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Socio-Economic Empowerment through IT Education K. Narayanan Associate Professor, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, IIT Bombay

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Presentation on theme: "Socio-Economic Empowerment through IT Education K. Narayanan Associate Professor, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, IIT Bombay"— Presentation transcript:

1 Socio-Economic Empowerment through IT Education K. Narayanan Associate Professor, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, IIT Bombay

2 Presentation IT Education Public Support to IT Education Developed and Developing Countries Indian Experience Role of State, Business Houses & NGOs IT Education and Socio-Economic Development

3 Role of Formal Education Formal Education is necessary but not sufficient for efficiently using technologies. Technology specific skills and learning are as much important as formal education is. Increasing the skill content of the potential workforce opens up a wide range of opportunities.

4 IT Education Better capabilities, especially in micro- electronic applications and use of information technology, for job-seeking brings about a change in the socio- economic structure of the society. The focus is more on the socially and economically underprivileged in developing countries.

5 Whose Responsibility is it? Can the skill formation be the responsibility of the govt. alone? Role of Market? Developed countries appear to worry about it more than the developing countries.

6 Reasons for Market Failure (a) information gaps and uncertainty where the individuals may not know of the future value of investments in education and training or of particular skills, and they may not know what skills are needed in future (b) even if the individuals can forecast the probability of getting returns on skill investments, they may prefer more certain short-term returns to available jobs (c) individuals may not be able to finance their learning costs and foregone earning, especially with their inability to afford two square meals a day and (d) high costs of educational services provided, especially in the case of private institutions and (e) danger of bureaucratic and rigid management especially in a publicly funded training institution.

7 Consensus There is a broad consensus of appreciation on the role of Non- Governmental Organizations, Private Charitable Trusts and Educational Investment of Business Houses in fostering the growth of supply in computer educated and qualified personnel.

8 Objectives (1) takes up the case of subsidized computer education programme of a particular Trust Organization, and aims to analyse the socio economic impact of such subsidized computer education programme, especially among the socially and economically under-privileged. (2) analysis carried out on the basis of information given in the enrolment form available with the training centres as well as the response of the beneficiaries. (3) compares the socio economic impact of this programme in select centres in two States of India: namely Maharastra and Rajasthan

9 Three Major Studies ILO (1998) observed that the demand for professionals and technicians has increased in all countries, as their analytical, cognitive and behavioural skills equip them better to adapt to more sophisticated technology. Tomlinson (1999) shows how these skills are enabling skilled workers in the UK to move into knowledge- intensive sectors more readily than worker without such skills. Skilled and experienced individuals can provide an economy with greater technological capabilities for fostering growth in output and social welfare [Bhalla, 1996].

10 Methodology Several questions pertaining to the socio- economic profile of the beneficiary households, the educational and vocational backgrounds, assessments of the training and infrastructure facilities available at the respective centres, course content and overall rating of the training received are recorded with the help of a questionnaire designed for the beneficiary level information acquisition.

11 Methodology..cont.. To establish the socio-economic context that the beneficiaries of the computer training courses being taught by the Sterlite foundation, several items of household level information are incorporate within the questionnaire for beneficiary feedback including household size, head of household education and occupation, household income, residence locality and housing status, consumer durables ownership: television, refrigerator, two wheeler, car, personal computer, and telephone connection. A total of 264 beneficiaries have been incorporated as the respondents of the data acquisition exercise after having scrutinised and weeding out of incomplete and mutual inconsistencies.

12 Socio-economic impact The specific socio-economic impact of such computer training is viewed in terms of: a) The increased skill set available to the beneficiary and b) Gainful employment and educational opportunities resulting from the training.

13 Other attributes Perceptions of the benefit acquired by the beneficiaries is contrasted with the personal attributes such as educational attainment, communication skill and Socio- Economic status in order to analyse the observed variability within the socio- economic attributes as also the variability between Maharashtra and Rajasthan.

