Presentation on theme: "Susan M. Curtis University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign"— Presentation transcript:
1Susan M. Curtis University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Action Research to Improve Accounting Education and Accounting EducatorsSusan M. CurtisUniversity of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
2So, Why is this a Webinar about Teaching is theone thingwe all do.Action Research?So, Why is this a Webinar about
3The Scholarship of Teaching “Scholarly teaching is what every one of us should be engaged in every day that we are in a classroom, in our office with students, tutoring, lecturing, conducting discussions, all the roles we play pedagogically....”“But it is only when we step back and reflect systematically on the teaching we have done, in a form that can be publicly reviewed and built upon by our peers, that we have moved from scholarly teaching to the scholarship of teaching.”Lee Schulman, President ofThe Carnegie Foundationfor the Advancementof Teaching
4Polling Question 1Pick the statement that best describes your current relationshipwith the scholarship (i.e. research) of teaching.Previously, I never thought about the scholarship of teachingI consume scholarship of teaching (e.g. read published papers)I participate in a learning community focused on teachingI actively research teachingI would like to learn more about the research of teaching
5Agenda Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Action Research Sharing Your Action Research
6Some reasons why youmay want to researchyour teaching
7Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Compared to faculty who do not research their teaching, faculty who research their teaching areMore likely to know and understandtheir studentsthe learning environmentBetter equipped toimpart non-pedagogic scholarship to their studentspromote reflective learning in their studentshelp weaker students achieve educational goalsRavenscroft, S., Rebele, J., St. Pierre, K. and R. Wilson. (2008). The Importance of Accounting Education Research Journal of Accounting Education, 26:St. Pierre, K., Wilson, R., Ravenscroft, S. and J. Rebele. (2009). The Role of Accounting Education Research in our Discipline. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2):
8Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Faculty who research& improve their own teaching, the teaching practices others—and be better able to enhance its effectivenessmay also influence andenhance the teaching of othersRavenscroft, S., Rebele, J., St. Pierre, K. and R. Wilson. (2008). The Importance of Accounting Education Research Journal of Accounting Education, 26:St. Pierre, K., Wilson, R., Ravenscroft, S. and J. Rebele. (2009). The Role of Accounting Education Research in our Discipline. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2):
9Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Accreditation“Intellectual Contribution”, “Scholarship”, “Scholarly Activities”Examples of Accreditation Agencies(AACSB) Association for the Advancement of Collegiate Schools of Business(ACBSP) Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs(ACCJC) Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges)Excerpts from their accreditation standards…(AACSB) Definition: “Intellectual contributions are original works intended to advance the theory, practice, and/or teaching of accounting, business and management.(ACBSP) “It is expected that each faculty member be continuously and actively engaged in scholarship…”(AACCHC) “Criteria for selecting faculty include knowledge of subject matter… effective teaching, scholarly activities…”
10Why Should You Research Your Teaching? The Pathways CommissionReform accounting education so that teaching is respected and rewarded as a critical component in achieving each institution’s missionPathways Commission The Pathways Commission Charting a National Strategy for the Next Generation of Accountants. Sponsoring organizations: The American Accounting Association and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
11What is Action Research? A method for improving our teaching practices.“a systematic investigative research method that educators can use to improve aspects of their educational practice”(Paisey & Paisey 2005, p. 1)“an iterative, systematic, analytic way to reflect on what we are doing in class, to evaluate our success at achieving our classroom goals, and to chart the direction of future classroom strategies based on what we have learned.” (Cunningham 2008, p. 2)Cunningham, B.M Using action research to improve learning and the classroom learning environment. Issues in Accounting Education. 23(1): 1-30.Paisey, C. and N.J. Paisey Improving accounting education through the use of action research. Journal of Accounting Education, 23: 1-19.
12What is Action Research? A professional learning tool.“a means of constructing and elaborating teacher’sprofessional knowledge.”(Nofke & Somekh 2009, p. 26)“a strategic approach to knowledge production, integrating a broad array of methods, and methodological approaches in specific ways to create new understandings…”(Levin and Martin 2007, p. 220)Nofke, S. E. and B. Somekh Introduction to Part I in Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research ed. Nofke, S.E. and B. Somekh. London: Sage Publications.Levin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3):
13What is Action Research? A tool for facilitating change.Key Characteristics of Successful Change Initiativesthat are Inherent in Action ResearchPersonnel developmentParticipation and EmpowermentEvolutionary developmentIntensive communicationMonitoring, Evaluation and Problem-solvingDevelopment of Professional Support NetworksAltricher, H and P. Posch Action Research, Professional Development and Systemic Reform in Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research ed. Nofke, S.E. and B. Somekh. London: Sage Publications.
