Presentation on theme: "Naturalism commonly refers to the philosophical belief that only natural laws and forces operate in the world and that nothing exists beyond the natural."— Presentation transcript:
2 Naturalism commonly refers to the philosophical belief that only natural laws and forces operate in the world and that nothing exists beyond the natural world.Natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural world.The goal of science is to discover and publish these laws. Philosopher Paul Kurtz argues that nature is best accounted for by reference to material principles.These principles include mass, energy, and other physical and chemical properties accepted by the scientific community. Further, this sense of naturalism holds that Spirits, Deities, and Ghosts are not real and that there is no "purpose" in nature. This sense of naturalism is usually referred to as metaphysical naturalism or philosophical naturalism.
3 HistoryNaturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in the 18th century. It is based on the assumption that nature represents the wholeness of reality. Nature, itself, is a total system that contains and explains all existence including human beings and human nature. According to naturalists the material and the physical world is governed by certain laws, and man, who is the creator of the material world, must submit to it. It denies the existence of anything beyond nature, behind nature and other than nature such as supernaturalism.The great names associated with naturalism are many but the important ones are those of Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Herbert Spencer and Rabindranath Tagore.
4 Types of naturalismMethodological naturalism can mean simply that science is to be done without reference to supernatural causes. It can also be a methodological assumption in the philosophy of religion that observable events are fully explainable by natural causes without reference to the supernatural.Metaphysical naturalism means that the cosmos consists only of objects studied by the natural sciences, and does not include any immaterial or intentional realities and is the basis for Methodological naturalism.
5 Believe AND PRINCIPLES Naturalism is a concept that firmly believes that ultimate reality lies in the nature of the matter. Matter is considered to be supreme and mind is the functioning of the brain that is made up of matter. The whole universe is governed by laws of nature and they are changeable. Its through our sense that we are able to get the real knowledge. The senses works like real gateways of knowledge and exploration is the method that helps in studying nature.It is an outgrowth realism.
6 Comparison between naturalism and idealism (principles) Nature alone is entire Reality, it is ready-madeMind and thought are real.The outlook of naturalist is materialistic.The outlook of a idealist is spiritual.They do not believe in existence of God.Believe in the existence of God.Universe is natural create.Universe has been created by God.They do not believe in value, soul, God, religion and divine spirit.Eternal spiritual values never change. Truth, goodness and beauty are eternal values.
7 NdNaturalism and education education This inter-dependence can be better understood by analyzing the implications of philosophical principles in the field of education and the role of teacher which is also philosopher.. In the naturalistic system of education there is no place for classrooms, text-books, timetables, curriculum, formal lessons or examinations.Naturalism believes that formal education is the invention of society which is artificial.Naturalism also believes in the principle of individual differences which means that every child has a unique capacity to acquire knowledge and also the pace of learning is unique.
8 CONT…The school to the naturalist is in no way different from the hometeacher is the observer and facilitator of the child's development.believes that human beings have their own time-table for learning.teacher kindles independent thinking, imagination and judgment.should be patient, permissive and non-intrusive rather forcing or hurrying children to learn.should give emphasis on activity, exploration,learning by doing rather than lecturing, reciting andmassing information.
9 Naturalism in Bhutanese contextz Geography-Chemistry-chemical reactionsBiology-fertilisation,puberty, pollination, growth, germination, cells,Science- H2O cycle, food chain in the ecosystem,etc.Mathematics-History-English-
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