Presentation on theme: "Trends, Issues and Policies in Philippine Education System."— Presentation transcript:
Trends, Issues and Policies in Philippine Education System
The Philippine Education System at a Glance
The Philippine education system can be described as a dynamic one. It has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish era to the present. Dating back at the pre-Magellanic period, the Philippine education was informal, unstructured and without method. Learning was more experimental than theoretical.
During the Spanish era, education was done by missionaries for the elite and for religious instruction. The enactment of Education Decree of 1863 marked the beginning of primary education for boys and girls in each municipality and a normal school for male teachers. Primary instruction was free and Spanish instruction was compulsory. Education was inadequate, suppressed and controlled during that period. When the Americans came, they established a free public school system. Instruction was done in English to train people for the duties of citizenship and democracy, by non-commissioned officers and chaplains.
The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports was created via Education Act 0f 1982, which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports by virtue of Executive Order 117 in The structure of DECS remained unchanged until 1994 when the CHED, and in 1995, when TESDA were established, to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, via RAs 7722 and 7796, respectively.
The Educational Ladder
The Philippine Education delivered its programs through the formal and non-formal and informal ways. The new entry age for elementary education, starting SY was 6 years old; the secondary education, years old; and tertiary education, years old. The formal education ladder has structure, or 6 years for elementary education; 4 years, secondary; and 4 years for tertiary education, except for some courses like engineering, law, medical sciences with 5 or more years of schooling. Pre-school education is optional. Some private schools offer seven years of elementary education, while others require pre-school or kindergarten education.
Non-formal education is an alternative system that is focused on OSY and OSA. Its main thrust is on literacy education and training for employable and/or productive skills, coupled with citizenship training.
Philosophy of Education The philosophy states that education shall develop citizen who believe in God, love their country and fellowmen and actively participate in building a just Filipino society and conserving and developing the nations human and material resources.
Vision of Philippine Education The vision can be quoted as We have seen the Filipino nation of the future in the best of the Filipino today. Nurturing, enhancing and articulating the best in us are the central tasks of education.
Aims of Education Education shall aim in the fullest potentials of all individuals, the only sure way of achieving our common and shared national goals. It should develop all socially valuable talents of persons as its contribution to building an adhesive, peaceful and progressive society. From this educational experience, students are expected to emerge as respected and valued participants in the global community because of their world class experience and excellence in ability.
Mission of Education Basic education intends to provide universal access to quality and relevant education through formal, informal and non- formal channels. It shall develop in the young Filipino, including the disadvantage groups of children with special needs and extremely difficult circumstances, the knowledge, the skills and attitude necessary for active and successful participation in the economic, political, socio-cultural, spiritual and moral life in just and humane society.
Mandates The mandates of the Philippine education can be gleaned from the Education Act of 1982; the 1987 Philippine Constitution; and Executive Order No Education Act of 1982 mandates that the education system to (i) provide for a broad general education that will assist each individual in the peculiar ecology of his own society to (a) attain his potential as a human being, (b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society, and (c) acquire the essential educational foundation of his development into a productive and versatile citizen; (ii) to train the nation manpower in the middle level skills required for national development; (iii) develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation in the advancement of knowledge for improving quality of human life; and (iv) respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of educational planning and evaluation.
The 1987 Philippine Constitution explicitly provides in Art. XIV, Sec. 1, stating that the State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. The Executive Order No. 117, S. 1987, identifies that DECS to become primary responsible in the formulation, planning, implementing and coordinating the policies, plans, programs, and projects in the areas of formal and non-formal education in all levels, be it elementary, secondary, tertiary, technical-vocational, non-formal, sports and culture; supervise all educational institutions, both public and private and provide for the establishment and maintenance of a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development.
Organic and Management Structure of DECS The DECS is divided into two major structural components: the central office and field offices. The central office has five (5) service units, namely: (i) planning; (ii) financial management; (iii) administrative; (iv) Human Resource Development; and (v) technical services. It has four (4) bureaus, namely: (i) Bureau of Elementary Education; (ii) Bureau of Secondary Education; (iii) Bureau of Non-Formal Education; and (iv) Bureau of Physical Education and Sports. Its five (5) centers are identified as (i) School Health and Nutrition Center; (ii) National Education Testing and Research Center; (iii) Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force; (iv) National Educators Academy of the Philippines; and (v) DECS Learning Materials Center.
