Presentation on theme: "GENERAL STRUCTURE of TURKISH EDUCATION SYSTEM. New Education System in Turkey which has been called the 4+4+4 system started in 2012. This system extends."— Presentation transcript:
GENERAL STRUCTURE of TURKISH EDUCATION SYSTEM
New Education System in Turkey which has been called the 4+4+4 system started in 2012. This system extends compulsory schooling from 8 years to 12 years. We also see the change in the starting age for children attending school. Up until children used to start school at around 80 months or between 6 ½ to 7 years. The age for starting school has been lowered to 66 months.
Education in Turkey is governed by a national system MONE (Ministry of National Education). The National Education System consists of two main parts, namely formal education and non-formal education. Administrative legislation and supervision related to formal and non-formal education(except for higher education) is performed by MONE. Educational activities in provinces are organised by the İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü(Provincial Directorate of Education). They are organised in districts by the İlçe Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü( District Directorate of Education).
Non-formal Education sevices at all educational levels are provided substantially (more than 90%) by the public education institutions. Private education institutions also exist. Supervision of educational institutions is carried out at both central and regional(local and provicial )level. Higher education isntitutions are autonomous for purposes of education and research. However, they have to submit annual reports to Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu- YÖK (Higher Education Council)
Formal and Non-Formal Education The basic structure of the National Education system is outlined by the Basic Law. The educational system is divided into two main sections as Formal Education Non-Formal Education.
In Formal Education: The basic education program includes Turkish language and literature, mathematics, social studies, science, civics and human rights, the history of the Turkish Republic and Atatürk's reforms, a foreign language (English, French or German), individual and group activities, religious culture and ethics, art/handicraft, music, physical education, traffic safety and first aid, career guidance, and optional courses. In primary schools, students are graded on a scale of 1-5 (maximum), with 2 being the minimum passing grade (equivalent to 45/100)
In Formal Education: 32-72 months: Kindergardens, nursery classes begin. School attendance is not compulsory. 5 years old: Primary School (ilkokul) begins. School attendance compulsory. 9 years old: Secondary School (orta okul) begins. Students asked to make pathway choices. School attendance compulsory. 12 years old: Upper Secondary School (lise) begins. Distance education, is an option. 17 yrs-- : Higher Eductaion starts.
Pre-Primary education Pre-Primary education includes the optional education of children between 36-72 month who are under the age of compulsory primary education. Pre-Primary education institutions, independent nurseries are opened as nursery classes and practical classes within formal and non-formal education institutions. The purpose of Pre-Primary education is to ensure physical, mental and sensory development of children and the acquisition of good habits, to prepare children for primary education, to create a common atmosphere of growth for those living in inconvenient circumstances and to ensure that Turkish is spoken correct and well.
Primary education The purpose of primary education is to ensure that every Turkish child acquires the basic knowledge, skills, behaviors, and habits to become a good citizen, is raised in line with the national moral concepts and is prepared for life and for the next education level parallel to his/her interests and skills. Primary education is compulsory for all citizens, boys or girls, and is given free of charge in public schools. Primary education institutions are schools that provide 8 years of uninterrupted education, at the end of which graduates receive a primary education diploma.
Secondary education After primary education, according to their wish they may choose to study at; General High Schools Vocational High Schools Anatolian High schools Science High schools.
The following subjects are a part of the core curriculum at all secondary schools: Turkish Language and Literature Religious Culture and Ethics History Geography Mathematics Physics Chemistry Biology Health Foreign *Language Physical Education Military Science History of the Turkish Revolution and the Reforms of Atatürk Philosophy
Higher Education Higher education institutions in Turkey consist of ; Universities, Military and police colleges and academies, Vocational higher schools, Conservatoires. At the end of high school, following the 12th grade, students take the National University Entrance Examination to continue their studies at a university or a two year school. This examination divided in 2 different examinations. According to their exam scores, they can choose faculty which they want to study another meaning that which occupation they want to choose and study for future.
The university is the principal higher education institution. There are 94 public and 38 private universities in Turkey. The university possesses academic autonomy and a public legal status. It is responsible for carrying out high level educational activities, scientific research and publications.
As mentioned before, admission to higher education is centralized and based on the nation-wide examination administrated by the Student Selection and Placement Center (ÖSYM) within the Higher Education Council every year.
Approximately 1.600 000 students enter the university examination per year in Turkiye. 630.000 students get a chance to enroll any faculty, four or two - year college and open university according to their points. Capacities of Universities in 2012 Two-Year Colleges : 250.000 students Faculties and Four-Year Colleges : 270.000 students Open University Two-Year+ Four-Year Colleges:600.000 students Unlike the earlier educational levels, students have to pay a fee of approximately 100-350 US Dollars per year at public higher education facilities.
Non- formal Education: Services given by non-formal education are: to teach reading-writing, to provide continuing education opportunities for students to finish their incomplete education to provide education opportunities that shall facilitate the students' adaptation to scientific, technologic, economic, social and cultural developments to give education that protects, improves, introduces and comprises our national cultural values.
to facilitate advancement of science and technology, to finalize the researches and examinations demanded by the government and to make comments, to make written or oral public announcements explaining the scientific data that shall increase the general level of Turkish society and enlighten the public, and to give non-formal education. to help students acquire the concepts and habits of collective living, supporting, helping, working and organizing collectively
to provide opportunities that shall ensure acquisition of professions in line with the economic development and employment policy to teach people from various professions the knowledge and skills they need to improve themselves to provide the habit of using one's free time in a useful way.
Non-fromal Education Institutions: Public training centers Apprenticeship training centers Practical schools of art for girls Vocational education centers Technical training centers for adults Education and application schools Private classes Private courses Industrial practical schools of art Science and art centers Open primary education Open high schools Vocational and technical open schools
Shortly, As a second opportunity education, a- Non-formal education covers education for those - who have never had education - who left without achieving a qualification and education - who are still attending formal education for in particular subjects b- Non-formal education activities are offered out-of-school in order - to teach adults how to read and write, - to provide them basic knowledge, - to develop knowledge and skills already acquired, and - to create new opportunities for improving individuals standard of living.
Educational activities take place mainly in Public Education Centers throughout the country. Literacy courses, vocational courses, socio-cultural courses and socio-cultural practices are offered to citizens of all ages and education levels in these centers. Education activities organized outside the formal education are carried out in 966 public education centers in Turkey.