Presentation on theme: "Ethics group proudly presents:"— Presentation transcript:
1Ethics group proudly presents: Education in preventing AIDS by Ulla LuhtaselaHow can we support AIDS patients? by Aung Zaw Naing LinReligion and HIV by Sk. Akhtar AhmadIs HIV still a death sentence in Asia? by Matiar RahmanAnimal Testing and Clinical Trials by Varaporn PodprasartA pregnant woman's right to choose to have an abortion when she has HIV infection by Julaporn SrinhaThe Role of Law in HIV by Gunawan Pratama Yoga
6Education is necessary component of HIV prevention Coupled with promotion of practical prevention strategies, it can be a powerful motivator for positive behavior changeIn most countries, an important first step is making people realize that they are at risk.
7Biologically thinking, spread of HIV virus would be comparatively easy to stop spreading However, already 30 million people worldwide has been infected and the number is growing at the concerning rate.
8WHY? knowledge about this disease has not reached everywhere to change human behavior and attitude is extremely difficultEducation is one of the most important tools for the fight against HIV spread.
9Increasing the awareness of threat will only be effective when message is coupled with useful informationIn many developing countries resources are limited and should be targeted to those individuals and groups at the greatest risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV
10The promotion of proper use of condoms as well as availability of condoms are key elements in the prevention of AIDS in high risk groupsAvailability of clean needles is a problem in many countriesSchool based sex education programs can be an important part of a comprehensive country-level HIV prevention planPolicies that promote education for girls and young women
11Particularly sex education should help dispel sexual myths for young people and raise awareness about the relative risks of sexual activityExistence and level of sex education varies between the continents and countries enormouslyCountry-driven prevention plans are more effective than donor-driven
13ThailandThe estimated number of the HIV positive individuals in the country is between and 1 millionRecently in Bangkok new concerns about spread of AIDS has been the infections among the people who do not consider themselves to be in the high risk group
14In 1997 the Thai government ordered local communities to increase efforts to control AIDS and to improve assistance offered to AIDS patientsThe same year National Aids Foundation was set up to look into how to spent the government’s AIDS budget in addition to funds donated by private organizations
15In 1997 Thai government allocated 1600 million Bath to prevent and control AIDS. Education of sex and Aids have been implemented into schools
16Mr Mechai ViravaidhyaThailand’s condom king has been active more than 10 years with introducing the condom to ThailandHe is president of the Population and Community Development AssociationOpened a restaurant in Bangkok called “Cabbages and Condoms” as means of raising fundsRevolutionized the NGO world in Thailand.
17CAMBODIA:HIV has spread rapidly in Cambodia since it was first screened in 1991HIV infections in the countryCambodia has the highest rate of increase if HIVStruggling with highest rates of poverty, malnutrition and poor education.
18About 87 % of young man are having sex with their girlfriends, prostitutes, or other males, but nearly half of sexually active men never used a condomThe disease is spreading faster in Cambodia than in any Asian nation except Burma and IndiaEven the awareness of AIDS is slowly increasing, the sexual behavior has not changed
19United Nations Human-rights representative reported in 1996 that Cambodia is thwarting the fight against AIDS by closing brothels, harassing sex workers and taking down posters promoting condom useSuch moves drive CSW underground and make AIDS education more difficult.
20In 1997 Buddhist monk Pal Hor, who was operating Cambodia’s HIV/AIDS treatment center provides traditional medicine and Bugghist counselingAnti-AIDS treatment was unavailable in Cambodia this was a last hope for many desperate and suicidal patients.
21In 1991, Pact, an Independent international non-profit corporation started a Community Outreach Project (CCOP) in CambodiaDeveloped culturally sensitive approaches to community-based developmentPact was the first donor to provide assistance
22Provide training, technical support and direct grant assistance to Cambodia's first generation of NGOsPact focused on human resource development, training many local NGOs in participatory management, planning communication, program development, financial management and community development
23LAOSAlthough Laos has so far avoided the high rates of HIV infections, epidemic remains a serious threatThe World Health Organization (WHO) reported 30 cases of AIDS in Laos in Although this figure is low, there are no other officially reported data available from this country
24United Nations reported in 1997: “ Increasing urbanization and population mobility, as well as increased prostitution and drug use could facilitate a burst in infection rates.”Many work in the sex trade and when they return home, there is a real risk of introducing AIDS to villages, which have no means to protect themselves
25Condoms are not available for most of the time they are too expensive for farmers Foreign contractors from Thailand, Vietnam, and other countries with high HIV rates are hired to work in infrastructure projects in Laos.