Cultural agencies attached to DECS are the (i) National Museum; (ii) National Library; (iii) National Historical Institute; (iv) Record Management and Achievers Office; and (v) the Commission on Philippine Languages. The field office consisted of regional and sub-regional offices. The regional offices numbering 16, including the ARMM is headed each by a regional director; a regional secretary for ARMM; 134 provincial and city school divisions, each headed by a school superintendent; and 2,128 school districts, each headed by a district supervisor. As of , the 46,644 schools established nationwide are categorized as 36,640 elementary schools; 6,411 secondary schools; 1,276 post secondary schools; and 1,287 higher education institutions (HEIs). Of the 46,644 schools, 39,154 are government schools; and 7,490, private schools.
Problems of Philippine Education Ever since the Philippine education system was established, problems were always part of its operation. The problems besetting the modernized education system are those that pertain to (i) access to basic education, (ii) quality of basic education, (iii) weaknesses and/or ailments of the public school system, and (iv) underinvestment in education.
Access to Basic Education In 1992, there were 12,956 or 30 percent of 43,302 barangays without elementary schools and only 11,800 or 35 percent of 34,081 existing elementary schools offer only primary education. Seventy five (75) or 4.9 percent of 1,537 municipalities were without either public or private high school; 175 or 11.4 percent municipalities were without public high school. in 1990, participation rate among the 7-12 years old was 82.9 percent only. This translates to 1.5 million school-aged children who are outside the formal school system; and about 4 million of the 45,447 million population, 10 years old and above were illiterates.
Quality of Basic Education The quality of basic education has been immensely affected by these inadequacies in terms of (i) school buildings, teachers, instructional materials and equipment have not been fully provided in schools; (ii) achievement levels in elementary and secondary education fall below standard. The possible causes of poor quality of education are traceable to: (a) reduction in the contact hours for academic subjects under the new elementary and secondary curricula; (b) poor quality of instruction owing to the poor student input to teachers education program; (c) pedagogical processes or student-teacher interaction in classroom is generally characterized by one way flow where teachers delivers the lesson; (d) unqualified teachers to teach subjects outside their areas of specialization; and (e) centralized system of academic supervision and management discourages innovations and initiatives at the school level.
Weaknesses/Ailments of the Public School System According to EDCOM Report (Making Education Work, 1992), the quality of the Philippine education is continuously declining in terms of basic education failure to (i) teach the competence the average citizens need to become responsible, productive and self-fulfilling; (ii) colleges and technical and vocational schools are not producing the manpower we need to develop our economy; and (iii) graduate education is mediocre and failed to generate the research-based knowledge we need to create more job and raise value of production. This decline has been attributed to a number of causes, namely: (i) low budget, high enrollment; (ii) shortage of teachers; (iii) shortage of classrooms; and (iv) shortage of textbook.
Low budget, high enrollment. For SY , DECS budget was P83.35 billion or 18 percent of the national budget. Although budgetary priorities was given to education sector, such budgetary increases in the last few years were not enough to address the influx or blotting enrollment in the basic education levels. In SY , enrollment for the public schools has increased by 22 percent while enrollment in the private school has gone down, indicating that more parents were enrolling their children in public schools. This implies that the government should totally support the free basic education.
As per DECS estimate, the government would spend an average of P4, 753 for every public elementary or secondary students. This amount would cover more P74 billion of DECS budget and less amount to meet fund requirements to cover shortages for teachers, textbooks and classrooms. Shortage of teachers. Since the beginning of 1990, the number of public school teachers has decreased 13 percent from about 372,000 in to about 328,000 this year. This is in direct contrast to the growing enrollment in public schools this decade.
In the last four years, there was an average of more than 30,000 vacant teaching position in public schools. This school year (SY ), at least 19,000 additional teachers are needed to meet the enrollment requirements in elementary and secondary levels. To address this gap, an amount at P1.86 billion is needed to cover shortages at the end of the year, according to DECS. The acute shortage is forcing some mentors to handle two or more grade levels. Latest available data shown that almost 20,500 teachers handle multigrade classes. Public high school teachers are focused to handle a maximum of nine academic subjects. This situation not only drains the energy of teachers, but also affects the learning process of their students. Teachers with excess load naturally tend to relax or rest at some points because of stress and fatigue.