14 Table 1 Structure of Computer Training Centers: Maharastra Centre Year of Establishment Number of Instructors Number of Female InstructorsNumber of PCs Number of Working PCs Akola Alibagh Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati, Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri, (Hostel) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

15 Table 2 Location of and Infrastructure Facilities in the Training Centres: Maharastra CentreLocation Infrastructure Index (On a 10 Points Scale) Percentage of Students In Contact With The Faculty AkolaM6.252% AlibaghM6.2520% Amravati, Gadge Nagar.R6.2510% Amravati,Rukmini NagarM AurangabadR6.2515% DhuleR7.55% GargotiM3.7510% KolhapurM510% LaturM3.7520% NagpurR6.255% PuneO6.2515% Ratnagiri, (Hostel)R2.570% Ratnagiri, Tambat AriM6.2530% SangliR6.2540% SataraM6.255% SolapurM6.2510% YavatmalR7.520%

16 Table 3 Dropouts and Placement: Maharastra Centre Enrolment Rate (%) Drop Out Rate (%) Number of Students Placed By The Centre Students In Contact With The Faculty (%) Akola Alibagh Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati, Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule72005 Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri, (Hostel) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

17 Table 4 Capacities and Utilisation: Maharastra CentreInstalled CapacityEffective Capacity Capacity Utilisation Rate (%) Akola Alibagh Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati,Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri, (Hostel) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

18 Table 5 Structure of Computer Training Centers: Rajasthan Centre Year of Establish ment Number of Instructor s Number of Female Instructor sNumber of PCs Number of Working PCs Alwar Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi Bikaner Chirawa Chomu Jaipur, Bajajnagar Jaipur, Murlipura Jaipur, Shastrinagar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Kishangarh Mukundgarh Reengus Sri Ganganagar Udaipur

19 Table 6 Location of and Infrastructure Facilities in the Training Centers: Rajasthan CentreLocation Infrastructure Index on a 10 Points Scale Percentage of Students In Contact With The Faculty AlwarR7.530% BeawarM3.750 Bharatpur, KotwaliM52% Bharatpur, MandiM7.510% BikanerR6.2530% ChirawaM2.50 ChomuR2.540% Jaipur, BajajnagarR7.520% Jaipur, MurlipuraR580% Jaipur, ShastrinagarR6.2595% JhunjhunuM6.2530% JodhpurR6.2550% KishangarhR6.2525% MukundgarhR2.50 ReengusR520% Sri GanganagarR6.2510%

20 Table 7: Dropouts and Placement: Rajasthan Centre Enrolment Rate (%) Drop Out Rate (%) Number of Students Placed By The Centre Students In Contact With The Faculty (%) Alwar % Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali % Bharatpur, Mandi % Bikaner % Chirawa Chomu % Jaipur, Bajajnagar % Jaipur, Murlipura % Jaipur, Shastrinagar % Jhunjhunu % Jodhpur % Kishangarh % Mukundgarh Reengus % Sri Ganganagar % Udaipur %

21 Table 8 Capacities and Utilisation: Rajasthan CentreInstalled CapacityEffective Capacity Capacity Utilisation Rate (%) Alwar Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi Bikaner Chirawa Chomu32 50 Jaipur, Bajajnagar Jaipur, Murlipura Jaipur, Shastrinagar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Kishangarh Mukundgarh Reengus Sri Ganganagar Udaipur

22 Table 9.1 Centres in Maharastra Name of CentreFrequencyShare in the State (%)Share in Total Sample (%) Alibagh Pune Aurangabad Nagpur Amravati, Gadge Nagar Akola Amravati,Rukmini Nagar Yavatmal Dhule Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Ratnagiri, ( Hostel ) Kolhapur Gargoti Sangli Satara Solapur Latur Total

23 Table 9.2 Centres in Rajasthan Name of CentreFrequency Share in the State (%) Share in Total Sample (%) Udaipur Bajajnagar, Jaipur Shastrinagar, Jaipur Murlipura, Jaipur Chomu Reengus Kishangarh Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi Alwar Jhunjhunu Chirawa Mukundgarh Sri Ganganagar Bikaner Jodhpur Total

24 Figure 1

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31 Table 10: Age Structure: Maharastra (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Age Groups (In Years) 15 to 2020 to 2525 to 3030 to 6060 and Above Akola Alibag Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati, Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri, (Hostel) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

32 Table 11: Age Structure: Rajasthan (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Age Groups (In Years) 15 to 2020 to 2525 to 3030 to 6060 and Above Alwar Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi Bikaner Chirawa Chomu Jaipur, Bajajnagar Jaipur, Murlipura Jaipur, Shastrinagar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Kishangarh Mukundgarh Reengus Sri Ganganagar Udaipur

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37 Table 12: Educational Level: Maharastra (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Educational Level SSCHSCGraduationPost GraduationDiploma Akola Alibag Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati, Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri, ( Hostel) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

