Presentation on theme: "ACTION RESEARCH TO IMPROVE ACCOUNTING EDUCATION AND ACCOUNTING EDUCATORS SUSAN M. CURTIS UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA-CHAMPAIGN."— Presentation transcript:
ACTION RESEARCH TO IMPROVE ACCOUNTING EDUCATION AND ACCOUNTING EDUCATORS SUSAN M. CURTIS UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
SO, WHY IS THIS A WEBINAR ABOUT TEACHING IS THE ONE THING WE ALL DO. ACTION RESEARCH?
THE SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING But it is only when we step back and reflect systematically on the teaching we have done, in a form that can be publicly reviewed and built upon by our peers, that we have moved from scholarly teaching to the scholarship of teaching. Scholarly teaching is what every one of us should be engaged in every day that we are in a classroom, in our office with students, tutoring, lecturing, conducting discussions, all the roles we play pedagogically.... Lee Schulman, President of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
POLLING QUESTION 1 Pick the statement that best describes your current relationship with the scholarship (i.e. research) of teaching. 1.Previously, I never thought about the scholarship of teaching 2.I consume scholarship of teaching (e.g. read published papers) 3.I participate in a learning community focused on teaching 4.I actively research teaching 5.I would like to learn more about the research of teaching
Agenda Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Action Research Sharing Your Action Research
Some reasons why you may want to research your teaching
Compared to faculty who do not research their teaching, faculty who research their teaching are More likely to know and understand their students the learning environment Better equipped to impart non-pedagogic scholarship to their students promote reflective learning in their students help weaker students achieve educational goals Ravenscroft, S., Rebele, J., St. Pierre, K. and R. Wilson. (2008). The Importance of Accounting Education Research Journal of Accounting Education, 26: St. Pierre, K., Wilson, R., Ravenscroft, S. and J. Rebele. (2009). The Role of Accounting Education Research in our Discipline. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2): W HY S HOULD Y OU R ESEARCH Y OUR T EACHING ?
Faculty who research & improve their own teaching, the teaching practices othersand be better able to enhance its effectiveness Ravenscroft, S., Rebele, J., St. Pierre, K. and R. Wilson. (2008). The Importance of Accounting Education Research Journal of Accounting Education, 26: St. Pierre, K., Wilson, R., Ravenscroft, S. and J. Rebele. (2009). The Role of Accounting Education Research in our Discipline. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2): may also influence and enhance the teaching of others
W HY S HOULD Y OU R ESEARCH Y OUR T EACHING ? Accreditation Intellectual Contribution, Scholarship, Scholarly Activities Excerpts from their accreditation standards… (AACSB) Definition: Intellectual contributions are original works intended to advance the theory, practice, and/or teaching of accounting, business and management. (ACBSP) It is expected that each faculty member be continuously and actively engaged in scholarship… (AACCHC) Criteria for selecting faculty include knowledge of subject matter… effective teaching, scholarly activities… Examples of Accreditation Agencies (AACSB) Association for the Advancement of Collegiate Schools of Business (ACBSP) Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACCJC) Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges)
W HY S HOULD Y OU R ESEARCH Y OUR T EACHING ? The Pathways Commission Pathways Commission The Pathways Commission Charting a National Strategy for the Next Generation of Accountants. Sponsoring organizations: The American Accounting Association and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Reform accounting education so that teaching is respected and rewarded as a critical component in achieving each institutions mission
W HAT IS A CTION R ESEARCH ? A method for improving our teaching practices. a systematic investigative research method that educators can use to improve aspects of their educational practice (Paisey & Paisey 2005, p. 1) an iterative, systematic, analytic way to reflect on what we are doing in class, to evaluate our success at achieving our classroom goals, and to chart the direction of future classroom strategies based on what we have learned. (Cunningham 2008, p. 2) Cunningham, B.M Using action research to improve learning and the classroom learning environment. Issues in Accounting Education. 23(1): Paisey, C. and N.J. Paisey Improving accounting education through the use of action research. Journal of Accounting Education, 23: 1-19.
W HAT IS A CTION R ESEARCH ? A professional learning tool. a means of constructing and elaborating teachers professional knowledge. (Nofke & Somekh 2009, p. 26) a strategic approach to knowledge production, integrating a broad array of methods, and methodological approaches in specific ways to create new understandings … (Levin and Martin 2007, p. 220) Nofke, S. E. and B. Somekh Introduction to Part I in Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research ed. Nofke, S.E. and B. Somekh. London: Sage Publications. Levin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3):
W HAT IS A CTION R ESEARCH ? A tool for facilitating change. Key Characteristics of Successful Change Initiatives that are Inherent in Action Research Personnel development Participation and Empowerment Evolutionary development Intensive communication Monitoring, Evaluation and Problem-solving Development of Professional Support Networks Altricher, H and P. Posch Action Research, Professional Development and Systemic Reform in Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research ed. Nofke, S.E. and B. Somekh. London: Sage Publications.