Shortage of textbook. On the average, seven students share the use of textbook in each of their subject. in order to achieve an ideal of 1:1 textbook to student ratio, the government needs at least 92.8 million new book. Today, the number of books available in the system is more or less million. This translates to roughly P5 billion since the average cost per book is pegged at P If the government seeks to achieve a 1:1 student to textbook ratio before 2004, an appropriation of P2.5 billion which must increase annually by P500 million should be infused to the system beginning this year. This is almost impossible as the government has yet to release the P850 million for textbooks two years ago.
Classroom shortage and more. Instead of decreasing classroom shortage, the past three school years witnessed an increasing demand for classrooms. From 1996 to 1998, classroom shortage has grown an alarming 63 percent. This implies that old school building are rapidly deteriorating while the government is not providing new ones. According to DECS estimates, at least 21,500 new classrooms are needed to accomplish this years enrollment for the first two levels. Such classroom shortage translates to P6.6 billion since P305,000 is needed to build new classroom. But again the problem is where to source the needed funds. The situation is even worse in some remote areas. There are 11,420 elementary schools in the country without toilets. There are also 12,956 barangays that do not have a single elementary schools, while about 13 municipalities in four regions do not have public or private schools.
Underinvestment in education. This is a perennial problem that is besetting the education system. This situation has been brought about by (i) increase in the education budget from 1986 to 1989 was not sustained in the succeeding threeyear period; (ii) real per capita expenditures declined starting in 1990; (iii) the growth in the universal size of the education budget was attributed to the growth of salary input which account for about 80 percent of the total education expenditures; and (iv0 due to lack of funds, the education sector has failed to take advantage of recent technological advances. Computers are practically non-existent in public schools.
Trends, Issues and Policies Improving Access to and Quality of Basic Education
Establishment of schools. In accordance with the Constitution mandate to make the basic education accessible to all, DECS adopted a priority program of establishing elementary schools in barangay without elementary schools and the establishments of high schools in municipalities without high schools. Between 1992 and 1996, the number of rural barangays without elementary schools was reduced from 6,019 to 4,231; while the number of incomplete elementary schools was reduced from 6,139 to 2,569. At present, out of the 75 municipalities without public or private high school in 1992, only 26 municipalities remain without a secondary school.
Creating item position for teacher. From 1992 to 1997, a total of 50,858 items were provided to address the problem of teacher shortage. In SY , teachers requirement stood at 11,670 to meet enrollment increases. With 7,000 new teaching position authorized in 1997, a backlog of 4,674 teachers remained.
Social Reform Agenda (SRA). The SRA is a package of intentions that Philippine Government is implementing to improve the welfare of the disadvantage groups and facilitate their early integration into the political and economic mainstream. It consists of (i) access to quality basic education, (ii) asset reforms and sustainable development of productive resources and access to economic opportunities. DECS is the local agency to work towards the fulfillment of 15 basic reform commitments in collaboration with local government. Under the 1996 Poverty Alleviation Fund, 2,240 nurse items were provided for deployment to the SRA provinces.
Entry age for grade 1 and national school enrollment day. Starting SY , the entry age for grade 1 was reduced from 7 to 6 years old, thus increasing the number entering grade 1 pupils. To enable DECS adequate time to plan effectively for teaching assignment, classrooms and textbooks, an early enrollment day for entering grade 1 pupils is adopted. The National School Enrollment Day is held on the last Monday of January for every year.
Education for All (EFA). The four goals of EFA Plan of Action are (i) early childhood care and development; (ii) universalization of quality primary education; (iii) continuing education; and (iv) eradication of illiteracy. Alternative non-formal education delivery schemes were developed and implemented for selected cultural communities.
Non-Formal Education (NFE). This scheme aims to raise the literacy and numeracy skills of the poor to enhance their capacity to engage in self-help and community development activities. It seeks to expand access to basic education by establishing an NFE equivalency and accreditation system and alternative learning program to serve community with high drop- outs and low participation rate. The activities of NFE are focused on literacy classes and skills development.