26CARE is a non governmental organization providing help in Laos CARE’s Border Areas HIV/AIDS Prevention Project provides information on transmission and prevention of STDs and AIDS to CSWs and other high-risk groups in provinces
27They have designed educational materials specifically tailored for these groups working along with their project partner, the National Committee for the Control of AIDS.
28MALESIAIn Malaysia, 300 new HIV cases are detected each month, and a total of 448 AIDS cases and 16,349 HIV cases were reported by JuneThe estimated figures may not reflect the actual number of new cases because many are not reported
29Governmnet is concerned about situation,and hopes that the community together with parents, educators, and community organizations would join the battle against HIVThe government has approved the spending of $48 million for AIDS care between 1993 and 1995, but says that additional funding is needed
30The Ministry of Health has formulated a program to reach out and educate youths on HIV/AIDS The Health without Aids for Malaysian (Prostar) program was launched in 1996The aim is to train youth facilitators, who are equipped with knowledge of the disease and social values
31The program involves students of institutes of higher learning as well as uniformed bodies and factory workersThis has been a successful program
32Program for Sex Workers has shown positive results in the experiment where CSW are reach out from brothels, back lane, streets and homesPeer educators allows for information dissemination to take place in a non confrontational mannerIncreasing amount of CSW have started to use good quality condoms
33MyanmarAccording to United Nations statistics 1998, there was 440,000 HIV-positive individuals in Myanmar; however, some health workers estimate the number is higherPrison conditions are reported to favor the spread of HIV
34So far, Myanmar has taken few effective measures to limit the epidemic Preferred to deny that promiscuity and commercial sex thrive in a Buddhist societyHeroin-takers and prostitutes are simply put in jailNew quarantine centers to house people with HIV are being built
35Just recently, the government is beginning to take steps to counter the spread of the virus, instituting anti-HIV and risk-reduction campaignsOfficials also intend to organize more HIV-free blood-donation campaigns and education efforts
363. Education for different groups Type of education depends on the people to whom it is targetedMajor groups are-Scientists-Public-CSW-Children-Youth
37ScientistsPeople who have higher education and want to learn more about clinical side of HIV
38Public Newspapers, radio, television, advertisement, campaigns Information in interesting form, to make people realize, that this could happen to anybody, maybe someone from their own family.
39CSWImproved health care should include also information about the risksFlyers, posters and information should be translated into major languages in the regionCondoms should be available
40Youth Education should be implanted into the schools Practical information how to protect yourself and the one you loveCondom should be introduced
41ChildrenChildren hear and observe everything what is going around of themColorful children books are available at least in the western cultures.A book from children to children is effective and help children to understand
424. Sex and AIDS education in schools Young people are especially vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases as well as for drug useMany young people can not talk about sex or Aids either at home or in the community
43Often young people are embarrassed to talk about sex to doctors or nurses, and they might worry about confidentialDiscussions among young people are conducted in the streets, information comes from older and more experienced teenagers, movies or magazines
44Since most of the young people attend school at some point, these topics could and should be addressed by teachers and educatorsThere are number of obstacles which often stand in the waySome countries have no policies on Aids education, and others can even have policies against AIDS education
45It is commonly supposed that talking to young people about sex will make them do it Negative effects might be emphased rather than positive aspects such as intimacy, sexual love and pleasureThis kind of unbalanced approach is often seen through by young people
46In consequence, they may reject all that adults have to say, seeking guidance and role models from peers and from the mediaresearch looking at the effects of sex education on young people's sexual behavior offers little evidence that it hastens the onset of sexual experience, or increases sexual risk among those who are already sexually active
47Indeed, several studies from different countries show that good quality sex education can actually decrease the likelihood that young people will have sex, and increase condom use among those who are already sexually active
48Designing a good curriculum for Aids education is essential start for a successful project Effective programs are those that have had a positive influence on behavior as regards sex, drug use and non-discrimination, and not simply increased knowledge and changed the attitudes of students
49Factual information about biology, sexual development, and sexual and drug-related risks. Concerns with personal relationships, feelings and values should be recognized and emphasis put on the acquisition of relevant negotiation skills
50Effective programs should following things: -Focus on life skills-Concentrate on personalizing the risk-Discuss about possible result of unprotected sex-Introduce condom and show how to use it-Explain where to turn for help and support
51-Stress that skills useful for self-protection from HIV also help build self-confidence and avoid unwanted pregnancy, sexual abuse, and the abuse of drugs-Reinforce values, norms and peer-group support for practicing and sustaining safe behavior and resisting unsafe behavior
52It is important toprovide sufficient time for classroom work and interactive teaching methods such as role play and group discussionsStart at the earliest possible age, certainly before the onset of sexual activity
535. Education of Commercial Sex Workers (CSW) For most women who enter the life of prostitution on the streets, their "choice of prostitution" often grows out of years of painful sexual exploitation, sexual molestation at very early ages, family violence, and persistent patterns of substance abuse
54Since prostitutes are in the high-risk group, prevention of HIV infection is one of the most important tasks to protect both them and their clientsThe ability to practice safer sex in prostitution is influenced by a range of factors, such as demand by clients for unprotected sex, urgent need for money, alcohol abuse, homelessness, ignorance, lack of resources, younger age etc.