38 Table 13: Educational Level: Rajasthan (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Educational Level SSCHSCGraduationPost GraduationDiploma Alwar Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi Bikaner Chirawa Chomu Jaipur, Bajajnagar Jaipur, Murlipura Jaipur, Shastrinagar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Kishangarh Mukundgarh Reengus Sri Ganganagar Udaipur

39 Figure 12

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43 Table 14: Income Groups: Maharashtra (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Income Groups Less Than Rs.30,000 Rs.30,000 to Rs.60,000 Rs.60,000 to Rs.1,50,000Above Rs.1,50,000 Akola Alibag Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati, Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri, (Hostel) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

44 Table 15: Income Groups: Rajasthan (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Income Groups Less Than Rs.30,000 Rs.30,000 to Rs.60,000 Rs.60,000 to Rs.1,50,000Above Rs.1,50,000 Alwar Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi BikanerN.A Chirawa Chomu Jaipur, Bajajnagar Jaipur, Murlipura Jaipur, Shastrinagar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Kishangarh Mukundgarh Reengus Sri Ganganagar Udaipur

45 Figure 16

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49 Table 16: Occupational Structure: Maharashtra Centre Occupational Structure EmployedUnemployedStudent Student And Employed Akola Alibag Amravati, Gadge Nagar Amravati, Rukmini Nagar Aurangabad Dhule Gargoti Kolhapur Latur Nagpur Pune Ratnagiri ( Hostel ) Ratnagiri, Tambat Ari Sangli Satara Solapur Yavatmal

50 Table 17: Occupational Structure: Rajasthan (All Figures are in Percentages) Centre Occupational Structure EmployedUnemployedStudent Student And Employed Alwar Beawar Bharatpur, Kotwali Bharatpur, Mandi Bikaner Chirawa Chomu Jaipur, Bajajnagar Jaipur, Murlipura Jaipur, Shastrinagar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Kishangarh Mukundgarh Reengus Sri Ganganagar Udaipur

51 Table 18: Profile of Sample Beneficiarys Personal Attributes BENF. EDU ATTAINMENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS YESNO MALEFEMALEMALEFEMALE SSC COMM. SKILL AGE HSC COMM. SKILL AGE GRADUATE COMM. SKILL AGE POSTGRADUATE COMM. SKILL AGE DIPLOMA COMM. SKILL AGE

52 Table 19: Beneficiary Educational Attainment and Socio Economic Attributes STATE BENF. EDU ATTAINMENT SSCHSC GRADU- ATE POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA MAHARASHTRA PCAPINC S-E STATUS COMM. SKILL RAJASTHAN PCAPINC S-E STATUS COMM. SKILL

53 Summary and Conclusions To sum up, it could be stated that on the whole computer education appears to have tremendous scope to enhance poor peoples opportunities. These opportunities are usually translated in the form of access to markets, and market access could be a part of the development initiatives in a world of information technology and could make the development initiatives inclusive. Provision of subsidised computer education could, therefore, be a major source of empowerment of people – especially those belonging to the socially and economically backward in a developing country like India. However, the models specified and tested in these research studies could not be directly applied in this study.

54 Cont. The real issue that emerges from studies on developing countries is that efforts should be made to close the digital gap through incorporating ICT directly in development work – not just include ICT in other projects. The holistic view makes it necessary to expand focus from macro-economic dynamics to include locally embedded approaches.

55 conclusion A perusal of the Socio Economic Index constructed for the beneficiaries of subsidized IT education offered by a business house in India indicates a rising trend in communication skills, socio economic status and per capita income for the State of Maharashtra as the educational [especially, IT] attainment increases, while there are mixed trends for Rajasthan. The results of the analysis could be of considerable use to the foundation and the policy makers and also provide directions for future research.

56 Initiatives in IIT B IRCC and Cell for Human Values Creation of NSVK Involving IIT B Students Community Outreach Tangible Economic Benefits Social Empowerment Social Responsibility

57 Study of Impact of IT Education among Muslims Hindrances: 1. Limited access 2. Familial pressure in career and academic decisions 3. Low competency in English and lack of information 4. Perceived discrimination 5. Lack of funds and space for a home PC

58 Policy implications Indisputable role of ICT Need to create a win-win situation for all IT literates Reduce rural-urban divide, as well as the digital-divide Public – private partnership as the best solution Public investment crowds in private investment.

59 Thank You very much For your attention


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