Multigrade (MG). The multigrade schooling program was implemented via provision of MG instructional package, training of teachers and supervisors and monitoring and evaluation of program implementation.
Third Elementary Education Project (TEEP). This project is now being implemented in 14 of the 26 provinces identified as part of the SRA. Its objectives are threefold, namely: (i) to improve learning achievement, completion rates and access to quality elementary education; (ii) build the institutional capacity of DECS to manage change; and (iii) actively involve the community and the local government in educational programs.
The TEEP begins with capacity building program at the provincial and divisional levels to equip local DECS officials with skills to implement decentralized education administration and school empowerment. This is followed by the formulation of DEDP, a work and financial program which identified activities or an intervention to be done by stakeholders (PTAs, SAs, NGOs and LGUs). Financial assistance is provided by TEEP once work program is approved. DEDPs consists of several interventions like INSET for stakeholder participants, school improvements and innovation of facilities (SIIF) and the school building program (SBP) involving LGUs. The TEEP has a budget consisting P16.9 billion or $569.4 million.
SEDP. This was an ADB funded secondary education project completed in It provided a total of 675 school buildings and furniture packages to various high schools nationwide and distributed million copies of textbook and instructional materials. Another project is underway, SEDIP. This project is seen as single intervention in the 10-year basic education cycle covering secondary education in disadvantaged provinces.
Lengthening of school days. The number of school days was increased from 185 to not more than 220 days. Science was reintroduced as a subject in Grades I and II. Contact hours were increased in English, Science and Math subjects for the elementary level; and English and Science subjects for high school levels. The replacement of Values Education in the third and fourth year with English, Math and Natural Science subjects was permitted to private schools.
Regional science high school and new science curriculum. Science and Technology (ST) were given emphasis via establishment of regional science high school in each of the 16 regions. New science curriculum has been developed by DECS, which was initially implemented in five national high schools. The curriculum for the first year through fourth year would concentrate on academic subjects in science, while fourth year curriculum would focus on hands-on training in instructional and agricultural science.
National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT)/National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT). The NEAT was administered beginning SY ; and the NSAT was conducted starting SY
The Ten Year Master Plan for Basic Education ( ). This ten-year master plan was anchored on a policy of decentralization and modernization of the basic education. An initial step towards the modernization thrust was the setting up of a Center for Education and Technology (CET) at the DECS central office in June, The functions of the CET revolve around the review and development of multi-media instructional materials, curriculum development using multi- media and conducting training programs. A model School of the Future (SOF) was set up at the CET. The SOF is different from a typical high school in terms of the use of more instructional interventions using multi-media technology and the shift in the role of teachers from provider of information to facilitator of learning.
Pre-school program. This program aims to provide 5-year old children in disadvantaged areas time for early peer socialization and learning activities before starting Grade I. The program on early childhood experience was integrated in Grade I curriculum. The first eight weeks are spent on games, songs, exercises, and play activities to make children feel that school can be pleasant and enjoyable. The regular Grade I curriculum starts on the 9th of the week. Teachers assigned to the program were trained on the use of ECE instructional materials.
Drop-out intervention program. These interventions employed in this program include the provision of multi-level learning materials, parent-teachers partnership, school feeding, provision of school supplies for selected pupil beneficiaries in order to reduce drop-out and improve achievement in elementary schools.
Educational testing. To facilitate the re- entry of OSY to the formal school system, DECS administers the Philippine Educational Placement Test (PEPT) every year. The examination is designed to assess the knowledge, skills and work experience of OSY and averaged youth in school and to determine their appropriate level in the formal system.
Project Basic Education (PROBE), Leadership Enhancement for Effective Results (LEADER), and Accelerated Learning Program for Elementary School (ALPES). PROBE was aimed at improving the English comprehension among elementary and high school students and to enhance education in grades V and VI; and in the 1st and 2nd year high school; LEADER was initiated to develop higher levels of learning skills among pupils in Sibika at Kultura/Heograpiya/Kasaysayan; and ALPES provides that public elementary school pupils are promoted to the next level if they pass the ALPES examination showing that they are too intelligent to remain in their respective school levels.
