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The Theory of Totally Integrated Education: Implications for Assessing Educational Quality Theodore W. Frick, March 2, 2012 +

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Presentation on theme: "The Theory of Totally Integrated Education: Implications for Assessing Educational Quality Theodore W. Frick, March 2, 2012 +"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Theory of Totally Integrated Education: Implications for Assessing Educational Quality Theodore W. Frick, March 2, 2012 +

2 Current Political Climate TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality2 State departments of education and the U.S. federal government are pushing for value-added models (VAMs) as a means for determining teacher quality. VAMs are problematic. This is a narrow view, focusing on teachers and specific areas of cognitive learning achievement. We should be trying to improve the quality of education, not just teachers. TIE Theory can help broaden this narrow perspective!

3 TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality3 TIE: Totally Integrated Education Connecting cognition, intention and emotion with 9 kinds of worthwhile learning outcomes27 connections

4 TIE theory provides a vision for creating worthwhile education. TIE theory further provides a rationale for these aims. Fundamental to TIE is the notion of aligning student cognition, intention and emotion with authentic learning tasks. When this is done well, student learning is predicted to be more flexible and whole, and less vulnerable to forgetting. 4TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

5 5 Typical Learning Outcomes In Current Education System Learning Outcomes Envisioned by TIE Theory

6 Overview TIE theory Emotion creates the architecture of mental structures Integration of knowing that, knowing how, and knowing that one Implications of TIE theory for assessing educational quality Content design Context Process Outcomes 6TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

7 Overview of TIE Theory: Connecting Cognition, Intention and Emotion TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality7

8 Importance of connecting cognition, intention and emotion TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality8 Greenspan & Benderly (1997): emotion is the architect of mental structures In fact, emotions, not cognitive stimulation, serve as the minds primary architect (p. 1). They identify the importance of emotion during human experience: … each sensation … also gives rise to an affect or emotion…. It is this dual coding of experience that is the key to understanding how emotions organize intellectual capacities … (p. 18).

9 Importance of connecting cognition, intention and emotion (contd) TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality9 Goleman (2011): emotional intelligence When we have a thought its immediately valenced by these brain centers, positive or negative. Goleman is referring to … emotional centers in the midbrain, interacting with a specific area in the prefrontal cortex [Kindle location 116].

10 TIE theory predicts: TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality10 To focus only on student cognitive development at the expense of intention and emotion will result in weaker or disconnected mental schema. Such schema will lack wholeness and hence would be poorly integrated into existing mental structures, much like an uninvited guest at a party who stands in the corner of the room and does not interact with other invited guests. If students do make cognitive gains, but they are indifferent or have negative feelings about the learning experience, then such schema would be more vulnerable to forgetting due to lack of integration.

11 On the other hand, complete connectedness occurs during learning tasks when: Cognition: S comes to know X. Intention: S intends to learn X. Emotion: S feels good about learning X. Where S represents the student, and X represents the 9 kinds of connected learning outcomes: instantial, relational, criterial, imitative, adaptive, creative, recognitive, acquaintive, and appreciative. 11TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

12 12 Connecting cognition, intention and emotion is represented by this diagram:

13 There are three basic kinds of cognitive learning outcomes (Maccia, 1987; Frick, 1997): 13TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

14 Completely-connected learning outcomes where cognition, intention and emotion are aligned with knowing that, knowing how and knowing that one 14TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

15 Nine specific types of learning outcomes: 15

16 TIE theory predicts that when cognition, intention and emotion are completely connected with 9 types of learning outcomes (27 connections total), then vulnerability to forgetting is minimized. 16TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

17 Partially connected learning outcomes: Note the empty areas which indicate missing connections 17TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

18 18 Typical learning outcomes in school : Note that know that one is missing and not connected to know that or how; know how and that are disconnected; intention and emotion are missing everywhere.

