Presentation on theme: "How achievable is Universal Primary Education in Rural Ghana? Lessons from the Kintampo DSS. Abubakari Sulemana Alexander Manu Charles Zandoh Robert Adda."— Presentation transcript:
How achievable is Universal Primary Education in Rural Ghana? Lessons from the Kintampo DSS. Abubakari Sulemana Alexander Manu Charles Zandoh Robert Adda Robert Adda Seth Owusu-Agyei Kintampo Health Research Centre, P. O. Box 200, Kintampo, Ghana
Background I Education is of paramount importance to the individual and society. It affects all aspects of human life, including health and general wellbeing (Barbara Bruns et al, 2003) The 1989 Convention of the Rights of the Child: Free primary education is a fundamental right (OHCHR, 1990) Specifically, MDG 2 is to ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling (World Education Forum Dakar,2000) Education is necessary in eradicating poverty and hunger, combating disease, ensuring environmental sustainability and reducing deaths, thus MDG2 can be seen as the bedrock for all the other MDG goals in the long run.
Background II Accessibility and affordability to education is still a problem despite governments efforts Globally about 15% of children of primary school age are not enrolled in primary schools Only about 29% of countries in the world have achieved the MDG-2 ( Universal Primary Education ) as at 2002 whilst 23 countries are at risk of not achieving this target by 2015 (Global Monitoring, 2003) The picture is even more bleak in sub-Saharan Africa where over 4 out of every 10 children of school going age are still not or have never been to school at all!
Background III In rural Ghana 54% of school-age children, just over 5 out of 10, are enrolled in primary school (World Bank, 1996) Even when they are enrolled, the Ghanaian child also faces the phenomenon of early school drop-out In the Kintampo North and South Districts where our DSS operates the situation may not different.
THE LOCATION OF KINTAMPO DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (KDSS) The Kintampo DSS is located in the Kintampo North & South Districts of the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. It occupies an area of 7,162 km 2 and lies within the Forest Transitional Zone (middle belt). Total population covered by the DSS is about 125,309 with 23,306 households in 16,370 compounds The population is young with about 41% < 15 years old; Dependency ratio is 89.4% Average members of a household is 6
Objectives To compare primary school enrolment among girls and boys To compare school drop out rates among girls and boys in primary school To examine for the factors that predict school enrolment and possibly those accounting for any disparities by gender
Methods I This study uses data from the Kintampo Demographic Surveillance System (KDSS) Longitudinal annual educational data collected/updated on all subjects 6 years and above. Current/highest level of education reached is updated once every year for all the eligible population Data is also collected on household characteristics, which includes wealth/assets housing and other socio- economic and cultural characteristics A field worker interviewing a household in a community A field worker interviewing a household in a community
Methods II Data from the DSS was complemented with national data from the Ghana Education Service (GES) annual school census Data analyses were limited to children between 6 and 10 years of age or primary school children Analysis was done using STATA 9.0 Comparison was made between girls and boys enrolment and drop out rates from primary one to six Logistic regression analysis was done using enrolment as the outcome and household head (hh) characteristics that significantly predicted school enrolment were assessed using Likelihood ratio tests. All test significance were at the 5% level.
Results I Over 90% of the rural communites have facilities for primary education 24.8% (35) of primary schools are located in urban communities and 75.2% (106) in rural communities There are about 24,580 children of school going age (6 – 10 years) of which 50.3% are females and 49.7% are males. 30.4% (7,466) of the children are located in urban communities Out of the 24,580 children only 48% (11,799) have started primary one, of which 47.4% are females and 52.6% are males
Results II Primary school enrolment for girls is low compared to boys at all levels. Enrolment at primary one for girls and boys are 47.4% and 52.6% respectively 52% of children between 6 to 10 years have either not started or are yet to start primary one Primary School dropout is about 19% for female and 17% for males in 2005/2006 academic year.
Results contd Univariable analysis showed that factors significantly associated (p<0.001) with enrolment are educational attainment, location (rural or urban), religion, ethnicity and marital status. Also, all five factors were found to be predictors in the multivariable model suggesting they were factors significantly associated with a childs enrolment Model equation for the adjusted ORs is given by Odds (Enrolment ij ) = 1.03tribe i + 1.13town i + 0.88marry2 i + 0.55marry3 i + 1.17educ2 i + 1.17educ3 i + 1.03religion2 i + 0.82religion3 i + 0.73religion4 i + 0.86religion4 i
Results contd Model Likelihood ratio = -38438 This model predicts that, irrespective of the tribe, religion, marital status and education, the odds of having a child enrolled is increased by 13% if the hh is located in an urban compared to rural area; Also, irrespective of the tribe, religion, marital status and location, the odds of having a child enrolled is increased by 17% if the hh is educated above the primary level (ie either to JSS level and similarly to the secondary level and above)
Discussions I A larger proportion of children of school-going age (52%) were not in school. Need for intervention to put the 52% children of school- going age into classrooms to ensure the success of MDG 2. Female children who are in school (47.4%) are less than their males counterpart even though females are in majority (50.3%) The MDG aims at equal proportions of boys and girls completing basic education. Educating the girl has a multiplier effect
Discussions II The Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) was introduced in Oct. 1996 to help increase enrolment and sustained it. Only some aspects of the programme (e.g. Capitation grant, free textbook, etc) is currently being run The compulsory aspect of the FCUBE has not been enforced since its inception. Inadequate schools (141 primary schools serving a population of over 24,000) and other resources may be a hindrance to absorbing all children of school going age if the government is to enforce the compulsory aspect of the FCUBE programme.
Discussions II Significant predictors of school enrolment such as educational attainment of the head of household are expected but suggest that interventions to improve enrolment and reduce dropouts should have targeted packages for these populations and hence the relevance of the DSS for their characteristics Universal access to education will not be attainable if rural dwelling puts people at a disadvantage. In a population where over 60% dwell in rural areas, this would be worrying. Trends in the ORs suggested that married people or people in concubinage tend to have children enrolled better than those separated, divorced or widowed. Single parenthood is almost detrimental to the childs prospect of enrolment ( associated with a 45% reduction in the odds compared to the married). Support for single parents is called for.
From the evidence, the millennium development goal of achieving universal primary education by 2015 may be elusive in rural Ghana considering the current militating factors. This analysis made possible due to the existence of the KDSS Many of the factors elucidated in this analyses suggest that not educating our children today is virtually setting up a vicious cycle where they will also in the future be unlikely to send their children to school which wili further exacerbate the effects of poverty on the child. THE TIME TO ACT IS NOW! THE CHILD CANT WAIT
Acknowledgement Community members, Kintampo North and South Districts Kintampo DSS Team Staff of KHRC INDEPTH Network