Physical Education and School Sports and Health and Nutrition. The Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports would produce books and audio-visual materials for physical education teachers. To complement the use of these materials, the Bureau conducts training for P.E. teachers, coaches and trainers; and health and nutrition revitalized the school feeding program to improve the nutritional status of school children via provision of safe, cheap and nutritious food in the school canteen. Proceeds are to be used to purchase foodstuffs for supplementary feeding of undernourished and indigent pupils.
Lingua franca education project. DECS Secretary Andrew Gonzales announced that this Lingua Franca Education Project will replace English with Filipino and three other major dialects as a medium of instruction in elementary schools, starting June, The project aims to probe a theory that pupils learn faster when the subjects are taught in the vernacular or native tongue. When pupils move on to Grade II and IV, they would be taught in Filipino, except when the subject is English. In Grades V and VI, all subjects will be taught in Filipino except in Math, Science and English classes.
Decentralization of Educational Management A recent policy of the DECS is the empowerment of school principals. Substantive decision making powers are vested in the school head to provide him/her with more administrative authority and corresponding accountability for improving teaching competencies and raising pupil achievements. Plantilla items of teachers who are designated officer-in-charge or teacher-in-charge of schools are upgraded to become plantilla items of school principals in the said school. Computer-based information systems have been developed for use in the regional offices, division offices and schools.
Region-focused educators congresses were held beginning 1995 for the Visayas and Mindanao areas, followed by Luzon and NCR areas in These congresses were conducted to enhance regional participation in the development plans and programs.
Implementing Legislated Educational Programs In accordance with the recommendations of the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) to restructure DECS, two separate bodies to oversee tertiary education and technical and vocational education were created, allowing DECS to concentrate on basic education. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority were created through RA 7722 and RA 7796, respectively, have become independent entities from DECS.
RA 7836 enacted in 1994 provides for the regulation and supervision of the practice of teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a licensure examination for teachers. RA 8047 known as the Book Publishing Industry Development Act was passed in June It provides for the formulation, adoption and implementation of a National Book Policy and a corresponding Book Development Plan that will serve as basis for postering the growth and viability of the book publishing industry and secondary textbook production and distribution functions.
Deregulation of Private Education DECS liberalized government policies governing private education to capitalize on inherent advantages of private schools. Among the initiatives were the deregulation of tuition fees charged by private educational institutions which are now subject only to the consultation and other requirements mandated by law; the lifting on the moratorium on the offering of new programs; and the issuance of new Manuals for Regulations for Private Schools. Additionally, voluntary accreditation by non- government accrediting agencies was strongly encouraged as a means of improving educational standard over and above the maximum required for recognition.
Outcomes and Effects of Policies and Programs The outcomes and effects of the policies and programs implemented can be cited as (i) enrollment; (ii) provision of educational supplies and improvement of physical facilities; (iii) expansion of literacy programs; (iv) pupils/students performance in NEAT/NSAT Test; (v) increased pay of public school teachers and provision of other benefits; and (vi) identification of critical areas for priority attention.
Enrollment Enrollment increased from 15.1 million in SY to million in in both elementary and secondary schools; participation rate in the elementary level rose from percent in SY to percent in SY ; and from percent to percent in the secondary level. With this, the cohort survival rate has increased from percent to percent over the six-year period.
Educational Supplies and Physical Facilities Books, audio-visual aids and materials were provided in schools, particularly in the remote areas. In terms of classrooms, 100, 752 were constructed in SY regular school building program, the Presidents Social Fund, secondary education development project and the Japan International Corporation Agency.
Literacy Program Literacy rate has improved with the expansion of non-formal education program and adoption of various alternative learning systems. The 1989 Functional Literacy Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) has reported the sample literacy rate rose to percent to percent in Functional literacy rate has increased from percent in 1989 to 83.8 percent in Simple literacy rate refers to ability to read and write messages; while functional literacy requires mathematical and comprehension skills.
NEAT and NSAT Performance The result of NEAT in indicated that the average achievement level of Grade VI pupils was percent or 1.66 percent more than the desired of 75 percent. At the secondary level, the NSAT revealed a better performance in terms of an aggregate score of percent in 1994 which increased to percent in By subject area basis, starting in 1993, percent of the NEAT examinees scored 75 percent and above in English and this rating remained constant up to 1995; in Math, percent rated 25 percent and above and subsequently reaching percent in 1995; in Science, the performance has improved from percent in 1993 to in 1995; and HEKASI, from percent in 1993 to percent in 1995.
