIV and AIDS, from sexual exploitation and abuse. 3 The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright Anthony Lake, UNICEF (2010, September 17). For children, education is almost everything. This Is Africa: A Global Perspective, C. R. Wright

4 Every year of secondary education, a girl or woman can attain will greatly increase her future income - sometimes by as much as 15%. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 4 Anthony Lake, UNICEF (2010, September 17). For children, education is almost everything. This Is Africa: A Global Perspective, C. R. Wright

5 If there is a one-year increase in tertiary education stock, the GDP would increase 0.63%. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 5 D. Bloom, D. Canning, and K. Chan, (2005, September). Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa, Harvard University, pages 3 & 29. Education is widely accepted as a leading instrument for promoting economic growth…

6 In summary, education and health increase human productivity, raise life expectancy and facilitate community life. They have major impact on economic growth and increase individual and collective wellbeing. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 6 Abdoulaye Diagne (2006, November 22-24). Investing in People: Education and Health, African Development Bank Seminar, Tunis, Tunisia, pages 3-4.

7 But, there is a problem… There is not enough funding to provide: clean drinking water; every child with healthy meals; latrines and basic health services; and train all the teachers needed; traditional school buildings; and adequate, reliable telecommunication and electrical infrastructures. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 7 C. R. Wright (2009, May). Response to Are ICTs the Best Educational Investment?, Ed Tech Debates, World Bank.

8 And… The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 8 Nicholas H. Allen, (2010, September1-3). Education for All: Access, Equity, Opportunity, Pretoria, South Africa. Globally, of those 20 or younger, 30 million are qualified to attend university, but there are no places for them. This number increases to 100 million by C. R. Wright

9 The world population is outstripping the capacity of existing academic institutions and those being planned. The Significance of Education, ODL & ICTs to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 9 C. R. Wright

10 Thus… In order to serve the number of youths qualified to enter university in 2020, a major university would need to be opened every week. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 10 Daniel E. Atkins, John Seely Brown & Allen L. Hammond (2007, February). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities - Report to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.

11 Potential Solutions? Implement : open and distance learning (ODL) information and communication technologies (ICTs) The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 11 African Virtual University

12 ODL is critical for development… and can be used to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Education for All (EFA). The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 12 Olugbemiro Jegede, (2010, September 13-15). ODL Policy in Africa: Perceptions, Realities and Challenges presented at the ICDE Standing Committee of Presidents, Pretoria, South Africa.

13 ODL and ICTs could: Provide greater and equitable access Train teachers Provide resources currently unavailable Improve literacy rates and ICT skills Help learners to obtain 21 st century skills Encourage community participation Support social mobilization Decrease funds needed to build schools The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 13

14 Successes in the developing world, examples African Virtual University Indira Gandhi National Open University University of South Africa Virtual University for Small States of the Commonwealth The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 14

15 Obstacles to overcome Lack of will Lack of acceptance of new methods, particularly learner- centred instruction The belief that ODL is second-rate education. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 15 C. R. Wright

16 Obstacles to overcome Resistance to change Lack of ODL and ICT policies that affect access, equity, quality, resource allocation, and infrastructure development Lack of sustained government support for initiatives The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 16 continued C. R. Wright

17 Obstacles to overcome Lack of fast, reliable internet access that not only supports education, but also e-business and e-governance Lack of funding The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 17 continued

18 Attitudinal shift Commitment Funding Quality The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 18

19 Lack of funding is always raised as the major stumbling block. But success can only occur if there is an attitudinal shift. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 19

20 Attitudinal Shift Education can be the driver of social and economic development. ODL and conventional face-to-face education can co-exist. The quality of ODL graduates can be equal to or better than face-to-face graduates. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 20 C. R. Wright

21 Attitudinal Shift Educators can and must learn to use ODL and ICTs effectively. Communities can play a key role in ODL and benefit from ODL and ICTs. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 21 Indira Gandhi Open University continued

22 Address lack of acceptance of ODL/ICTs: Discuss exemplary ODL institutions Note high profile individuals in the country who benefited from ODL Engage those who work in established ODL and ICT programs for management, development, and delivery advice The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 22

23 Address lack of acceptance of ODL/ICTs: Ensure ODL and ICT programs are relevant to students Provide adequate resources so that ODL is not perceived as second-rate Participate in the development of open educational resources with AVU, COL, TESSA… The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 23 continued

