Presentation on theme: "A comprehensive model for developing T & T education in Colombia - Within Colombian Context – by Hyungsok Soh (Korea Int´l Coop. Agency) May 17, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
A comprehensive model for developing T & T education in Colombia - Within Colombian Context – by Hyungsok Soh (Korea Int´l Coop. Agency) May 17, 2013
Table of Contents 1. Colombian context for T & T education 2. Presupposition: Colombia´s strategy for economic development 3. Future manpower demand in Colombia 4. Technologies need to be taught to satisfy future manpower demand 5. Factors affecting T & T education quality (1) Overall model for quality education (2) Education activities (3) Educational envrionments Indicators that can be used in measuring education results 6. National certification system to check the quality of education (1) Concept of national certification system Education system in Korea Higher education system in Korea Major statistics on Korean education
1. Colombian context for T & T education Colombia has good condition for prosperity - Government set good direction for development : ´´PROSPERIDAD PARA TODOS´´ - People possess the aspiration for development. - Possess abundant natural resources (oil, gold, silver, emeralds, platinum, coal) - Have good geographic conditions (size & location & diversity of land, seaports) - Have good demographic conditions (size & diversity of population) - There are 500 million people who are speaking espanol. Economic status of Colombia - Colombia is in the process of economic growth and poverty reduction. - Industrialization is ongoing in Colombia (service 53%, industry 38%, agriculture 9% ) with large informal sector. Need to develop chemical & machinary (major import items) industry. - Unemployment rate of Colombia was 9.6% in 2011. - Disparaties across & within departments are significant in Colombia. Gini coefficient(0.578) is 7 th in the world
Present status of Colombian T & T education - T & T education is provided in four types of tertiary education institutions. - About 32% of tertiary students are studying in T & T levels in 2010. - There are big differences in tertiary enrollments among departments. - There exists T & T education demand. T&T graduates earn 3 times more than highschool graduates, but earn 1/3 of master´s degree holders. - Number of T & T students are increasing, but T & T institutions are decreasing. T & T students in upper tertiary institutions are increasing. - Teaching staff in tertiary institutions posess lower academic degrees. doctorate 4%, master 19% in 2009 - MEN wants to increase T & T students up to 45% of tertiary students.
2.Presupposition : Colombia´s strategy for economic develompment Colombia need to provide (more) industrial complexes to promote economic development. - To construct infrastructures for the convenience of factory installation & operation. (land, road, water supply, communication, transportation, etc.) - To locate industrial complexes in areas convenient to export goods (near seaports) - To construct industrial complexes in poor departments first, and expand nationwide (e.g. La Guajira, Choco, Vaupes, Vichada department) - To construct light industry complexes first and extend to complexes for heavy/high-tech industries Need to induce factories to the industrial complexes. - To provide financial support & tax benefit to Colombian entrepreneurs for factory installation & operation in the complex - To induce foreign enterprises to install factories in the complexes
Need to proceed for the development of heavy & high-tech industry - Heavy & high-tech industry can provide more profits than light industry. - Engineers and R & D manpowers are important in high-tech industry, and thus need to be brought up through higher education. By pursuing the economic development strategy, Colombian economy will bring the following results. - Colombian´s per capita GDP will grow with the growth of export. - Percentage of the population with unsatisfied basic needs will be decreased. - Economic disparities among departments & regions will be decreased. - Demand for welfare service & lesiure activities will be increased. - Demand for skilled manpower will be increased. - People´s ability to pay for higher education will be increased.
Process of Korea economic development unit : US$ Year Export Volume GDP per Capita Notes 1953 0.02 billion (in 1957) 67Major export item were raw materials, marine foods in 1950s. 19640.1 billion 90 (estimate) Economic development plan was implemented since 1962. First industrial complex was constructed in Ulsan area in 1962. 197710 billion1,034 Pohang Steel Company began its operation in 1973. Clothes, textile, footwear, electronic items were major export items in 1977. 198324 billion2,000 64K D-ram was developed by Samsung in 1983. Steel became major export items in early 1980s and ship-building in later 1980s. 2000172 billion10,841 Heavy - technological items (Semi-conductor, computer, mobile phone, automobile) occupied over 80% of earnings from export. 2010 400 billion (in 2007) 20,759 There are 549 industrial complexes in 2012. (excluding farm industry complex) Export composition : 1st industry 2%, light industry 7%, heavy-chemical industry 91% Korean Example Korean Example
Major national industrial complexes in Korea 1. Ulsan Complex (2.5 ) in 1962 2. Guro Complex (2 ) in 1964 3. Pohang Complex (37.9 ) in 1967 4. Gumi Complex (24.6 ) in 1969 5. Ulsan-Mipo Complex (46.9 ) in 1974 6. Changwon Complex (25 ) in 1974 7. Yeosu Complex (50 ) in 1974 8. Onsan Complex (25.6 ) in 1974 9. Okpo Complex (5.7 ) in 1974 10. Daedeok Complex (28 ) in 1973 11. Banwol complex (58 ) in 1977 12. Asan Complex (63.3 ) in 1979 13. Daebool Complex in (13.5 ) 1988 14. Gwangju Complex (19 ) in 1990 Industrial Complexes in Korea in 2012 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 TypeNationalProvincial Number41497 Total High-tech within City Farm industry 993 11444 Korean Example Korean Example
Industrial complex Ulsan in 1960s Planning of Complex Construction of Complex Ulsan in 2010s
3. Future manpower demand in Colombia In case Colombia pursues economic development policy mentioned above, Colombia will face the following manpower demand in future. - Demand for trained/skilled manpower will be increased in general. - Manpower demand in light industry will be increased first, and demand for heavy & high-tech manpower will be increased later. - As economy grows, demand for manpower in service & welfare will be increased. - The importance of R & D manpower will be increased to improve the productivity of industries. - Demand for higher education will be increased. - Higher education institutions will be required to provide high quality manpowers.
