Presentation on theme: "Higher Education: Aptitude Based Admissions BY Nidhi Verma & Ajay Singh."— Presentation transcript:
Higher Education: Aptitude Based Admissions BY Nidhi Verma & Ajay Singh
What is Higher Education? Higher education, post-secondary education, tertiary education or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education. Higher education is delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology. Higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
Higher Education includes Teaching, research and exacting applied work. Higher education can be in the fields of Liberal Arts, Medical, Engineering, Commerce, Vocational Arts etc. India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, next to the United States and China. The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission, which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Govt. has introduced a scheme Rashtriya Uchattar Shiksha Abhiyan to improve the quality of higher education.
The Rashtriya Uchattar Shiksha Abhiyan is a centrally sponsored flagship umbrella scheme aimed at providing strategic funding to State higher and technical institutions. States will develop comprehensive state higher education plans that utilize an interconnected strategy to address issues of expansion, equity and excellence together. Despite of the efforts of Govt., the higher education system of India is not yielding fruition of expected level.
It has also been mentioned by our worthy Prime Minister that : Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts in the country, higher education enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 per cent of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of vice- chancellors, have been politicized and have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favoritism and corruption. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007
Higher Education is primarily oriented to enhance excellence expertise and specialized knowledge in various fields. For this, it is essential to screen the admission seekers in higher education courses psychologically. Particularly in India, it can be observed in general that even after getting higher education in a particular field e.g. medical sciences, people are shifting to other jobs. To me, to enroll the right persons in higher education courses the candidates should be assessed with various psychological measures such as personality, Intelligence, Motivation, Interests and Aptitudes.
PERSONALITY : conceptually is a set of characteristics or dispositions which determine a persons characteristics behavior across the situation. Among the factors of personality, two factors have been found to be highly relevant in academic achievement in higher education namely Openness and Conscientiousness (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Diseth, 2003; Piedmont, 1998). Openness: McCrae and John (1992) described people high in openness as being artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, original, and as having wide interests. Numerous studies have found openness to be a major correlate of academic achievement and success (Asendorph & Van Aken, 2003; Blickle, 1996; De Raad & Schouwenburg, 1996; Paunonen & Ashton, 2001), and learning motivation (Tempelaar, Gijselaers, Schim Van Der Loeff, & Nijhuis, 2007).
CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: Individuals high in conscientiousness are typically efficient, organized, reliable, responsible, persistent, thorough, and goal directed. Digman (1989) indicated that conscientiousness is the one of the big-five model that is most closely linked to a will to achieve. INTELLIGENCE: There is a huge literature regarding relationship between Intelligence and academic achievement. The early researches has pointed out the positive relationship between general intelligence across the domains such as humanities, commerce and science etc.
More recently, Sternberg has pointed out the three aspects of Intelligence which combinedly contribute to overall success in academic fields i.e. (1). Analytical Intelligence – contributes in academic achievement in theoretical papers where as (2).Creative Intelligence contributes in the enhancement of excellence in research & innovations. (3) Practical or Successful Intelligence contributes in making a person adapted to various learning contexts as well as occupational domains. So, researchers have revealed that one who seeks admission in higher education courses should be high in all the three types of Intelligence.
MOTIVATION: Sometimes it is observed that despite having high level of Intelligence, the students cannot excel in academic achievements of higher educational courses. Based on researches it implies that it is the MOTIVATION that makes a person to invest ones Intelligence in a particular academic field. Operationally, motivational variables can be placed in two groups pointing to 2 types of motivation : (1). Intrinsic motivation or Self –regulated motivation. (2) Extrinsic motivation or reward based motivation.
Intrinsic Motivation : Refers to motives which originates from within the individual. Researches have revealed that those who are high on intrinsic motivation are more oriented to self regulated learning. Students with Intrinsic motivation learn to self monitor guide & arrange their learning process and consequently they perform higher in academic pursuits in higher education.
On the other hand, extrinsic motivation may be more important in school academic achievement but it is not so much relevant in higher education because extrinsically motivated students are unable to use appropriate learning strategies such as organisation of time, effort, control & regulation of physical learning environment. Hence, it can be concluded that student who tend to have self-regulated learning ( Intrinsic motivation) are usually more successful than who do not. Achievement Motivation ( tendency to achieve par excellence is also relevant for higher education.)
Interests : Interest predict the choices that learners make about where & how intensively to focus attention, whether to engage in any activity and the intensity of concentration or persistence in that engagement. Interests also describes a psychological state of positive effect related to the performance of particular task i.e. How much the learner enjoys studying a particular subject or course. For e.g. the student with literary interest, scientific interest, fine arts, sports can excel in the fields of literature science & technology, creative art work and sports respectively.
Aptitude: Aptitude is a group of dispositions, skills or capacities which makes a person appropriate in a particular area. An Aptitude is a combination of characteristics indicative of an individuals capacity to acquire with training. Aptitude in reality is potentiality for activity for specialize type within a restricted range. Aptitude is not a measure of success in that area but if training is given with aptitude then success is certain.
There can be different kinds of depending upon the areas or types of tasks : Mechanical Aptitude. Medical Aptitude. Scientific Aptitude. Fine arts Aptitude Teaching Aptitude Musical Aptitude Literary Aptitude Clerical Aptitude Verbal Aptitude etc.
Some of the examples of Aptitudes test are : Mechanical Aptitude : This test consists of pictures depicting some situation or activity where some mechanical and physical laws come in to play.The test demands an understanding of simple physical laws and is a measure of ability to perceive simple mechanical relationship. Clerical Speed and Accuracy : This is purely a speed test which is an important factor in routine clerical work. It measures speed of perception, momentary retention and speed of response and involves only little intellectual complexity.
Space Relations : This is a test which assesses the ability for occupations where structural visualization is an important requirement such as Architecture, Civil Engineering, interior designing etc. Thus, we can conclude that aptitudes are very important factor in determining performance in higher education. There could be number of other factors which plays an important role in higher education but Indian higher education system should also pay attention on certain psychological factors such as Personality Motivation, Interests and aptitudes while admitting students in to various courses.
This will certainly leads in minimization of dropouts and will help in enhancing success graph of students as well as higher education.