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Pertti Kansanen Professor Emeritus of Education University of Helsinki Department of Teacher Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Pertti Kansanen Professor Emeritus of Education University of Helsinki Department of Teacher Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pertti Kansanen Professor Emeritus of Education University of Helsinki Department of Teacher Education

2 Finnish Comprehensive School Nine years for all Class teachers for the 6 first years Subject teachers from 7 to 9 The National Board of Education gives the frames of the curriculum Teachers write the curriculum for their own school

3 THE STRUCTURE OF THE FINNISH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Pre-School Education Basic Education Upper Secondary Education General Upper Secondary Vocational Education Higher Education University Education Polytechnic Education

4 Special features of the Finnish education system No streaming No selection No magnet schools No national curriculum Few national exams Teachers have pedagogical freedom Teachers write the curriculum of their schools

5 All teachers are Masters To universities 1974; Kindergarten t All teachers in the comprehensive schools are Masters Universities autonomous in their teaching The unity of research and teaching Master´s thesis (Research Master) Research-based teacher education Aiming at a reflective teacher

6 Departments of teacher education research departments All departments at universities are research departments (evaluated in the same way) All have responsibility to do research – Professors, university lecturers, doctoral students Subject didactics (Fachdidaktik) inside departments of teacher education Professor chairs also in subject didactics

7 To doctoral studies Teachers autonomous practitioner researchers Direct access to doctoral studies – Class teachers in education – Subject teachers in their subject or in education after additional studies Kirdergarten teachers Bachelors, may continue to Master and further to PhD

8 Finnish Teacher Education Class Teacher Model To teacher education Education as a major Studies at the Department of Teacher Education How to get competence to a subject teacher? Subject Teacher Model To subject studies A subject as a major Studies at the Subject Department Teacher´s pedagogical studies at the Dept of Ed How to get competence to a class teacher?

9 Entrance examination and suitability Roots in Jyväskylä Teachers College 1863 Book examination & interview Starting as class teacher students < 15% The same with subject teachers Entrance examination makes the research on the validity of the selection possible (performance, oral presentation)

10 CALLING COMPETENCIES QUALITIES MOTIVATION

11 Basic level of teacher education Studies in education Subject matter studies Student teaching and practice Aiming at Competencies in everyday teaching

12 Conceptual level of teacher education Main organising principle: Research-based approach Continuous courses of research methods Overall competence of research methods Teachers as practitioner researchers Aiming at Teachers pedagogical thinking

13 The Aims of the Conceptual Level of Teacher Education Reflection Making pedagogical decisions Thinking skills Problem solving Methodological competence Purposiveness Metacognition & Pedagogical Thinking

14 RESEARCH-BASED TEACHER EDUCATION TEACHERS PEDAGOGICAL THINKING STUDY PROGRAMME THEORY – PRACTICE relation CLASS TEACHER EDUCATION Theoretical Structure of Class Teacher Education Helsinki CULTURAL BASIS 15 ECTS PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS 15 ECTS PEDAGOGICAL BASIS 20 ECTS Practicum studies 20 ECTS Methodological studies 70 ECTS EDUCATION AS A MINOR SUBJECT Pedagogy of school subjects 60 ECTS EDUCATION AS A MAIN SUBJECT 140 ECTS Communication and orientation studies 25 ECTS ORGANIZING THEMES OPTIONAL MINOR SUBJECTS OPTIONAL STUDIES 75 ECTS

15 MAIN ORGANISING THEME TEACHERS PEDAGOGICAL THINKING

16 Making Educational Decisions Choosing between alternatives Unconscious – Conscious Planning – Interaction – Evaluation Reflection-in-action Reflection-on-action Personal belief system > A persons philosophy of education Fitzgibbons, R.E. (1981). Making educational decisions. An introduction to philosophy of education. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

17 Reasons for justifying INTUITIVE Experiences Colleagues Traditions Feelings RATIONAL Principles Textbooks Research results Experiments

18 Teachers´ Pedagogical Thinking 2. Thinking level 1. Thinking level Action level METATHEORY OBJECT THEORIES PRE- INTER- POST

19 MAIN ORGANISING THEME RESEARCH-BASED TEACHER EDUCATION

20 Two faces of research-based teacher education Evidence-based teaching Based on research results Literature research reviews Meta analyses Hattie, J.A.C. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge. Practitioner research Based on one's own research Metacognitive approaches: reflection, purposiveness Pedagogical thinking Kansanen, P., Tirri, K., Meri, M., Krokfors, L., Husu, J., & Jyrhämä, R. (2000). Teachers´ pedagogical thinking. Theoretical landscapes, practical challenges. New York: Peter Lang.