4.Technologies need to be taught to satisfy future manpower demand Traditional areas of technologies - Industrial technolgies : architectural, mechanical, electrical technologies, etc. - Agricultural & Veterinary areas : livestocks, pomiculture, foriculture, etc. - Medical areas : medicine, nursing, pharmacy, etc. - Social sciences : economics, administration, education, politics, etc. - Humanities : languages, history, philosophies, arts, etc. New areas that will be emphasized in future - Up to date technologies : robotics, information processing, life sciences, etc. - Welfare areas : therapy, health-care, leasure activities, etc. - Service areas : food services, tour services, etc. T & T manpower should possess not only T & T skills but also general abilities such as language, data analysis, etc.
Considerations in organizing T & T education curriculum - Technics/technologies should be trained throughly. - Both lecture and lab practice need to be provided. - On-site(industry) practice need to be provided. - Humanistic education courses/opportunities through extra-curricular activities need to be provided. - Opportunity to course selection need to be provided. - Career guidance need to be provided. - Students´ caree path need to be considered and opportunities for further study should be provided. - Proof of abilities need to be demonstrated by acquiring some certificates. - The higher the education level, the more broad skill & theoretical training is necessary.
Deptartments of junior colleges in Korea Traditional departments - Dept. of civil engineering - Dept. of computer information - Dept. of refrigeration & air concitioning - Dept. of social welfare, etc. Cutting edge enginieering departments - Dept. of robot engineering - Dept. of computer information, mobile major, etc. Service industry departments - Dept. of fire protection & safety - Dept. of food service, coffee barista major, etc. Korean Example Korean Example
Future oriented departments in Korean colloges Robots Wearable computer Coffee barista Electricity car
Curriculum of a technical highschool Education objectives Study subjects 1st Grade2nd Grade3rd Grade Professional ability - Basic Information Technology -SMT basics -Electric circuit -Electronic circuit -Digital logic circuit -Basic technical drawing -Programming -SMT Equipments -Electronic CAD -PLC control -Micro-processor -Business opening & management -SMT process -PCB produce process -Micro-processor -Electronic equipments -Knowledge on display Creative & progressive attitude Lecture by industrial meister. Creative experience activities Learn one musical instrument Club activities with same majors Foreign country experiences Foreign languages(English, Chinese) Required abilities for graduation Basic job skills Professional job abilities Information porcessing abilities Reading abilities Foreign language abilities Voluntary service experiences Korean Example Korean Example
Curriculum of a junior college (Architecture Dept., 2nd year, 1st semester) CategroyCourse TitleCredits Hours per week ClassLabTotal General ed. College life and future 1, 2 111 MSC College physics/space planning 333 Required major courses Computer graphics 1 2 44 Reinforced concrete structures 2123 Steel-frame structures 2123 Architectural law 22 2 Architectural equipment 1 2112 Optional major courses History of architecture 33 3 BIM interior design 3 66 Construction methods and materials 2123 Korean Example Korean Example
Photos of a junior college Location of Halla College Main Building Emergency Rescue Lab Practice On – site Practice Halla College in Jeju Island
5. Factors affecting T & T education quality (1)Overall model for quality education Education activities - Site oriented education - Student support - Management of study skills - Interaction between school and students - Specialized courses and international exchanges Education results - Certificate & job acquisition - School competitiveness - Reputation of graduates & schools - Satisfaction of graduates Education environments - Professionality of educators - Investment for educators and students - Investment for education facilities - Implementation of lecture evaluation system
(2) Education activities Site oriented education - Rate of project-oriented courses - Hours of on-site practice by each student - Students evaluation of on-site practice - Rate of courses provided by industry request - No. of courses for industry staffs in-service training - No. of contract courses with industries - Degree of support for exchange with industries - Amount of college-industry student exchange
Student support - Budgets of student support center - Achievement of student support center - Rate of supported student circle on specialization - Budgets for supporting student circle on specialization - Amount of support for mentor/coaching activities - Amount of support for disadvantaged students. Management of study skills - Expenses for each freshmen´s basic study skill training - Rate of freshmen participation on basic study skill training - Student accreditation system within college
Interaction between school and students - Method of communication between school and student - Amount of communication between school & student - Expenses of adviser activities per student - Amount of educator – student counseling - Management system for educator – student counseling Specialized courses & international exchanges - Number of specialization (T & T) courses - Rate of enrollment on specialization (T & T) courses - Amount of international exchange/visit per student - Rate of student participating in international exchange - Rate of foreign students