14Learning by Doing Action Research Teaching is a practiceDeveloping a practice requiresRepeated cycles of (teacher) learningPracticeReflectionAdjustment of practiceThompson, M. and L. Goe Models for Effective and Scalable Teacher Professional Development. ETS RR New York: Educational Testing Service. Available at
15Learning by Doing Action Research Experiential Learning!“Action research is learned in action… Experience is an essential part of this learning.”(Levin and Martin 2007, p. 223)It may be no more difficult than learningthe cycles of the research itself.Levin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3):
16A Model of Action Research DiagnosingIdentifying or defining a problemAction PlanningConsidering alternative courses of actionTaking ActionSelecting a course of actionEvaluatingStudying the consequences of an actionSpecifying LearningIdentifying general findingsThe Cycles of Action ResearchDIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGTAKING ACTIONACTION PLANNINGSusman, G. (1983). Action research: A Sociotechnical system perspective. ed. G. Morgan. London: Sage Publications
17Reflection guides action, which in turn guides reflection. DIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGTAKING ACTIONACTION PLANNINGDick, B. Stringer, E and C. Huxham Theory in action research. Action Research, 7(1):
18Reflection Recall details of an event/situation Attend to the emotions associated with that event/situationWork to understand the event/situationChui, L. R., Critical Reflection. Action Research, 4(2):
19Using Your Feelings in Action Research Action researchersuse feelings“as a sense, which, like other senses,convey information”(Heene 2005, p. 266)Heene, H About feelings in action research: an experiment in first-person inquiry. Action Research, 3(3):
20Values Practices An Example of Reflection: Diagnosing a Problem/Identifying an IssueValuesPractices
21Polling Question 2Which of the of following have you used to diagnose a problem or issue in your teaching practice?Reflections onmy feelings about how a lesson/class wentstudent evaluations of my teaching/coursereactions from students (e.g. during class, in s etc)student performance (e.g. on tests, assignments etc)other
22Reading Published Literature Read published literature to find theorY…DIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGTAKING ACTIONACTION PLANNINGLevin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3):
23Participation and Collaboration Action research is participative, done in collaboration with others.DIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGTAKING ACTIONACTION PLANNINGThe Institutional Review Board (IRB)Keep it manageable. Keep it in context.
24Writing in Action Research Learning how to usewriting in action researchis essential to learning how todo action research.DIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGTAKING ACTIONACTION PLANNINGLevin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3):
25Writing in Action Research Writing isa flexible 3-phase processwriting downwriting upconstructing an accountDIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGTAKING ACTIONACTION PLANNINGHolly, M. L., Writing to Learn: A Process for the Curious in Noftke, S and B. Somekh (eds) The Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
26Action Research is Data-Driven ExamplesObservationsQuestions in classScores on quizzes, tests, HW, assignmentsMeta-data for computer workStudent Work—unmarkedStudent Work—marked and gradedSurveysDiscussion boardssTeaching journalsAction research journalsStudent learning journalsDIAGNOSINGSPECIFYING LEARNINGEVALUATINGACTION PLANNINGTAKING ACTION
27Descriptive Data Age Gender Earned credit hours GPA Transfer status Demographic DataDescriptive StatisticsAgeGenderEarned credit hoursGPATransfer statusDomestic/InternationalSample sizeCountsMeans, modeStandard deviation, varianceMinimum & maximum value, range
28Characteristics of Qualitative Analysis Qualitative Analyses TechniquesFocus on meanings rather than quantifiable phenomenaCollection of many data on few cases rather than few data on many casesA goal of rich descriptions rather than measurement of specific variablesDocumentation of data and data collection processOrganization of data into conceptsConnection of data to show how one concept may influence anotherEvaluation of alternative explanations, use of disconfirming evidence & search for negative casesExamples of Qualitative Data Analysis MethodsEthnographyNetnographyEthnomethodologyConversation analysisNarrative analysisGrounded theoryQualitative comparativeCase-oriented understanding
29Quantitative Data Analysis Testing DifferencesTesting AssociationNominal DataChi-quared, 2 samples, independentMcNemar, 2 samples, pairedOrdinal DataMann-Whitney, 2 samples, independentWilcoxin, 2 samples, pairedKruskal-Wallis, >than 2 samples, independentFriedman, >than 2 samples, relatedInterval/Ratio DataIndependent t-tests, 2 samples, independentPaired t-tests, 2 samples, pairedANOVA, > than 2 samples, independent or relatedNominal DataChi-squaredOrdinal DataSpearmanInterval/Ratio DataPearsonTypes of Quantitative DataNominal Dataoften frequencies or countse.g. “yes” or “no” responsesOrdinal Dataoften frequencies or countse.g. grades or grade-pointsInterval/Ratio Datausually measured on a continuous or discrete scalee.g. test scores
30Polling Question 3Have you used any data analyses to evaluate data from your classes? If so, which?Analysis of demographic dataDescriptive statisticsInferential statisticsQualitative analysisAll of the aboveNone of the above
31Sharing Your Action Research Revisitingthe flexible 3-phrasewriting processWriting downWriting upConstructing an accountSPECIFYING LEARNINGDIAGNOSINGEVALUATINGACTION PLANNINGTAKING ACTION
32Sharing Your Action Research Constructing an accountA Research ReportFraming (issue identification and context)Choices (rooted in theory)EvaluationEvidence (qualitative as well as quantitative)Criteria (think attestation)Storytelling or ‘Show’ and ‘Tell’Speak from experienceEvocative illustration
33Sharing Your Action Research Regional Meetings The Annual Meeting The Conference on Teaching and Learning (CTLA)American Accounting Association (AAA)Round-TablesPostersPapers
34Sharing Your Action Research Where else can you share your action research?A teaching portfolioDepartment meetingsTeaching retreatsConferences—non-AAAAcademic journals
35What We Covered Today Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Action ResearchSharing Your Action Research
36Polling Question 4 What is stopping you from doing action research? Before today, I didn’t know what action research wasI was never trained to do action researchI don’t have anyone with whom to collaborateI am not sure this will be accepted as research at my institutionNothing! I can’t wait to get started!