Presentation on theme: "Bill Stout, Ed.D.. To provide all students with the skills, attitudes, and knowledge needed to function within their community cultures, within and across."— Presentation transcript:
To provide all students with the skills, attitudes, and knowledge needed to function within their community cultures, within and across other ethnic cultures.
In the 19 th century, most immigrants came from Europe. Today, most immigrants come from nations in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. It is the largest influx of immigrants since the 1900s.
It is projected the Hispanic population will grow by 187.9 percent between 2000 and 2050. White population 32.4 212.9 percent for Asians 71.3 for African Americans (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000)
Minorities constitute the majority of students in more than 20 of the countrys largest school systems The average achievement of minority students is lower than their European- American peers Minority children are disproportionately referred to programs for children with learning disabilities, mental handicaps, and emotional and behavioral disorders
If you could fit the entire population of the world into a village consisting of 100 people, maintaining the proportions of all the people living on Earth, that village would consist of: 57 Asians 21 Europeans 14 Americans (North, Central and South) 8 Africans
There would be: 52 women and 48 men 30 Caucasians and 70 non-Caucasians 30 Christians and 70 non-Christians 89 heterosexuals and 11 homosexuals
6 people would possess 59% of the wealth and they would all come from the USA 80 would live in poverty 70 would be illiterate 50 would suffer from hunger and malnutrition 1 would be dying 1 would own an computer 1 (yes, only one) would have a university degree
If we looked at the world in this way, the need for acceptance and understanding would be obvious.
In making multicultural education a reality in schools, a change process may need to take place. Dr. Jody Spiro in her book, The Leader Change Handbook: Concepts and Trends, gives us insight into the change process.
Action steps to be considered in the change process: Be clear and specific as to the desired outcome Start from where you are and analyze all stakeholders Build in an early win Anticipate resistance Use collaborative planning Build in on-going monitoring
Lack of awareness of services Reluctance on the part of the students to communicate their needs to others A lack of classmate acceptance A general suspicion that culturally diverse students are being deceptive about their needs
Banks (1999) described the following as characteristics of multicultural schools (p. 17) 1. The teachers and school administrators have high expectations for all students and positive attitudes toward them. They also respond to them in positive ways. 2. The formalized curriculum reflects the experiences, cultures, and perspectives of a range of cultural and ethnic groups as well as both genders.
3. The teaching styles used by the teachers match the learning, cultural, and motivational styles of the students. 4. The teachers and administrators show respect for the students first languages and dialects. 5. The instructional materials used in the school show events, situations, and concepts from the perspectives of a range of cultural, ethnic, and racial groups.
6. The assessment and testing procedures used in the school are culturally sensitive and result in students of color being represented proportionately in class for the gifted and talented. 7. The school culture and the hidden curriculum reflect cultural and ethnic diversity 8. The school counselors have high expectations for students from different racial, ethnic, and language groups and help these students to set and realize positive career goals.
Time Work Goals Space Dress and Food Rituals and Ceremonies Leisure Gender Roles Status Education Interaction Communication
A growing number of students entering school are learning English as a second language Teachers hold four common misconceptions about how to reach these students Exposure and interaction will result in English language learning All ELLs learn in the same way and rate Good teaching for native learners and ELLs are the same Effective instruction means non-verbal support
Minority students language and culture are incorporated in the school program Minority community participation is encouraged Instruction is used to motivate students to use language actively to generate knowledge Professionals involved in student testing are advocates for minority students Academic problems are located outside of the student instead of within the student
School policy and attitudes School staff School culture Formalized curriculum Assessment and teaching procedures Instructional materials Learning styles for the school Teaching styles and strategies Language and dialects of the school Counseling program Community participation and input
Understanding U.S. Macroculture (Banks & Banks, 1995) Equality of opportunities for individuals in society Individualism Social Mobility through individual effort and hard work Individualistic attitudes toward values and behaviors Belief in nations superiority Orientation towards materialism
1. Do the lesson content and strategies promote educational equity? For example, does the lesson content help to create an inclusive curriculum, one that attempts to maximize student participation in the overall class curriculum? 2. Do the lesson content and strategies make us of, or help to develop, collaborative, empowering relationships among parents, students, and teacher? 3. Do the lesson content and strategies promote cultural pluralism in society or intergroup harmony in the classroom?
