Presentation on theme: "Religion, Education, and Medicine. Discussion Outline – Three interconnected institutions that help society meet its basic needs I. Religion II. Education."— Presentation transcript:
Discussion Outline – Three interconnected institutions that help society meet its basic needs I. Religion II. Education III. Medicine – Institution?
I. Religion What is religion? What is the purpose of religion? – Why might it be hard for some sociologists to study religion according to Max Weber?
Global View of Religious Behavior Religious behavior varies across Societies: complex and difficult to categorize – 1. Simple supernaturalism – 2. Animism – 3. Theism – 4. Abstract Ideals
Durkheims contributions to the study of religion – The sacred and the profane (secular) – How can something be both sacred and profane?
Major World Religions The largest Religious group in the world is Christians, followed by Muslims If the worlds population was represented as an imaginary village of 100 people there would be: – 33 Christians – 21 Muslims – 16 non religious individuals (Agnostic or atheist) – 14 Hindus – 6 Buddhists – 6 Chinese Universalists – 4 Believers in another religion (Judaism, Sikhism, etc)
Religion in Contemporary U.S. Life The Secularization Thesis-The debate – Overall people have remained religious, but religion has less influence over education and government – Religiosity-The ways that people demonstrate their religious beliefs The Religious Marketplace – The most common reasons people change religion: Not believing in teachings Seeing religious people as hypocritical or judgmental Losing respect for religious leaders who focus on power and money
State-Church Issues – The First Amendment Religion and Morality – Issues?
Religion and Theory The Functionalist Perspective – The importance of religion The Conflict Perspective – Marx and Religion Religion as a weapon Religion is the opiate of the people
II. Education in America Thomas Jefferson, an advocate and pioneer of the American educational system, believed that education is important to promoting active citizenship and a democratic self- government. What did he mean? – What is the purpose of education?
Education Education system The Bureaucratic Structure of Schools – Characteristics of American Schools
Characteristics of Education in the U.S. Education as a Conserving Force – Schools indoctrinate students in the culturally prescribed ways. Mass Education – Many students attend school for the wrong reason.
Characteristics of Education in the U.S. Preoccupation with Order and Control A Fragmented Education System – Private – Homeschooling – Charter – Vouchers
Characteristics of Education in the U.S. Local Control of Education – Financing of schools through local taxes – Intrusion of religious views of the majority Sifting and Sorting Function of Schools
Education and Theory The Functionalist Perspective? Symbolic Interactionism? Educational Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
Sociological Theories of Education Conflict – Educational institution solidifies class positions and allows the elite to control the masses. – Quality education and educational opportunities are not equally distributed. – Education provides indoctrination into the capitalist ideology.
III. Medicine Health Care in The United States Is health care in the U.S. truly: …unjust, corrupt, inefficient, irrelevant, too expensive, and too often harming people As suggested by Stanford physician and other critics (pg 376 of textbook)? What are some of the problems related to U.S. health care? – Do you have positive or negative experiences?
Problems in American Health Care Inadequate Health Insurance Coverage The High Cost of Health Care U.S. World Rankings Unequal access to health care The politics of Health Reform and influence of Private Industry
Inadequate Health Insurance Coverage 2010: 50 Million Americans Uninsured – 700,000 bankruptcies a year due to medical bills – How many bankruptcies occur per year due to med bills in France? Germany? Japan? Britain?
U.S World Rankings The U.S. spends 50% more per capita on health care than any other country. The U.S. ranks 47 th in average life expectancy. The U.S. ranks last among 23 wealthy countries in its infant mortality rate. The U.S. ranks 54 th out of 191 countries in terms of the fairness of its health care system. The World Health Organization ranked the U.S. 37 th out of 191 countries in Overall Health Care (From Eitzen and Baca, Social Problems (2012))
Unequal Access to Health Care Social Class – The poor are more likely to suffer from certain types of diseases and illnesses, receive inferior medical service, and less likely to use preventive medicine. Medicaid helps, yet it is often the working poor and their families who do not qualify Race – Life expectancy – Infant mortality – Maternal mortality – Prenatal care – Low birth weight – Cancer and other diseases
U.S. Health Care Reform? The U.S. is the only country in the industrialized world that does not guarantee health care to its citizens. – Health care is rationed in United States on the ability to pay – In all other industrialized nations there is a mechanism for guaranteeing health care to all citizens. Many industrialized nations provide national health care, or Universal health care, which is also known as socialized medicine
Reforming the Health Care System In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt proposed a national health insurance plan, and since then, many presidential administrations have sought health care for all citizens – In 2009, the majority (61%) of U.S. adults was in favor of the government guaranteeing health coverage to all citizens, even if it meant higher taxes.
Application: Canadas Health Care System Federal proposal-The National Health Insurance Act-Expand Medicare to every U.S. resident – Creates a single payer health care system-a tax financed public insurance program that replaces private insurance companies National health insurance card for all citizens-covers all medical services with no co-payments or deductibles and would see doctor of choice. – What are the primary barriers?
What stands in the way of reform to a broken system?
Barriers to Reform The Insurance Industry is in great opposition to reform – Interest groups have spent hundreds of millions on televisions ads, lobbying, and campaign contributions to combat against reforms. – (1.5 million recently went to the chairman of the Senate Finance Committee) – In 2009 there were 3,098 health-sector lobbyists. Reconstruction of the social problem using misinformation and the media-Critical Constructionism
Barriers to Reform The Politics of Health Reform-Partisan issues – Government should be involved in the health care system (Democrats). – The marketplace should dictate the health care system (Republicans).
Reforming the Health Care System The Obama Plan – Everyone must have insurance. – Government will subsidize those with low income. – Individuals may keep their current plan. – Private plans will compete for business. – Individuals cannot be denied for a preexisting medical condition. – Millions uninsured will become insured.
Reforming the Health Care System Obamacare is not socialist. – A public option was not included; health care is a mostly private system.