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Experiencing playing in entrepreneurship education Dr Caroline Verzat Advancia, Paris, France Benevento,september10th 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Experiencing playing in entrepreneurship education Dr Caroline Verzat Advancia, Paris, France Benevento,september10th 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Experiencing playing in entrepreneurship education Dr Caroline Verzat Advancia, Paris, France Benevento,september10th 2009

2 Experiencing playing in entrepreneurship education… Action-research at Ecole Centrale de Lille in 2006, 2007, 2008 Todays playing rules : – Form groups of 3-4 people sitting next to you – Winner team = maximum points – 15 Questions with an undefined number of correct / incorrect answers 1 correct assumption is ticked = + 1 point 1 incorrect assumption is ticked = - 1 point 2

3 Who said : Education has no more serious responsibility than making provision for enjoyment of re-creative leisure; not only for the sake of immediate health but still more, if possible, for its lasting effect upon habits of mind a)A canadian games fanatic teacher b)An american philosopher of education c)An italian doctor who founded an alternative education movement Question 1 3 John DEWEY, 1916, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education

4 What are these engineering students doing ? a)Playing b)Preparing a spaghetti party c)Entering university and getting to know each other d)Learning creativity e)Learning teamwork f)Learning material resistance g)Learning engineering design h)Learning how to learn i)Starting a 2 year-long innovation project Question 2 4 Busk-Kofed L & Rosenorm T. 2003 experimentation and reflection in the learning process

5 There is an imbalance between what industry expects from engineering graduates and what educational institutions provide, why ? a)Engineering Education institutions take little account of industry demands b)Industry and educational experts hold differing views of key competencies for todays engineering graduates c)Todays corporations and employers frequently complain about the low levels of communication and teamwork skills in engineering graduates d)When engineering graduates enter industry, they are often perceived as being unable to practice Question 3 5

6 What are the main characteristics of French engineering studies ? a)The system is not very selective b)The focus is on individual rather than teamwork c)There is a heavy emphasis on scientific and mathematic principles d)There is much effort on experimental work and innovation culture Question 4 6 Barsoux & Lawrence, 1991 The making of a French manager. Harvard Business Review Veltz P. 2007. Faut-il sauver les Grandes Ecoles ? De la culture de la sélection à la culture de linnovation

7 Why does pedagogy in engineering faculties need research effort ? a)Pedagogy in engineering faculties is still very conventional b)Current pedagogies in engineering education are insufficiently adapted to student learning style needs c)Even if innovative teaching efforts may be in place, research into their use and outcomes is rare Question 5 7 Felder & Silverman, 1988 Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education, Engineering Education

8 Previous studies about games in higher education : a)are very much developed b)are mostly descriptive in nature c)focus on hands-on activities like LEGO and computer simulations Question 6 8

9 Games can be defined as : a)An artificial situation in which players are put into a position of conflict, one against the other or all together against other forces. b)An activity that is regulated by rules c)A free and uncertain activity d)An activity that is separate from the real world Question 7 9 Caillois R. 1958, Les jeux et les hommes

10 Games in education are useful to : a)Challenge skills, knowledge and beliefs of participants b)Test new ideas and behaviors c)Promote collaboration and peer learning d)Motivate todays students Question 8 10

11 The spaghetti game 11 1st round : The bridge 2 nd round : The tower Teams of 6-7 students Including 1 foreign student (imposed by teacher) 45 mn challenge : build a bridge 15 mn measuring resistance 30 mn debriefing (open ended questions) 5 mn design (without material) 40 mn building the tower 15 mn measuring resistance 30 mn debriefing Material PAUSE

12 To assess teamwork learning, which skills should we look at ? To be able to : a)interpret and formulate the team mission b)specify goals c)formulate a strategy d)monitor progress towards goals e)track team ressources and environmental conditions f)assist team members to perform their tasks g)orchestrate interpendent tasks h)prevent (or react to) conflicts i)motivate and build confidence j)regulate members emotions Question 9 12 Transition Processes Action Processes Interpersonal Processes Marks, Mathieu & Zaccaro (2001) A Temporally Based Framework and Taxonomy of Team Processes, Academy of Management Review

13 What should we look at to assess this game as a relevant pedagogical tool to learn teamwork ? a)the immediate reactions of students b)their understanding of concepts linked to teamwork processes c)their effective skills in action d)the transfer of skills in another context Question 10 13 Kirkpatrick, 1959. Techniques for Evaluating Training Programs, Journal of American Society for Training and Development Reaction Learning Behaviour Results

14 Can you guess how we assessed this game as a relevant pedagogical tool to learn teamwork ? a)We Analyzed the group written feedbacks of the bridge and tower rounds b)We made films of each groups progression and analyzed their behaviours c)We interviewed students a few months after starting real project work d)We observed behaviours in real project teams Question 11 14 111 groups 2006,07 & 08 11 students 2008 cohort 4 different teams

15 How do you think students reacted to the game ? a)A majority of feedbacks say it was great fun b)Some groups expressed a serious or competitive side to the fun c)A majority of groups had negative emotions of stress, feeling hurried or too serious Question 12 15 93 groups = only positive aspects 64 = fun & enjoyable game29 = nice worklike atmosphere great, cool, perfect, excellent! good communication, good atmosphere, everyone was open to ideas, no problems even when we failed good atmosphere, good mood, warm, a laugh Calm, sociable, not too serious (but a little bit all the same!), warm, nice, relaxed, entertaining good atmosphere, serious, studious and concentrated group 16 groups = some stress Nice, many ideas, but not enough time, so it was a big stress in the 5 last minutes Serious and stressful in the end

16 How deep do you think the learning objective about teamwork was met ? a)The game had an ice-breaking effect which assisted socialization and helped students forming their real project teams b)In their written feedbacks, students formulated lessons about critical teamwork processes c)3 month later, students refer to the games lessons when describing their innovation project teams functioning Question 13 16

17 Lessons learnt about teamwork processes 17 Teamwork process Written group feedbacksInterviews 3 month later Transition processes you need to decide from the very outset what will be done, and assure that everybody has understood we had to find solutions very quickly, we had to decide quickly which solution to adopt,..basically its a small-scale project in two hours Action processes (you have to) manage time, divide the tasks, plan and test the resistence in time to decide if that is the strategy you are going to pursue or not we had a certain number of constraints, an objective to achieve, then (we have to think about) how to do this in function of the constraints, the time that we had...its an adaption between constraints and effectiveness Interpersonal processes (we need to ) listen, without neglecting ideas... (to) communicate and avoid being narrow-minded The spaghetti game wasnt about technical know- how, we didnt have that...nobody has ever made a bridge or Eiffel tower in spaghetti before....I dont think it was who could build the strongest bridge that was was just about teaching us how to talk (to others)

18 Why did this game have such an outcome ? a)Because spaghetti are associated with positive experiences b)Because it was perceived as a game c)Because it appealed to the students needs for hands-on practice d)Because playing followed by reflection phases activates experiential learning Question 14 18 It was a game, I dont see it like a class, we learned stuff but its not the usual scholarly approach What was the objective? Build the highest tower...or the strongest bridge? In fact, no, the goal is to work in a team but at that time, we were not aware of it

19 To add more validity to this study we could : a)further explore the negative perception of games b)search for quantitative data to probe causal relationships between game experience and real behaviours in real project c)conduct longitudinal interviews on a larger sample of students d)design an experimentation with control groups Question 15 19

20 Who is the winner team ? Further questions to start debating together… Did you have fun ? Did you learn anything ? Was it a real game ? … Thank you for your active participation ! 20

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