19 TIE Theorem What is learned (X) will be less vulnerable to forgetting (because mental structures are stronger and more flexible) when Cognition, intention and emotion are aligned (S comes to know X; S intends to learn X; S feels good about learning X) AND Nine kinds of learning tasks are integrated (knowing that, knowing how, and knowing that-one) AND Learning tasks mastered by students are authentic and whole. 19TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

20 For each educational objective or standard, fully integrated learning outcomes are depicted below. 20TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

21 How Can We Assess Dimensions of Educational Quality? Implications from TIE Theory TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality21

22 Education: intended, guided learning Steiner (1988): Education occurs when someone (teacher) intentionally guides the learning of another (student) who intends to learn something (contentX) somewhere (context) In other words, development of intelligence occurs through educationintended, guided learning. Education is taken broadly: teachers are not limited to those in K-12 and college instruction; students are not limited to young people; content not limited to traditional subjects; contexts not limited to schools and universities. 22TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality

23 A Metaphor of Dining in a Restaurant for Assessing Quality TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality23 Imagine we are dining in a restaurant. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider: 1. Design of various courses of food to be served (i.e., content) Menu, nutritional value of menu items (courses), quality of ingredients 2. Environment of the restaurant (context) Comfort of seating, cleanliness of facilities, food storage and disposal 3. Process of the dining experience Meal preparation by chefs, timeliness of courses, customer eating and drinking, service by wait staff 4. Outcomes Customer satisfaction, customer payment for meals, tip for wait staff, no customer food poisoning or nausea, restaurant sustainability

24 Dimensions of Assessing Educational Quality TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality24 Now imagine we are in a school or university. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider: 1. Design of various courses (content) Worthwhileness of goals (TIE), authenticity & sequencing (4C/ID), integration of content (TIE), supportive and JIT information (4C/ID) 2. Environment for teaching and learning (context) Authenticity of setting (knowing that one, best of cultureTIE) 3. Process of the teaching-learning experience TALQ scales: teacher use of First Principles of Instruction, successful student engagement (ALT) 4. Outcomes Completely-connected learning outcomes, teacher satisfaction, sustainability of organization

25 Dimensions of Assessing Educational Quality TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality25 Now imagine we are considering the IST program. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider: 1. Design of various courses (content) Worthwhileness of goals (TIE), authenticity & sequencing (4C/ID), integration of content (TIE), supportive and JIT information (4C/ID) 2. Environment for teaching and learning (context) Authenticity of setting (knowing that one, best of cultureTIE) 3. Process of the teaching-learning experience TALQ scales: teacher use of First Principles of Instruction, successful student engagement (ALT) 4. Outcomes Completely-connected learning outcomes, teacher satisfaction, sustainability of organization

26 Dimensions of Assessing Educational Quality TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality26 Now imagine we looking at a specific course. There are four dimensions of quality we might consider: 1. Design of the course (content) Worthwhileness of goals (TIE), authenticity & sequencing (4C/ID), integration of content (TIE), supportive and JIT information (4C/ID) 2. Environment for teaching and learning (context) Authenticity of setting (knowing that one, best of cultureTIE) 3. Process of the teaching-learning experience TALQ scales: teacher use of First Principles of Instruction, successful student engagement (ALT) 4. Outcomes Completely-connected learning outcomes, teacher satisfaction, sustainability of organization

27 Why does this matter? TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality27 Current political climate in U.S. is focused largely on teacher quality (getting rid of poor teachers) Quality of content and context are being largely ignored Why are we not looking at quality of textbooks (content)? Why are we not examining the quality of goals of learning (e.g., truth, goodness and beauty of content)? Why are we not looking at quality of facilities (context)? Outcomes are being viewed narrowly in terms of student academic achievement (cognitive) Learner emotions and intentions are being ignored (i.e., lack of integration). What good is it if students learn the wrong things, hate it, and do not want to learn more?

28 A Work in Progress TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality28 IDCL research group is working on these issues: Instructional Design for Complex Learning See DEQ paper at: http://educology.indiana.edu/Frick/Dimensions of Educational Quality.pdf See TIE Theory paper at: http://educology.indiana.edu/Frick/TIEtheory.pdf

29 Acknowledgment Thanks to Colin Gray for creating the graphics in this presentation, and to Elizabeth Boling for drawings that illustrate basic kinds of knowing. 29TIE Theory: Assessing Educational Quality


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