Education activities Interaction with Students Site oriented Education Student Support International Exchange
(3) Educational environments Professionality of Educators - Utmost degrees of educators Educators with Master´s or above in Korea : 97.2% (Junior College), 38% (Secondary School) 84.1% of University professors poss Doctoral Degree. - Congruity of study areas of educators and teaching areas - Educators pre-service experiences in industries - Educators in-service experiences in industries - Investment for educators in-service training Investment for educators and students - Rate of full-time educators - Rate of full-time educators´ salary promotion - Rate of investment for student direct education - Rate of scholarship receiving students - Support for on-site practice expenses
Investment for education facilities - Rate of expenses for education facility purchase - Rate of classroom space procurement - Rate of laboratory space procurement - Rate of library space procurement - Rate of welfare space procurement - Safety management of laboratories Implementation of lecture evaluation system - Level of students satisfaction on lectures - Opening of educator evaluation results - Reflection of evaluation results on personnel administration - Amount of reward on evaluation results
Indicators that can be used in measuring education results in Korea Certification & job acquisition - Rate of job acquisition on permanent position - Rate of job acquisition after industry site-practice - Number of certificate acquisition per students - Rate of award receiving students School competitiveness - Rate of freshmen enrollments - Rate of drop-out - Re-admission rate of college graduates Reputation of graduates and schools - Industry reputation on graduates - Community reputation on schools Satisfaction of graduates - Self-evaluation of graduates - Satisfaction through post-graduation service
Educational environments Professional Educators Land Space Books in Library Lab Facilities
6. National certification system to check the quality of education (1)Concept of national certification system Function of national certificate system - Certification illustrates worker´s ability objectively. - Certification can guide the direction of manpower education & training. - Certification helps proper selection and placement in industries. - Certification motivates people´s effort for self-training. Education Market Labor Market Work Education Certificate
National technical certification system in Korea There are 512 national technical certificates, 148 national certificates, 88 public certificates, and 2,600 private certificates in Korea. Ministry of Labor Overall Management of System - Operation of NTQS Review Comm. - Making plans for administration of certification exams - Administration of basic laws and qualification system Other Ministries Utilization of Qualification Holders - Administering other related laws - Disciplinary action (i.e. cancelation of qualification) Administrative Institutions (HRD Service Korea, KCCI) Implementation and Administration of Certification - Formation of certification examination questions - Administration of examinations - Registration of certification Korean Example Korean Example
Certificates for jobs Aircraft Maintenance Skin Care Health Manager Architect
Education system in Korea School Age Ed. Level General CourseSpecial CoursePeriod 19-21 Higher Education University (Doctor)3 17-18University (Master)2 13-16University (Bachelor) Junior College(2-3year) Industrial University Teachers University Air&Correspondance University 4 or 2-3 10-12 Secondary Education High Shcool (Academic High School) (Vocational High School) Special School Air & Correspondance High School 3 7-9Middle SchoolSpecial School3 1-6 Elementary Education Elementary SchoolSpecial School6 Pre-schoolKindergarttenSpecial School3 Korean Esample
Higher education system in Korea Major functions of universities in Korea - Some top level universities positioning themselves as research – focused university and concentrate their efforts on research and graduate education. - Second level universities think themselves as education – focused university and concentrate their efforts on engineer level education. - Junior colleges perform the function of job preparation and provide two or three years of technological programs. Air and Correspondence University in Korea - Korea has one national Air and Correspondence University and its graduates won high reputation in Korea. - There are several virtual higher education institutions, but they are not receiving much focus from public. Beginning age of higher education - Higher education begins after 12 years of basic & secondary education in Korea Korean Example Korean Example
Major statistis on Korean education Enrollment rate in 2012 Compostion of High-school Students in 2012 Employment & Promotion rate of High-school Graduates in 2012 Academic high-schoolVocational high-school EmploymentEntering H. Ed.EmploymentEntering H. Ed. 4.3%76.2%73.9%54.9% AcademicVocationalAir & Correspondence 82.5%17.0%0.5% Kinder- gartten Elementary School Middle School High- school Higher Education 44.0%98.6%96.1%92.6%68.4%
Compostion of Students in Higher education Institutions in 2012 Employment rate of Higher Education graduates in 2012 6.7% of college/university graduates continue their study at graduate schools Employment rate of Higher Education graduates in each area in 2012 Junior CollegeUniversityGraduate School 60.8%56.2%69.7% Univ.Air & C. U.Cyber U.J. College 65.5%7.5%3.1%23.9% Area Human- istic Social Science Edu- cation Engi- neering Natural Science Medical Science Arts/ Athletics J. Coll.50.560.279.766.355.070.944.5 Univ.48.454.449.067.552.274.544.0