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Competencies, Milestones & EPAs: What Does It All Mean? Susan B. Promes, MD, FACEP Professor and Program Director Department of Emergency Medicine Director,

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Presentation on theme: "Competencies, Milestones & EPAs: What Does It All Mean? Susan B. Promes, MD, FACEP Professor and Program Director Department of Emergency Medicine Director,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Competencies, Milestones & EPAs: What Does It All Mean? Susan B. Promes, MD, FACEP Professor and Program Director Department of Emergency Medicine Director, Curricular Affairs Office of GME

2 Historical Perspective ACGME Outcomes Project Initiative to increase emphasis on educational outcomes In 1999, Advisory committee identified six competencies and programs

3 Why Outcomes? Accountability Process vs. Product Department of Education Requirements Political Need

4 Criticism of Modern Medical Education How can we ensure the public that our graduates are competent?

5 Criticism of Modern Medical Education Is there a better way to ensure competence than just time spent in a training program?

6 We believe that in the future, expertise rather than experience will underlie competency-based practice and…certification. Aggarwal & Darzi, NEJM 2006

7 Competency Based Medical Education Flexibility for individuals Efficiency Less time-oriented Public accountability Relevance assured Transparent standards Logical progression

8 Six ACGME Competencies Medical Knowledge Patient Care Practice Based Learning and Improvement System Based Practice Professionalism Interpersonal and Communication Skills

9 Medical Knowledge Residents must demonstrate knowledge about established and evolving biomedical, clinical, and cognate (e.g. epidemiological and social-behavioral) sciences and how to apply this knowledge to patient care. Acquisition Analysis Application

10 Patient Care Residents must be able to provide patient care that is compassionate, appropriate, and effective for the treatment of health problems and the promotion of health. Gathering information Synthesis Partnering with patients/families

11 Professionalism Residents must demonstrate professionalism, as manifested through a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities, adherence to ethical principles, and sensitivity to a diverse patient population. Professional behavior Ethical principles Cultural competence

12 Systems-based Practice Residents must demonstrate an awareness of and responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care and the ability to effectively call on system resources to provide optimal health care. Health care delivery system Cost effective practice Patient safety and advocacy/Systems causes of error

13 Interpersonal and Communication Skills Residents must be able to demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in effective information exchange and teaming with patients, their patients families, and professional associates. Communicating with patients and families Communicating with team members Scholarly Communication

14 Practice-based Learning and Improvement Residents must be able to investigate and evaluate their patient care practices, appraise and assimilate scientific evidence, and improve their patient care practices. Life-long learning Evidence based medicine Quality improvement Teaching skills

15 Measuring the unmeasurable Knows Shows how Knows how Does Domain independent skills Domain specific skills Cees van der Vleuten Maastricht University

16 Measuring the unmeasurable Importance of domain-independent skills If things go wrong in practice, these skills are often involved (Papadakis et 2005; 2008) Success in labor market is associated with these skills (Meng 2006) Cees van der Vleuten Maastricht University

17 Measuring the unmeasurable Self assessment Peer assessment Patient assessment Multisource feedback Journals or logs Simulation Portfolio assessment Cees van der Vleuten Maastricht University

18 Competency defined An observable ability of a health professional, integrating multiple components such as knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. The International CBME Collaborators 2009 Special thanks to Drs. Hauer, Chen, Young, OSullivan and ten Cate

19 Competent defined Possesses the required abilities in all domains in a certain context at a defined stage of medical education or practice. The International CBME Collaborators 2009 Special thanks to Drs. Hauer, Chen, Young, OSullivan and ten Cate

20 Competence defined Entails more than the possession of knowledge, skills and attitudes; it requires you to apply them in the clinical environment to achieve optimal results Ten Cate, Medical Teacher, 2010 Special thanks to Drs. Hauer, Chen, Young, OSullivan and ten Cate

21 Competency Competent Competence

22 Recent Events MedPac, IOM and Macy Foundation call for GME Reform Concern for Govt regulation of GME

23 New ACGME Program Requirement V.A. The specialty-specific Milestones must be used as one of the tools to ensure residents are able to practice core professional activities without supervision upon completion of the program. (Core)

24 Supervision Direct Indirect With Supervision Immediately Available With Supervision Available Telephonic or electronically Oversight Provide review after care is delivered

25 New ACGME Program Requirement V.A. The specialty-specific Milestones must be used as one of the tools to ensure residents are able to practice core professional activities without supervision upon completion of the program. (Core)

26 Seven ACGME Specialties Roll Out Milestones Diagnostic Radiology Emergency Medicine Internal Medicine Neurosurgery Orthopedics Pediatrics Urology

27 Milestones defined Meaningful, measurable markers of progression of competence What abilities does the trainee possess at a given stage? What can the trainee be entrusted with? Special thanks to Drs. Hauer, Chen, Young, OSullivan and ten Cate

28 © Copyright 2012 ACGME and American Board of Emergency Medicine

29 When Do You Trust the Trainee? When is a professional activity mastered? Set thresholds / minimum standards Allow unsupervised practice Direct vs.. Indirect Supervision Full entrustment ACGME requires Program Directors to attest to a trainees competence.

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31 Dreyfus Model

32 Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) Define important clinical activities Link competencies / milestones Include professional judgment of competence by clinicians Special thanks to Drs. Hauer, Chen, Young, OSullivan and ten Cate

33 EPA defined A core unit of work reflecting a responsibility that should only be entrusted upon someone with adequate competencies Ole ten Cate Medical Teacher 1010;32:669-675 CONTEXT is key!

34 Mulder, ten Cate, Daalder and Berkvens Medical Teacher 2010; 32: e453-459 Building a Competency Based Workplace Curriculum around EPAs: The Case of PA Training

35 Competency vs.. EPA Competency EPA Work Descriptors Essential Parts of Professional Practice Discharge Patient Counsel Patient Lead Family Discussion Design Treatment Plan Perform Paracentesis Resuscitate if needed Person Descriptors Knowledge Skills, Attitudes and Values Content expertise Collaboration ability Communication ability Management Ability Professional Attitude Scholarly Approach Special thanks to Drs. Hauer, Chen, Young, OSullivan and ten Cate

36 Next Steps Refinement of Milestones Identify Assessment Methods Collection and Reporting Out on Data

37 Conclusion Competency Based Education is here to stay for the foreseeable future

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