In 1994, percent of the NSAT examinees got 75 percent and above in English and rose to percent in 1996; Mathematics, percent in 1994 to percent in 1996; in Science, percent of examinees rated 75 percent and above which improved to percent in 1996; and in Filipino, from percent in 1994 to percent in 1996.
Basic Salary and Other Benefits of Public School Teachers The teachers basic monthly salary was raised from P3, 102 in 1992 to P8, 605 in This salary increment was based on RA 6758 or the Salary Standardization Law. Financial assistance was extended to teachers through the GSIS and other financial institutions, including the establishment of cooperative, shelter programs and in-service education, etc.
Education Areas Requiring Priority Attention According to DECS, these areas were identified as critical and therefore requiring immediate attention, namely: (i) financing the basic education; (ii) modernization program; (iii) increased fund requirements for textbooks; (iv) review of bilingual policy on instruction; (v) devolution of education function to LGUs; and (vi) additional year of basic education.
Financing the Basic Needs in Education The government has been trying its best to provide adequate fund support to education sector. However, due to economic constraints, year in and year out, the budget support for education ahs been quite inadequate. And so inspite of the scarcity and very limited financial capability of the national government, it has been taping other sources via reallocation, rechannel of resources and exploration of alternative sources from LGUs, POs and NGOs.
Implementation of Education Modernization Program The establishments of regional and provincial science high school and provision of science laboratories and science technology activities; sustaining the rescue initiative for science education (Project RISE) which aims to retrain science teachers nationwide over a five-year period; and the establishment of schools of the future to give access in the provision of information technology tools such as computers, CDs and internets.
Increased Fund Requirements for Textbook The implementation of the textbook privatization program mandated by RA 8047 has triggered a threefold increase in textbook pieces. An estimated P8 billion is required to provide textbooks during the next two school years on 1:1 student- textbook ratio.
Review of the Bilingual Policy The DECS goal is to enhance learning via two languages; Filipino and English. However, this cannot be achieved immediately. There is still lack of preparedness with respect to teachers, students and instructional materials.
Devolution of Education Functions to LGUs This will enable the educational system to accommodate local preferences, making the curriculum more relevant to local conditions and needs, and generate greater support from local governments, communities and parents.
Additional Year of Basic Education This is a move lengthening the basic education from 10 years to 11 years. This would enable our education system to globalize the standard of Philippine education. However, this proposal was held in abeyance pending a government decision to pursue it either in elementary or high school level.
Some Laws Affecting the Education System In the Decade of 1990s Some of the laws which were passed during the 1990s can be cited as follows: (i)RA 7662, Providing Reform on Legal Education; (ii)RA 7722, Commission on Higher Education (CHED); (iii)RA 7731, Abolishing NCEE; (iv)RA 7743, Establishment of Congressional Cities, Municipal Libraries and Barangay Reading Centers in the Philippines (v)RA 7784, Teachers Education Council and Establishment of Centers for Excellence for Teachers Education (vi)RA 7796, Creating the TESDA; (vii)RA 7797, Lengthening School Calendar to 220 school days; (viii)RA 7798, Establishment of Stock Educational Cooperatives; (ix)RA 7836, strengthening of the Regulation of the Practice Teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a Licensure Examination for Teachers
(x) RA 7889, Establishing UP in Mindanao; (xi) RA 8047, Book Publishing Industry Development Act; (xii) RA 8190, Granting Priority Appointment or Assignment to Public School Teachers Who Reside in a Barangay, Municipality or City near the school; (xiv) RA 8292, Providing for Uniform Composition, Powers of the Governing Board, Manner of Appointment and Term of Office of the President of Chartered SUCs;
(xv) RA 8491, Prescribing the Code of National Flag, Anthem, Motto, Coat of Arm and other Heraldic Items and Devices; (xvi)RA 8492, Establishing a National Museum and providing for its Permanent Home; (xvii)RA 8496, Establishing the Philippine Science High School System; (xviii)RA 8525, Establishing Adopt a School Program; (xix)RA 8545, Providing Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education; and (xx) RA 8557, establishing the Philippine Judicial Academy that shall serve as a Training School for Justices, Lawyers and Court Personnel.