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1 Internet Research Challenges Vint Cerf April 2007.

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1 1 Internet Research Challenges Vint Cerf April 2007

2 2 Internet Evangelist at Work

3 3 Internet - Global Statistics (approx. 3.6 Billion Telephone Terminations including 2.5 B mobiles and 1 Billion PCs [Comp. Industries Assoc.]) 22.5 Million Hosts (Bellcore June 1997) 50 Million Users (NUA Jul 1997) 395 Million Hosts (ISC Jan 2006) 1,093.5 Million Users (InternetWorldStats.com Jan 11, 2007)

4 4 360 #3 UCSB PDP #2 SRI #4 UTAH #1 UCLA Sigma 7 The Original ARPANET Dec 1969

5 5 Internet 1999

6 6 Internet Penetration Jan 2007 Asia M No. Amer M Europe M Latin Am 88.8 M Africa 32.8 M Mid-east 19.4 M Oceania/AU18.4 M Total 1,093.5 M Source No. AM Europe Asia Latin Am Africa Mid East Oceania 16.6% total penetration

7 7 Technology Shapers Internet uses any communication service (IP on everything!) IP carries anything digital End/End Principle (neutrality and user freedom) Radio supplies mobility Fiber/Cable/DSL supplies speed IPv6 supplies address space Broadband (choice, symmetry)

8 8 Socio-Economic Effects of Internet Information Consumers are becoming Producers Democratic access to the worlds information Internet is for Everyone – Internet Society New educational alternatives and outlets New business models (value add) Risk factors (spam, viruses/worms, social abuse, misinformation, fraud) Innovation at the edge Localization (information, interfaces, cultural styles)

9 9 Mobility and Mobiles 2.5 Billion Mobiles and counting Short Message Systems Payment systems Innovative interfaces (challenges!) Navigation systems –GPS, Galileo, Google Earth/Maps,… Geo-location based services

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13 13 Google Book Search Google Book Search

14 14 Copyright, Fair Use, Distribution Is indexing a new fair use of book content? The debate continues. Lessig and the Creative Commons Self-publishing by authors (books, music, video) Bit Torrent, Napster, KaZaa, etc.

15 15 Internet-enabled Devices

16 16 Internet-enabled Devices Programmable – Java, Python, etc. Examples: WebTV, Personal Digital Assistants, Mobiles,Video games, Picture Frames, Washing Machines, Surf Board! Refrigerator (and the bathroom scales) Automobiles (Japan, Germany) Internet-enabled wine corks (also note new quantum theory of wine: Schrödingers wine bottle) Internet-enabled socks (clothing) Universal Remote Controls

17 17 New User-Oriented Paradigms User-centric services Search, discover, transact Announce, share, collaborate, produce Self-service Amazon, Fedex, Tivo, Instant Messaging, GPS Navigators, virtual visits to homes and museums, image and video sharing Users are now simultaneously producers and consumers of content – NEW! Communities of interest a major theme (MySpace, FaceBook, Orkut, GoogleGroups, World of Warcraft, SecondLife, …)

18 18 Network Design Perspectives Enterprise VPN Corporate servers/lans Suppliers and customers Traveling employees (see consumer) Mobiles and @customer

19 19 Internet Research Problems Security at all levels Internet Erlang formulas QOS debates (smart routers?) Internationalized Domain Names (ccTLDs & GTLDs) Distributed Algorithms Presence (multi-level) Mobility, persistence (processes, connections) Multihoming Multipath routing Broadcast utilization Mesh and Sensor networks Scaling (of everything) – IPv6

20 20 Security Are there holes in this operating system? Does this router have vulnerabilities? Can this network be used to attack itself? auto-immune distributed, reflective denial of service Is this a bogus packet (e.g. fake source address)? Is this routing table update/advertisement legitimate? Is this domain name entry valid? (Phishing/Pharming) Is this a bad configuration?

21 21 Information management Semantic Networking automatic tagging, improved indexing and relevance Modal indexing (video, audio, text) Time and Location as organizing paradigms for data Are there other semantic organizing principles? What to do about Information decay? is it like fighting tooth decay? need to preserve bits, software, OS and hardware?

22 22 New Application Challenges IPTV and effects of Symmetric Broadband vPOD practices Dynamic and interactive advertising Merging of Virtual and Real Environments linking of real instruments to virtual spaces advertising in virtual environments

23 23 InterPlaNetary Internet

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30 Missions to Mars Spirit launched 6/10/2003 arrived Jan 4, 2004 Gusev Crater in Gusev Plain Opportunity Launched 7/7/2003 arrived Jan 25, 2004 Meridiani Planum

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32 32 Mars Orbiters Mars Odyssey (NASA) Mars Express (European Space Agency) Mars Global Surveyor (NASA) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (NASA) Mars Odyssey relays 95% of all data from Spirit and Opportunity

33 33 Interplanetary Internet:InterPlaNet (IPN) Planetary internets Interplanetary Gateways Interplanetary Long-Haul Protocol Delayed Binding of Identifiers -like behavior TDRSS and NASA in-space routing Delay and Disruption Tolerant Protocols –Tactical Mobile applications (DARPA) –Civilian Mobile applications (SameNet!)

34 34 End-to-end information flow across the solar system Layered architecture for evolvability and interoperability IP-like protocol suite tailored to operate over long round trip light times Integrated communications and navigation services

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