L EARNING BY D OING A CTION R ESEARCH Teaching is a practice Developing a practice requires Repeated cycles of (teacher) learning Practice Reflection Adjustment of practice Thompson, M. and L. Goe Models for Effective and Scalable Teacher Professional Development. ETS RR New York: Educational Testing Service. Available at
L EARNING BY D OING A CTION R ESEARCH Experiential Learning! Action research is learned in action … Experience is an essential part of this learning. (Levin and Martin 2007, p. 223) It may be no more difficult than learning the cycles of the research itself. Levin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3):
A M ODEL OF A CTION R ESEARCH Diagnosing Identifying or defining a problem Action Planning Considering alternative courses of action Taking Action Selecting a course of action Evaluating Studying the consequences of an action Specifying Learning Identifying general findings DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING Susman, G. (1983). Action research: A Sociotechnical system perspective. ed. G. Morgan. London: Sage Publications The Cycles of Action Research
Reflection guides action, which in turn guides reflection. R EFLECTION Dick, B. Stringer, E and C. Huxham Theory in action research. Action Research, 7(1): DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING
R EFLECTION Recall details of an event/situation Attend to the emotions associated with that event/situation Work to understand the event/situation Chui, L. R., Critical Reflection. Action Research, 4(2):
U SING Y OUR F EELINGS IN A CTION R ESEARCH Action researchers use feelings as a sense, which, like other senses, convey information (Heene 2005, p. 266) Heene, H About feelings in action research: an experiment in first-person inquiry. Action Research, 3(3):
Values Practices An Example of Reflection: Diagnosing a Problem/Identifying an Issue
POLLING QUESTION 2 Which of the of following have you used to diagnose a problem or issue in your teaching practice? Reflections on 1.my feelings about how a lesson/class went 2.student evaluations of my teaching/course 3.reactions from students (e.g. during class, in s etc) 4.student performance (e.g. on tests, assignments etc) 5.other
Read published literature to find theorY… R EADING P UBLISHED L ITERATURE Levin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3): DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING
Action research is participative, done in collaboration with others. P ARTICIPATION AND C OLLABORATION The Institutional Review Board (IRB) DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING Keep it manageable. Keep it in context.
Learning how to use writing in action research is essential to learning how to do action research. W RITING IN A CTION R ESEARCH Levin, M. and A. W. Martin The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3): DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING
Writing is a flexible 3-phase process writing down writing up constructing an account W RITING IN A CTION R ESEARCH Holly, M. L., Writing to Learn: A Process for the Curious in Noftke, S and B. Somekh (eds) The Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd. DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING
Data Examples Observations Questions in class Scores on quizzes, tests, HW, assignments Meta-data for computer work Student Workunmarked Student Workmarked and graded Surveys Discussion boards s Teaching journals Action research journals Student learning journals A CTION R ESEARCH IS D ATA -D RIVEN EVALUATING DIAGNOSING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING
D ESCRIPTIVE D ATA DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Age Gender Earned credit hours GPA Transfer status Domestic/International DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Sample size Counts Means, mode Standard deviation, variance Minimum & maximum value, range
Q UALITATIVE A NALYSIS C HARACTERISTICS OF Q UALITATIVE A NALYSIS Focus on meanings rather than quantifiable phenomena Collection of many data on few cases rather than few data on many cases A goal of rich descriptions rather than measurement of specific variables Q UALITATIVE A NALYSES T ECHNIQUES Documentation of data and data collection process Organization of data into concepts Connection of data to show how one concept may influence another Evaluation of alternative explanations, use of disconfirming evidence & search for negative cases Examples of Qualitative Data Analysis Methods Ethnography Netnography Ethnomethodology Conversation analysis Narrative analysis Grounded theory Qualitative comparative Case-oriented understanding
Q UANTITATIVE D ATA A NALYSIS TESTING DIFFERENCES Nominal Data Chi-quared, 2 samples, independent McNemar, 2 samples, paired Ordinal Data Mann-Whitney, 2 samples, independent Wilcoxin, 2 samples, paired Kruskal-Wallis, >than 2 samples, independent Friedman, >than 2 samples, related Interval/Ratio Data Independent t-tests, 2 samples, independent Paired t-tests, 2 samples, paired ANOVA, > than 2 samples, independent or related TESTING ASSOCIATION Nominal Data Chi-squared Ordinal Data Spearman Interval/Ratio Data Pearson Ordinal Data often frequencies or counts e.g. grades or grade-points Nominal Data often frequencies or counts e.g. yes or no responses Interval/Ratio Data usually measured on a continuous or discrete scale e.g. test scores Types of Quantitative Data
POLLING QUESTION 3 Have you used any data analyses to evaluate data from your classes? If so, which? 1.Analysis of demographic data 2.Descriptive statistics 3.Inferential statistics 4.Qualitative analysis 5.All of the above 6.None of the above
Revisiting the flexible 3-phrase writing process Writing down Writing up Constructing an account Sharing Your Action Research DIAGNOSING EVALUATING SPECIFYING LEARNING TAKING ACTION ACTION PLANNING
S HARING Y OUR A CTION R ESEARCH Constructing an account A Research Report Framing (issue identification and context) Choices (rooted in theory) Evaluation Evidence (qualitative as well as quantitative) Criteria (think attestation) Storytelling or Show and Tell Speak from experience Evocative illustration
S HARING Y OUR A CTION R ESEARCH Regional Meetings The Annual Meeting The Conference on Teaching and Learning ( CTLA) American Accounting Association (AAA) Round- Tables Posters Papers
S HARING Y OUR A CTION R ESEARCH Where else can you share your action research? A teaching portfolio Department meetings Teaching retreats Conferencesnon-AAA Academic journals
W HAT W E C OVERED T ODAY Why Should You Research Your Teaching? Action Research Sharing Your Action Research
POLLING QUESTION 4 What is stopping you from doing action research ? 1.Before today, I didnt know what action research was 2.I was never trained to do action research 3.I dont have anyone with whom to collaborate 4.I am not sure this will be accepted as research at my institution 5.Nothing! I cant wait to get started!