Presentation on theme: "Higher Education Reform in Albania"— Presentation transcript:
1 Higher Education Reform in Albania Ministry of Education and Science,Arjan Shahini
2 Outline Public Management: Central Authorities Priorities (Gov. National Strategy for Higher Education )Expansion: Example Private Education (approach + current state)
3 Central Authorities Government / MoES Parliament Public management and governance of higher educationCentral Authorities:Government / MoESAccred. CouncilCouncil of Higher Education and ResearchNational Examination Center + ImmatriculationParliamentCommittee on Education and Means of Public Informationthe Committee on Work, Social Issues and Health
4 Objectives of the strategy Develop the society and promote democratic standards.Develop economically and equally the country through education of a qualified work force.Fulfill the development aspirations of the young generations.Develop and consolidate a wide and adequate knowledge base for the benefit of the country.
5 Strategic prioritiesExpand the system (increase supply) meet the needs of the country and create higher education opportunities for all .Ensure diversity in education offers in line with the requirements of the future development of the country.Improve the quality of teaching and learning continuous training of human resources and fostering a culture of quality.Improve governance mechanisms grant HEIs adequate autonomy conditional upon the achievement of quality management, accountability and transparency.Develop methods, schemes and levels of financing student’s based (need and merit – SL) for teaching and competitive for research institutions (SDF).
6 Approach: Reform & Innovation Top-DownReformEducation Inst.InnovationType of Process: Top-down versus bottom-up,Impetus for Change: Internal versus external to the institution (some involve both)Scope of Participation: Local versus nationalBottom-Up
7 Main Areas of Reform Learning Teaching Modernization Mobility CurriculumLearningTeachingModernizationMobilityLabor marketLife-longFundingDiversifiedTuition feesLoansGovernanceAccountabilityAutonomyStrategic partnershipsQuality assuranceModernizeManagementEqual accessInternationalizationResearch & DevelopmentReg. Dev. CentersResearch InstitutionMerge teaching & research
8 Strategy Evaluation: Problems Increase in environment’s complexityResistance to changeDifficulty predicting futureIncreasing number of variablesRate of obsolescence of plansNational and global eventsDecreasing time span for planning certaintyLack of capacities for the implementation
9 II. Expansion: Instruments Liberalization of the education market: allow private providers (profit and non-profit).Increase capacities (“consolidation and growth of the capacities of the existing institutions”)Concentrated only in some fields of study (economic priority sectors: tourism, agricultural, food industry).Gradual increase of the number of students.Support regional universities
10 II. Expansion: e.g private education (a) Approach:Mix: Laissez –faire with market competition*No funding; tax incentives for studentsPrivate sector free to set tuition feesLimited regulation, but regular auditingNo special lawsstate introduces market elements in the higher education marketcreates open market structurestate encourage private-public competition* Zumeta W. (1997) State Policy and private Higher Education: Past, Present and Future. In: J. Smart (ed) Higher Education Handbook of Theory and Research. Volume XII. New York: Agathon Press:
11 II. Expansion – Private Education (b) PoliciesIntroduction of market elements (marketization) in the education systemPermissive policy for private providers to enter the market (licensure procedure)Substitute funds and / public funding (in the future!)ResultsIncrease in private education institutions (46 by 2012)Profilization of higher education institutions (study programs, professional colleges).Increase in enrollment in private education ( by 2011).ConsequencesFew elite HEIsPublic universities are more selective than private (due to state matura exam)Private might go bankrupt or mergePrivate sector is left to itself.
12 II. Expansion: Categories of private HEIs EliteIdentitySemi-eliteNon-eliteDemand absorbingFor-Profit
13 II. Expansion: Improve quality Accreditation & quality assurance (new quality standards & benchmarks)Inform the students about the quality of the supply (Ranking)Encourage the establishment of professional colleges (less restrictive licensing procedure)Prepare students of secondary level for the university (2+2 obligatory state examination)Obligatory certificate in English for the master-level (law)Internationalize the HEIs
14 Private Education II Quality Assurance Accreditation AgencyAccreditation CouncilMinistry of Education and ScienceState Standards of Evaluation and AccreditationYearly monitoring / inspectionInforming students about the quality: Ranking!CHEMethodology: MultidimensionalResults
15 I. Expansion: Improve quality Accreditation & quality assurance (new quality standards & benchmarks)Inform the students about the quality of the supply (Ranking)Encourage the establishment of professional colleges (less restrictive licensing procedure)Prepare students of secondary level for the university (2+2 obligatory state examination)Obligatory certificate in English for the master-level (law)Internationalize the HEIs
16 II. Curriculum Reform Evaluate the implementation of Bologna Standards Follow the Bologna Process: 3-cycle system;Competence based learning;Flexible learning paths;Recognition & mobility (internationalize curricula)Adapt/restructure content, structure, teaching methods and materials;Establish joint study programmes;Establish links with the labour market (two year vocational schooling/college).
17 III. Governance Increase the autonomy of universities Modernise the capacity, management and governance of higher education institutions and at the Ministry.Management of students’ servicesBuild strategic partnerships, international and domestic relations with the private und state actors etc.Ensure the quality of education (QA)Promote a quality assurance cultureIncrease accountability (toward government and the public)Ensure equality and transparency in accessing the higher education
18 III. Governance: Accountability Appointment (government or board)Representation (internal + external)Financial accountability (budget)Differentiated functions between academics and executives.Performance – (reporting + monitoring + ranking + accreditation)Responsiveness toward market needs
19 IV. Research and Development: Strategy and Instruments Document: National Strategy of Science, Technology and Innovation, 2009Integration of the research institutes in the higher education systemInnovation (applied research)Establishment of interdisciplinary centers (Technology Transfer Centers and Agencies)Assist in the development of the local community and businessesSet up networks of cooperation with the most important industriesShare costs with the private sector and attract funds from international research programs.Raise public awarenessAchieve excellence in the priority areas of development (agro-food and tourism)