24 Address lack of acceptance of ODL/ICTs: Employ the same tutors and instructors in both traditional and distance programs Establish and maintain quality assurance systems The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 24 continued C.R. Wright

25 Implement policies that: Address the needs of rural students Provide support for jobs needed now and in the future – need a crystal ball? The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 25 Without restrictions, ingrain the right for everyone to access education Indira Gandhi Open University

26 Implement policies that: Support the co-existence of face-to-face instruction and ODL Incorporate intellectual property rights that foster the development and use of open educational resources (OERs) The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 26 © continued C. R. Wright

27 Implement policies that: Establish timelines and resources for expanding the electrical and telecommunications infrastructures Address cross-border education Provide sustainable funds for education The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 27 continued Egypt, Elaine Hoeskstra

28 Dept. of education must: be committed to ODL and ICT implementation; ensure that accessibility and equity are addressed; provide resources; adjust the curriculum; The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 28 C. R. Wright

29 Dept. of education must: train the instructors; provide effective, continuous professional development; ensure helpful learner support; maintain and support the technology; The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 29 Kyambogo University, UgandaIndira Gandhi Open University, India Freetown Teachers College, Sierra Leone continued

30 Dept. of education must: provide feasible and continuous assessments; adjust organizational policies; provide leadership that is flexible, open to new ideas, and willing to make decisions and take action; provide sustained support. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 30 C. R. Wright,. (2007, December 5). Technology Implementation in Developing Countries. Presentation to the National e-Learning Steering Committee (NeLSCOM) at the University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. continued

31 Funding needed for: Capital costs Operating Maintenance Software licenses Electrical & internet access Professional development Capital costs may only be 20%-30% of the real cost of implementation. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 31 Wayan Vota

32 If governments rely on external funding, what happens when funding expires? It is essential to build a sustainable financial structure and to do so before external funding expires. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 32

33 Save funds by… Using open educational resources Adopting and/or adapting materials Using a blended learning approach Collaborating within and beyond local educational communities ??? The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 33 Realize that there will never be enough funding! And, continued donations can lead to dependency.

34 Is it possible to: increase access, improve quality, and cut costs, all at the same time? The Significance of Education, ODL & ICTs to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 34 Sir John Daniel, (2010, October 14). The Commonwealth of Learning: How a small agency achieves development impact. Presentation for the Canadian International Development Agency, Ottawa, Canada. The Iron Triangle

35 Addressing quality Establish quality assurance systems for every facet of the educational operation The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 35 Indira Gandhi Open University

36 Addressing quality Conduct self-audits based on reliable instruments from other open institutions or organizations such as COL, European Foundation for Quality in eLearning (EFQUEL), ICDE, and UNESCO Involve external personnel in periodic quality audits The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 36 continued

37 Quality ODL/ICT materials: Are relevant to the learners and their communities Engage and motivate the learner Require learners to search, compile, analyze, interpret and apply data from local and distant communities The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 37 C. R. Wright

38 Quality ODL/ICT materials: Encourage critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving Provide opportunities for practice and knowledge transfer Offer timely, constructive, relevant, and frequent feedback The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 38 continued C. R. Wright

39 Quality ODL/ICT materials: Demand that learners interact with it, with their peers, and their community Link learners to home and community Provide links to resources beyond the content and the learners communities The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 39 C. R. Wright continued

40 There may be many challenges to implementing ODL and/or ICT programs, but the key to success may be collaboration among: people, institutions, countries, regions, and international agencies. The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 40

41 Is waiting necessary? Must everyone have clean drinking water, enough food to eat, suitable shelter, and a disease-free environment before they can have an education? The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 41 C. R. Wright

42 Is waiting necessary? Perhaps an education will enable them to have clean drinking water, food, shelter, and a healthy environment. Which comes first education or …? The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 42 C. R. Wright

43 Should everyone have a bicycle before anyone can have a car? The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 43 C. R. Wright (2010, August 3). Response to Laptops for Education: $10, $35, $100 and Points in Between (but not above!), EduTech, World Bank.

44 By implementing ODL and ICTs, who knows who you might help, sooner rather than later! The Significance of Education to the People of Developing Nations, C. R. Wright 44 C. R. Wright

45 Thank you! Clayton R. Wright, PhD Feedback is always welcomed!


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