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TRACKING GLOBAL CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION Perry L

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1 TRACKING GLOBAL CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION Perry L
TRACKING GLOBAL CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION Perry L. Glanzer, Baylor University Joel C. Carpenter, Calvin College Nick Lantinga, IAPCHE & Susheila Williams, Bishop Appasamy College

2 The Aim of this Presentation
To present the findings from our efforts to compile the first global database of Christian higher education institutions. To suggest some trends in global Christian higher education based on our findings.

3 Initial Framework Secularization and nationalization of Christian higher education occurred at a global level (Arthur 2006). Latin America: University of Mexico and University of San Marcos in Peru Africa: Fourah Bay College and Gordon Memorial College Asia: E.g., China: Yanjing University in Beijing, St Johns University in Shanghai, Jinling University in Nanjing However, the secularization of higher education has proven uneven and sporadic. In addition, the factors driving secularization prove more complex than the original theories suggest (Smith 2003; Arthur 2006, Glanzer 2010).

4 Initial Framework Based on preliminary findings predictions of the decline and demise of religious colleges have generally been proven false. The growth and creation of religious colleges in North America and around the world continues (Arthur 2006; Carpenter 2006; Ringenberg 2006). Little scholarly attention has been given to the worldwide growth of Christian higher education. A database of Christian institutions of higher education is needed to further knowledge of global Christian higher education.

5 Our Method: Defining “Christian”
Excluded Secularized Church-Related Institutions No attempt to link the religious identity to the mission (e.g., Wake Forest University) Identification with Christianity is merely historical (e.g., Princeton) State-funded schools with church-related theology departments (e.g., many European U’s) Used Benne’s Typology (2001) to distinguish between church-related schools that see the “Christian vision as the organizing paradigm” and church-related schools that use “secular sources as the organizing paradigm”

6 Criteria for Deciding Borderline Cases
1. Institutional mission and identity descriptions 2. Marketing 3. Public rhetoric from the President 4. Required Bible or Theology courses (as opposed to general religion courses) 5. University sponsored Christian worship 6. Distinctive moral expectations for students 7. Some effort to hire Christian staff and faculty.

7 Definition of “College” or “University”
Institutions that are the equivalent of Carnegie classification baccalaureate colleges, master’s colleges and universities, and doctoral-granting universities. Did not include special focus institutions, such as seminaries, teachers colleges or schools of engineering and technology or associate’s colleges. They must offer majors in at least two distinct areas of study beyond those related to church vocations (e.g., theology, Biblical studies, church music, and Christian/Church education).

8 Definition of “College” or “University”
Did not include colleges within universities that only refer to disciplinary units (e.g., college of arts and sciences) or residential colleges We did include colleges that exist in affiliation with larger universities and come under that university’s jurisdiction (e.g., certain institutions in the UK and India).

9 METHOD Gathered basic data using various web sites.
1) year began, 2) denominational affiliation, 3) mission statement; 4) enrollment, 5) courses of study and degree programs, 6) language of instruction, 7) financial sources (e.g., private, government, etc.), and 8) Christian college organizational partnerships Administered an survey that confirmed the data’s accuracy and asked two broader questions: Please describe how the Christian identity of your university influences its perspectives and practices. In what ways do you expect the faculty and students of your institution to participate in its Christian mission?

10 Results For Full list of results and details about the institutions see: and click “research”

11 FINDINGS Over 1079 Christian higher education institutions.
538 Catholic institutions 526 Protestant institutions 13 Eastern Orthodox institutions 2 Syrian Church institutions

12 Institutions by Region
Number of Institutions Africa 66 Asia 254 Europe 61 Latin America 135 Middle East 9 North America 483 Oceania 71

13 Growth Rate (1900-2009): North America

14 Oceania (includes Indonesia and Philippines)

15 Growth Rate ( ): Asia

16 Growth Rate (1900-2009): Europe

17 Growth Rate (1900-2009): Latin America

18 Africa (1900-2009): Growth Rate

19 Founding Dates of Institutions: By Decade: 1900 to 2009

20 This Century: Africa Leads the Way

21 Secularization and Nationalization
Thirteen Catholic institutions started before 1700 still maintain their Catholic identity in some form. All Christian institutions that originated between 1700 and 1850 in Europe and Latin America have secularized. Hypothesis: This trend is largely due to the secularization of nation-states and national institutions of higher education that were previously religious The secularization exception: Some Asian institutions have retained a Christian identity over time.

22 Uneven Developments —A time of secularization for old U.S. and European institutions (e.g., Marsden 1994; Burtchaell 1998) Yet, it was still a period of remarkable creativity in other regions Asia: 112 new institutions Latin America: 43 new institutions North America: 51 new institutions : The post-communist era 86 new institutions created 50 in Africa 15 in Eastern Europe

23 The Resilience of Catholic Institutions
Catholic institutions are better able to sustain their religious identity over time (all 13 pre 1700 institutions are Catholic) Likely due to: centralized ecclesiastical authority ability to act over and above political authorities Creative role of religious orders

24 The Dearth of Eastern Orthodox Institutions
Eastern Orthodox churches are less involved in higher education: Likely due to: History of separate institutions History of subservience to the state History of hostile rulers (e.g., Muslims, Communists) Views of science and the integration of faith and learning No religious orders See also Glanzer and Petrenko 2007

25 The Growth of Sectarian Protestant Institutions
Denominations with the largest number of Protestant institutions outside the U.S. and Canada have never been state- sponsored churches and tend to be more sectarian. Seventh-Day Adventists (42) Evangelicals (37) Methodist/Wesleyan (22)

26 The State and Protestant Higher Ed
Hypothesis: State sponsorship inhibited the ability of Protestant churches to sustain the identity of their higher education institutions. E.g., There are more Lutheran and Presbyterian institutions in Latin America than in Europe. E.g., There are also more Anglican colleges engaged in overtly Christian higher education in Africa than in England.

27 Funding: State or Independent?
Many new Christian colleges in Africa, Asia and Europe are independently funded E.g., Almost all African institutions are independently funded E.g., Asia: 28 institutions in Japan; 16 in Indonesia; E.g., Oceania: 43 in Philippines Some exceptions: India and South Korea—mixed sources of funding

28 Funding: State or Independent?
Even European religious schools are largely privately funded: 31 independently funded 17 mixed sources of funding 5 state funded Overall, independent funding appears to be closely linked with maintaining the religious identity of Christian colleges and universities (e.g., Catholic University of Lublin).

29 Old and New Trends Old trend that still continues:
Colleges began as missionary endeavors or Bible schools They later expanded their programs New trend: Colleges began as professional or technical schools Expand their offerings Fewer Christian institutions operate as traditional universities

30 Possible Areas for Future Research
Expand database to include all religious colleges worldwide Study rate of secularization compared to rate of creation of new religious colleges Explore country, region or time-specific factors that lead to secularization or growth Is there a global surge in religious higher education? (e.g., the growth of Muslim institutions in Africa and Russia)


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