4. Does the lesson content help to increase the students knowledge of various cultural and ethnic groups, including their own? 5. Do the lesson content and strategies increase the students proclivity and ability to see and think with a multicultural perspective? 6. Does the lesson content (a) help to correct distortions in the historical, literary, or scientific record that may stem from the historical racism or other forces linked to the oppression and exploitation of specific ethnic and cultural groups, and (b) present material in a manner that suggests that racism related distortions are or may be part of the historical and scientific record the class is studying?
7. Does the lesson content provide knowledge or skills, or promote attitudinal development, that will leave the students better equipped and more inclined to participate in, help improve the democratic institutions of their society? 8. Does the lesson content contribute to the students willingness to cross ethnic and cultural boundaries to participate and/or learn about different cultural ethnic groups?
Develop cultural consciousness Be aware of your cultural background Develop cultural variability Set high expectations Resist the blame game Reflect on teaching practices Gather information about students Understand first and second language acqusition Understand the interaction among language, culture, and disability Respect students cultural background Use integrated approach to instruction Build trust Use a variety of instructional strategies
Alternative test formats Extended time Alternative access to oral and written material, and course substitutions Work with the student and ask what accommodations they had in the past and which ones worked the best Take time at the beginning to develop a rapport with the student you will be working with…get to know the student
Encourage the students to highlight directions Make lists of important facts Use index cards (summarize chapter sections) Highlight key terms/phrases in the chapters Teach the student to recopy their class notes before the end of the day Break reports into smaller sections
Develop a homework schedule Encourage the student to ask a peer if they could make a copy of their class notes Help the student make an outline of the chapter When giving explanations/reviewing the assignments, give one direction at a time (need time to process the request and their answer)
Keep instructions simple Ask the student to repeat the directions Be concrete when giving examples Talk to the student, not down to the students
1.2 Connects content to life experiences of student. 2.2Uses contextual data to design instruction relevant to students. 2.4Plans instructional strategies and activities that address learning objectives for all students. 3.3Values and supports student diversity and addresses individual needs. 4.2Implements instruction based on diverse student needs and assessment data.
5.4Describes, analyzes, and evaluates student performance data to determine progress of individuals and identify differences in progress among student groups. 6.3Integrates student use of available technology into instruction to enhance learning outcomes and meet diverse student needs. 8.1Identifies students whose learning could be enhanced by collaboration.
Banks, James A. (2008). An Introduction to Multicultural Education (pp. 91 – 93). Boston, MA: Pearson. Burnette, Jane, & Warger, Cynthia (August 2000). Five Strategies to Reduce Overrepresentation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education. Council for Exceptional Children. Retrieved August 8, 2009 from: http://www.cec.sped.org http://www.cec.sped.org Language Support for Students in the Home and in School. The Education Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2009 from : http://www.alliance.brown.eduhttp://www.alliance.brown.edu New Strategies to Help Diverse Students Succeed. Council for Exceptional Children. Retrieved August 8, 2009 from: http://www.cec.sped.orghttp://www.cec.sped.org Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students. Teacher Vision. Retrieved August 8, 2009 from: http://teachervision.fen.comhttp://teachervision.fen.com
www.eric.hoagiestgifted.org/Strategieswww.eric.hoagiestgifted.org/Strategies to reduce overrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/resources/Strategieswww.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods/resources/Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students www.maec.org.instprac.htmlwww.maec.org.instprac.html. Effective Instructional Practices for Language Minority Students. www.ericdigests.org/pre-9220/problems/empoweringwww.ericdigests.org/pre-9220/problems/empowering culturally and linguistically diverse students with learning problems