21 Research-based approach in teacher education Every study unit connected with research –The conceptualisation of practice Continuous courses of research methods Quantitative – qualitative methods Overall competence of research methods All are known generally, some are known specifically Masters thesis Teachers as practitioner researchers Consumers of research: ability to understand and use research Producers of research: ability to conduct research Direct access to doctoral studies

22 Idea of a research based approach For the individual development: To develop a critical awareness To train the ability to analyse: to deconstruct and to reconstruct To train teachers to become good consumers of research To promote teachers intellectual and personal development To reflect is good in itself: quality of life For the collective development: To expose perceptions and ideas for collective examination To think systematically together To develop a common conceptual language To open the potentiality of collective reflection To reflect collectively promotes quality and professionalism To develop the awareness of science as an open ended inquiry To realise that science is crowded by temporary truths, not eternal ones

23 DEDUCTIVE INDUCTIVE INTUITIVE RATIONAL Research-based Problem-based Case approach School-based Experiential Personal Pedagogical thinking The way to organise the activities

24 DEDUCTIVE INDUCTIVE INTUITIVE RATIONAL Problem based, case approach School based Experiential, personal Pedagogical thinking The model of structuring action Research- based TEACHING CONCEPTUAL LEVEL metacognition reflection pedagogical thinking skills-based teaching recipes routines, tips adaptation consuming knowledge- based producing expertise Teacher education P r a c t i c i n g BASIC LEVEL RESEARCHING

25 CONCEPTUAL LEVEL BASIC LEVEL TEACHING RESEARCHING PRACTITIONER consumer adaptation of knowledge- based practice PERSONAL-PRACTICAL THEORY (rational) pedagogical thinking reflection metacognition PERSONAL-PRACTICAL THEORY (intuitive) everyday thinking skill-based teaching recipes, tips, routines PRACTITIONER RESEARCHER producer expert P r a c t i c i n g Teacher education

26 MAIN ORGANISING THEME THEORY – PRACTICE relation

27 Principles of Student Teaching Starting as early as possible Interaction between practice and theory Every study period has aims of its own From small units to larger combinations Partnership with schools University practice schools Field schools

28 University practice schools University practice schools belong to universities Supervisors experienced and educated mentors Safe and peaceful context for practising Practice integrated to the totality; to the theory and research Practice also in the field schools (one third)

29 Key features of teaching practice Theoretical aspects are integrated with practice during the studies at all stages. The aims of the teaching practice are to mature as pedagogically thinking teachers to grow into the profession, to become aware of their practical theories and views on educational matters. In teaching practice there are four participants whose interaction with each other plays an important role. a student teacher, peer student teachers, mentor teacher at the school were teaching practice takes place, supervisor from the university. 29 Jyrhämä

30 A SUPERVISORSS TARGET AREAS REGARDING PEDAGOGICAL THINKING IN TEACHING PRACTICE TARGET AREASCHOOL PEDAGOGICAL VIEW UNIVERSITY PEDAGOGICAL VIEW Pedagogical decision- making Intuitive, rational, mixedArgumentative,focusing on forming on synthesis Pedagogical contextProfessionalAcademic CurriculumSchool curriculumTeacher education curriculum Goal-orientatedGeared towards the needs of pupils Geared towards the needs of students Teaching processTeachingSupervision Professional knowingAcademic knowing Jyrhämä

31 Comparison at the basic level Recruitment Length Basic curriculum (theory, fachdidaktik, practice) Contents of the practicum Analyses of the curriculum content – Similar courses, different courses, number of credits, etc. Competence of teacher educators University – College - Vocational high school Conclusion: Quite similar programmes

32 Comparison at the conceptual level Structure (integrated, asymmetric matrix, matrix) University practice schools (Finland) Teacher educators (professors, doctors, doctorands) Unity of research and teaching (Humboldt ideal) Autonomy of teacher education vs. policy Level of qualification (BA > MA) To doctoral studies Continuous evaluation of teacher education –evaluation of research (publications, congresses, etc.) –evaluation of teaching (quality of teaching) –self-study of teacher education

33 POPULAR OCCUPATIONS Surgeon01/38001/38101/380 Fireman05/38002/38104/380 Nurse 09/38006/38110/380 Special needs teacher23/38021/38122/380 Speech teacher27/38028/38137/380 Psychologist31/38033/38126/380 Professor 33/38041/38139/380 Kindergarten teacher34/38022/38131/380 Class teacher 46/38040/38142/380 Subject teacher72/38066/38162/380 Salesman door-to-door 380/380381/381380/380


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