Presentation on theme: "Inclusive education: an overview International Workshop Handicap International September 2007 Susie Miles School of Education, University of Manchester."— Presentation transcript:
Inclusive education: an overview International Workshop Handicap International September 2007 Susie Miles School of Education, University of Manchester Enabling Education Network – EENET
What does inclusion look like?
The right to education for all: access and quality 1989UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990World Conference on Education for All (EFA) by the year 2000, Jomtien, Thailand 1993UN Standard Rules (on Disability) 1994Salamanca Statement – on Special Needs Education: access and quality 2000World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, Review of progress on EFA Conference Millennium Development Goals (Goal 2 UPE) 2006UN Convention on the Rights of people with Disabilities (Article 24: Education)
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 Article 2Non-discrimination Regardless of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property, disability, birth Article 28/29The right to quality education develop the childs personality, talents and mental and physical abilities, develop respect for the childs own cultural and national values Article 23 Disabled childrens education ensure disabled children have access to education while recognising their need for special care and assistance
The Salamanca Statement, 1994 … schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, linguistic or other conditions. This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children from linguistic, ethnic, or cultural minorities and children from other disadvantaged or marginalized areas and groups. (Salamanca Statament, para 2) Inclusive schools are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost- effectiveness of the entire education system. (Introduction to Framework for Action, para 3)
EENETs definition of inclusive education all children can learn inclusive education is a dynamic process which is constantly evolving differences in children, such as age, gender, ethnicity, language, disability, HIV and TB status, should be acknowledged and respected education structures, systems and methodologies should be developed to meet the needs of all children inclusive education should be seen as part of a wider strategy to promote an inclusive society progress need not be restricted by large class sizes or a shortage of material resources. Based on the Agra Conference, 1998
A UK Department for International Development (DfID) definition, 2000 Inclusive education in a developing country implies the equal right of all children to the educational package, however basic that package may be.
Disability Awareness in Action Definition of inclusion, 2003 When we refer to inclusion, we mean the participation of disabled children through the provision of fully accessible information, environments and support.
A UNESCO definition of inclusive education, 2001 Inclusive education starts from the belief that the right to education is a basic human right and the foundation for a more just society. Inclusive education takes the Education for All (EFA) agenda forward by finding ways of enabling schools to serve all children in their communities…. Inclusive education is concerned with all learners, with a focus on those who have traditionally been excluded from educational opportunities – such as learners with special needs and disabilities, children from ethnic and linguistic minorities.
UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, 2006 Article 24: Education All disabled children and young people can access an inclusive, quality, free primary and secondary education on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live. Reasonable accommodation of the individuals requirements. Support should be provided, within the general education system, to facilitate their effective education. The education of … children, who are blind, deaf and deafblind, is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for the individual, and in environments which maximize academic and social development.
Inclusive education at all levels International National Local government Community School Family Individual child
Key Issues Poverty, gender, race, HIV/AIDS, disability, language Policy development Teacher education and development Role of disabled people and their organisations Child to Child and pupil voice Inclusive learning environments Information and accessibility Early childhood development Family and community involvement (CBR) Adult and non- formal education
Physical access This bridge is the only access to the nearest school An inclusive education project in Oriang, Kenya, supported by Leonard Cheshire International
Levelling the school environment Teachers and pupils working to prevent soil erosion.
New toilets adapted for students and staff.
The importance of good lighting This window has been enlarged to improve light quality.
Worrying trends The majority of disabled children do not go to school. Disabled children are often seen as ineducable and not worth wasting resources on. Disability mainstreaming is still the dominant view in education Special schools and specialists are often considered to be essential – rather than developing capacity in communities. Special units are seen as a way forward – yet they are problematic. Most agencies focus on schooling - not enough attention paid to alternative forms of education The term inclusive education is used to mean different things in different places. Teacher education rarely keeps up with changes in policy and practice.
Signs of hope School fees have been abolished in many countries UNESCO is promoting child-friendly (inclusive) schools Inclusive education is now a right – in over 100 countries (those who have signed the new UN Convention) The inclusion of disabled children is often a catalyst for change and can challenge EFA to be more inclusive. People are passionate about sharing their experience of making IE a reality.
An inclusive approach to education for all Inclusive education Focus on disability rights Education for All Universal Primary Education Improving the quality of education