Presentation on theme: "Use of 3G Services for effective penetration of Education in rural India By Dipankar Mishra Pusa Polytechnic, Pusa New Delhi, India."— Presentation transcript:
Use of 3G Services for effective penetration of Education in rural India By Dipankar Mishra Pusa Polytechnic, Pusa New Delhi, India
EDUCATION IS NOT PREPARATION FOR LIFE; EDUCATION IS LIFE ITSELF.
Introduction Education System Thrived in Ancient India. Ancient India was a hub for education With development, schools, colleges and universities developed as the centers for education. This development was mostly in the bigger towns and cities Cities and towns became islands of education. Rural India, where 70% of the population stays, remained cutoff from this development
Reasons for the lack of educational facilities in Rural India Lack of Infrastructure like school buildings Lack of all weather road Lack of teachers Lack of communication facilities Distance of the present schools from the villages Weak Financial Condition of the families Lack of interest of the teachers to be posted in rural areas
Efforts from the Government of India Government of India started the Sarva Sikshya Abhijyan which literally means Education for all Government enacted the Right to Education Act in 2011, in which private schools had to leave a certain percentage of total seats for the economically weaker section of the society. The scheme of Mid-day Meal was started to enhance school entry and lessen school dropout.
High technology solutions for education EDUSAT : Government of India developed and put into orbit a special satellite for educational purpose. Institutions setup special centers using satellite antennas, video cameras and other costly electronic equipment for two way voice and video transmission. A central study center was setup wher the expert delivered the lecture. Internet : Broadband Internet connection was provided to institutes to provide interactive video sessions on a real-time basis between institutes and the central study center, where the expert delivered the lecture
Limited Success of the efforts in rural India The well intentioned efforts of the Government of India had little effect in the rural heartland. EDUSAT was too costly a solution, where the cost ran into hundred thousand rupees. Setting up the audio video center in rural areas where power supply generally is available for a couple of hours daily, was not a practicable solution. Internet video conferencing also required a lot of infrastructure, suitable operator and regular power supply, all things virtually non-existent in rural areas.
Mobile services Mobile services have bloomed in India Rates are the cheapest in the world. Survey shows that the number of mobile handsets sold in India is the second highest in the world after China. 3G services have been rolled out pan India by all the operators Mobile services have covered the entire length and breadth of the country including extremely remote locations Extremely cheap mobile handsets are available with multitude of features. Extremely cheap video calling and conference calling rates are available.
The setup My method requires the following hardware; (a) Mobile handsets with video calling facility and inbuilt projector at the remote end and expert end. (b) Handsets should be 3G enabled. (c) Suitable mobile plans should be enabled at both ends A suitable place for projecting the video should be available at the remote ends. A community hall, a mud house are equally suitable for the class. Preference is to be given to shades so that the projection is visible.
The setup at the remote end
The setup continued It can also be something like this, depending on the facilities available at the remote end
Operation The expert teaches a normal class in the normal way. The video camera in the mobile is focused on the teacher and the blackboard/whiteboard. This is transmitted to the remote locations over the 3G mobile network as a normal video call. The remote mobile then projects this video call on a wall and the entire class present at that location are able to see the expert and his teaching. Video conference calls enables all the remote locations to view the experts teaching projected on the wall/screen
Operation continued Any query by the students at any end is transmitted to the experts end and other remote locations by focusing the video camera of the mobile at that end on the student having the query. The expert then answers the query at his end in the normal manner and this is transmitted to the remote locations.
Operation continued The expert can then conduct cross-questioning of the students in the normal way that a cross questioning takes in a brick and mortar class. The students who has the answer to experts question is then brought into the focus of the mobile at that end and all other locations are able to view and hear the student answer the question.
Operation continued When a question from the expert requires a written explanation, the student with the answer is allowed to write the answer on his/ her notebook. The mobile camera at that location is focused on the students notebook, enabling the expert and the other location students view the answer. The expert can make corrections or additions to the answer provided by the student at his location which is viewed by the students at the remote location.
Advantages Simplicity. This system is as simple as making a telephone call. Even a child can operate this system No need for any complex system and infrastructure at any end. With two simple mobile handsets, the requirement of complex infrastructure at both ends is nil. Nil setup time. As mobile handsets are used, there is no setup time for the class to start. Classes can be started in a matter of minutes and wound up in minutes.
Advantages The reach of this setup is enormous. With mobile telephony reaching the interiors of India, including some inhospitable terrains, the reach of this system is unmatched. All weather reach. This system works in all kinds of weather. Be it harsh winters or extreme summers or extreme rainfall, the system delivers without fail. The most prominent feature of this system is its cost. The cost of mobile telephony in India is the cheapest in the world. The cost video calling in India is at INR 1.0/minute or 0.02 USD. An hour of class on this system costs around 1$.
Disadvantages As the system relies on the batteries of the mobile handsets, the duration of the classes is limited to the duration the batteries provide full power. This duration, when the battery is fully charged, is normally of 2 hrs. Hence the classes per day cannot be held beyond two hours. Video calling is highly dependent on the strength of the signal received from the cell towers. This signal strength can be affected by dense forests, heavy rain and shadow zone. In such case, the video may be jerky or grainy or may not be available at all.
Disadvantages Very few handsets in India are available with projector facilities. hence the availability of handsets for this purpose may not be easy. Getting the students to the remote location classes involves a lot of managerial skills as hostilities between villages sometime come in the way. Recharging the remote location mobiles for the next day classes may a bit difficult as the power system in the villages in India is woeful.
Scope for improvement This simple method has a lot of room for improvement. The duration of the battery life of the mobiles can be improved upon to provide a duration of 4 to 5 hrs. Remote location charging facility of the mobiles should be easy and quick Camera resolution can be improved without increasing the cost of the handsets. Projector resolution and picture size can be improved without increasing the cost.
Conclusion The system reaches the rural heartland of the country. As it provides education virtually at the door step, school dropout can be reduced to a great extent. This system can also help in reducing the requirement of teachers for the rural belt to a large extent As this system provides centralized education, standardization of education is achieved
Conclusion This system is very cost effective. There is no need of any permanent structure, neither is there any requirement of permanent faculty at the remote end. This eliminates costly human resources, which can be effectively utilized elsewhere. For a country like India, where funds are generally scarce, this method can provide the much needed impetus to the rural education system with a very small drain on the coffers of the government.
References 1) The progress of school education in India, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, Global Poverty Research Group 2) Annual report, , Govt. of India 3) ASER report 2011, Govt of India 4) Education Statistics, UNICEF, Division of Policy and Practice, Statistics and Monitoring Section, May ) Introduction to 3G Mobile Communications, by Juha Korhonen. 6) Mobile Communications System, by Keiji Tachikawa 7) 3G wireless networks, by Clint Smith, Daniel Collins 8) Delivery of Broadcast Services in 3G Networks, Frank Hartung, Uwe Horn, Jörg Huschke, Markus Kampmann, Thorsten Lohmar, and Magnus Lundevall, IEEE transactions on Broadcasting. 9) 3G Tutorial, by Brough Turner & Marc Orange, NMS Communications. 10) 3G MOBILE OVERVIEW, by John Burns, Aegis Systems Ltd. 11) New 3G mobile applications, by P. F r ê n e, J. L. H u re l.