Presentation on theme: "TRACKING GLOBAL CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION Perry L"— Presentation transcript:
1TRACKING GLOBAL CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION Perry L TRACKING GLOBAL CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION Perry L. Glanzer, Baylor University Joel C. Carpenter, Calvin College Nick Lantinga, IAPCHE & Susheila Williams, Bishop Appasamy College
2The Aim of this Presentation To present the findings from our efforts to compile the first global database of Christian higher education institutions.To suggest some trends in global Christian higher education based on our findings.
3Initial FrameworkSecularization and nationalization of Christian higher education occurred at a global level (Arthur 2006).Latin America: University of Mexico and University of San Marcos in PeruAfrica: Fourah Bay College and Gordon Memorial CollegeAsia: E.g., China: Yanjing University in Beijing, St Johns University in Shanghai, Jinling University in NanjingHowever, the secularization of higher education has proven uneven and sporadic. In addition, the factors driving secularization prove more complex than the original theories suggest (Smith 2003; Arthur 2006, Glanzer 2010).
4Initial FrameworkBased on preliminary findings predictions of the decline and demise of religious colleges have generally been proven false. The growth and creation of religious colleges in North America and around the world continues (Arthur 2006; Carpenter 2006; Ringenberg 2006).Little scholarly attention has been given to the worldwide growth of Christian higher education.A database of Christian institutions of higher education is needed to further knowledge of global Christian higher education.
5Our Method: Defining “Christian” Excluded Secularized Church-Related InstitutionsNo attempt to link the religious identity to the mission (e.g., Wake Forest University)Identification with Christianity is merely historical (e.g., Princeton)State-funded schools with church-related theology departments (e.g., many European U’s)Used Benne’s Typology (2001) to distinguish between church-related schools that see the “Christian vision as the organizing paradigm” and church-related schools that use “secular sources as the organizing paradigm”
6Criteria for Deciding Borderline Cases 1. Institutional mission and identity descriptions 2. Marketing 3. Public rhetoric from the President 4. Required Bible or Theology courses (as opposed to general religion courses) 5. University sponsored Christian worship 6. Distinctive moral expectations for students 7. Some effort to hire Christian staff and faculty.
7Definition of “College” or “University” Institutions that are the equivalent of Carnegie classification baccalaureate colleges, master’s colleges and universities, and doctoral-granting universities.Did not include special focus institutions, such as seminaries, teachers colleges or schools of engineering and technology or associate’s colleges.They must offer majors in at least two distinct areas of study beyond those related to church vocations (e.g., theology, Biblical studies, church music, and Christian/Church education).
8Definition of “College” or “University” Did not include colleges within universities that only refer to disciplinary units (e.g., college of arts and sciences) or residential collegesWe did include colleges that exist in affiliation with larger universities and come under that university’s jurisdiction (e.g., certain institutions in the UK and India).
9METHOD Gathered basic data using various web sites. 1) year began, 2) denominational affiliation, 3) mission statement; 4) enrollment, 5) courses of study and degree programs, 6) language of instruction, 7) financial sources (e.g., private, government, etc.), and 8) Christian college organizational partnershipsAdministered an survey that confirmed the data’s accuracy and asked two broader questions:Please describe how the Christian identity of your university influences its perspectives and practices.In what ways do you expect the faculty and students of your institution to participate in its Christian mission?
10ResultsFor Full list of results and details about the institutions see: and click “research”
11FINDINGS Over 1079 Christian higher education institutions. 538 Catholic institutions526 Protestant institutions13 Eastern Orthodox institutions2 Syrian Church institutions
12Institutions by Region Number of InstitutionsAfrica66Asia254Europe61Latin America135Middle East9North America483Oceania71
21Secularization and Nationalization Thirteen Catholic institutions started before 1700 still maintain their Catholic identity in some form.All Christian institutions that originated between 1700 and 1850 in Europe and Latin America have secularized.Hypothesis: This trend is largely due to the secularization of nation-states and national institutions of higher education that were previously religiousThe secularization exception: Some Asian institutions have retained a Christian identity over time.
22Uneven Developments—A time of secularization for old U.S. and European institutions (e.g., Marsden 1994; Burtchaell 1998)Yet, it was still a period of remarkable creativity in other regionsAsia: 112 new institutionsLatin America: 43 new institutionsNorth America: 51 new institutions: The post-communist era86 new institutions created50 in Africa15 in Eastern Europe
23The Resilience of Catholic Institutions Catholic institutions are better able to sustain their religious identity over time (all 13 pre 1700 institutions are Catholic)Likely due to:centralized ecclesiastical authorityability to act over and above political authoritiesCreative role of religious orders
24The Dearth of Eastern Orthodox Institutions Eastern Orthodox churches are less involved in higher education: Likely due to:History of separate institutionsHistory of subservience to the stateHistory of hostile rulers (e.g., Muslims, Communists)Views of science and the integration of faith and learningNo religious ordersSee also Glanzer and Petrenko 2007
25The Growth of Sectarian Protestant Institutions Denominations with the largest number of Protestant institutions outside the U.S. and Canada have never been state- sponsored churches and tend to be more sectarian.Seventh-Day Adventists (42)Evangelicals (37)Methodist/Wesleyan (22)
26The State and Protestant Higher Ed Hypothesis: State sponsorship inhibited the ability of Protestant churches to sustain the identity of their higher education institutions.E.g., There are more Lutheran and Presbyterian institutions in Latin America than in Europe.E.g., There are also more Anglican colleges engaged in overtly Christian higher education in Africa than in England.
27Funding: State or Independent? Many new Christian colleges in Africa, Asia and Europe are independently fundedE.g., Almost all African institutions are independently fundedE.g., Asia: 28 institutions in Japan; 16 in Indonesia;E.g., Oceania: 43 in PhilippinesSome exceptions: India and South Korea—mixed sources of funding
28Funding: State or Independent? Even European religious schools are largely privately funded:31 independently funded17 mixed sources of funding5 state fundedOverall, independent funding appears to be closely linked with maintaining the religious identity of Christian colleges and universities (e.g., Catholic University of Lublin).
29Old and New Trends Old trend that still continues: Colleges began as missionary endeavors or Bible schoolsThey later expanded their programsNew trend:Colleges began as professional or technical schoolsExpand their offeringsFewer Christian institutions operate as traditional universities
30Possible Areas for Future Research Expand database to include all religious colleges worldwideStudy rate of secularization compared to rate of creation of new religious collegesExplore country, region or time-specific factors that lead to secularization or growthIs there a global surge in religious higher education? (e.g., the growth of Muslim institutions in Africa and Russia)