55The knowledge about HIV and prevention might also be insufficient, specially when young illegal girls are recruited from poor villages and hilltribes.barriers to health care and health promotion for prostitutes, the clients and other sex partners, should be minimized.
56Two main obstacles to get health care are identified: Many prostitutes do not qualify for health servicesThe health system is not appropriate for sex workers-negative attitude towards prostitutes and prostitution-ignorant about prostitution and the specific problems prostitutes
57Implementation of Education for CSW: Pilot phase for new projectsContinuity of fundingInvolvement of sex workersSkills of staffAttitude of staffAdequate payment of all staffLocation
58OutreachSolid infrastructureAppropriate health education materialsHIV prevention in a broad perspectiveExtension to remote areasAttention to all forms of sex workAttention to all sex workers
596. Example of a prevention plan Fogarty Workshop on International HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Opportunities on April 1998Objective: To identify a package of effective HIV prevention interventions and develop a list of priority research goals that combine biomedical, behavioral and social interventions for feasible and relevant for developing countries with limited resources
60Total of 171 representatives from 37 countries participated on workshop 6 different plans for developing countries were developed by the participants, one of them being a South East Asian country
61Because of the uncertainty, which country this is, it will be called Country A in this example
62Country A :Small Southeast Asian country with population of peopleIt is one of the poorest countries in the worldIlliteracy is high, for population over 15, only 35% can read and writeMorbidity and mortality rates are among the highest in the world
63Shortage of medical personnel has been a major obstacle to the implementation of an effective public health programMost rural areas are served only by a local infirmary
64First reported AIDS case was diagnosed in 1993 Currently people are estimated to be infected by HIV virusThat is 2% of the total populationEpidemic is based on regional spread rather than importation from outside the continent
65Condom use has increased recently, CSW reported to use condom 80% of sexual acts However condom use is very rare with girlfriends and wives which enables the disease to spread into familiesSmall percent of blood transfusions given in rural areas are screened
66The National AIDS program (NAP) has established offices in each province The offices provide training, education, and outreach to CSWs, schools, the military, and the policeServices are severely restricted by a lack of human, financial and technical resources
67Prevention plan for Country A: Specific groups must be targeted and provided services necessary for their group’s specific risksAll the groups should have access to condoms and other servicesYouth must be provided with life style skills and sex/Aids educationWomen must be given skills and empowerment
68The blood supply must be made safe through increased screening, testing and pooling Improved surveillance is another priorityAccess to HIV testing and counseling is also neededCountry’s public health infrastructure must be improved
69Reduce the stigma of testing and counseling and increase the confidence of those seeking it All of these interventions should be integrated with existing services, if feasible
71Stakeholdersmust be brought together to improve public awareness of the problem through information and education campaigns, analyze existing policies, and assess the health care system infrastructure.
72To prevent spread of HIV/AIDS requires input from many different fields.Medical, educational, legislation and social sectors need to improve, work together, and adjust to the demands of this lethal disease.
73To prevent spread of HIV/AIDS requires input from many different fields. Medical, educational, legislation and social sectors need to improve, work together, and adjust to the demands of this lethal diseaseIdeally the rate of HIV infections will decrease as people start realizing that they are in danger
74Practical help, such as condom availability and access to health care, are important tools in prevention together with educationInformation and education work only, if it is practical to apply into the situation.
75HIV/AIDS is a global problem, and requires international attention Developing countries should be helped not only financially but also with “know how”developing countries need to take their responsibility and contribute to the prevention plan and maintain projectsIn a long run this is beneficial to everybody and hopefully can significantly reduce the rate of HIV infections
76THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!! -Dr. Maria-Dr. Suvit-MIT staff-Our wonderful class