Presentation on theme: "Goals & Outcomes of Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Goals & Outcomes of Instruction Child engagement.Growth and change of whole childSocial competence and prosocial behavior.Use of skills in daily functioning.Assist children in spending their lives with their families in their communities.Prevent additional problems or disabilities.
2 Foundational Assumptions of Special Education Instruction Development is influenced by student’s biological status, health status, & history.Development and learning are influenced by experience.Instruction will vary in focus on:biological functioning (surgery, diet, medication)ecological variables (family support)child-environment (curricular strategies)
3 Program Models: 0 to 3Center-based: Families bring their infant or toddler to a program at an agency setting where appropriate services are provided by professionals and paraprofessionals. Intervention sessions are scheduled either on an individual basis or in small groups.Home-based: Individualized to meet the child's needs with whatever resources are available in the home.Regular child-care settings: ”Normalized" settings which provide opportunities for integration.
4 Program Models: Preschool Integrated preschool settings: ”Normalized" settings which provide opportunities for integration; special education teacher is either full-time staff member or a consultant to the early childhood educatorSegregated preschool settings: this is usual for children from 3 to 5 because most public school systems don't provide services for typical kids at this age.Head Start: 10% of children have disabilities; but very few children with severe/profound MR are served.
5 Program Models: School Aged Regular classroom with supportive servicesResource Room Placement: “pull-out”Special Class PlacementSpecial Day School PlacementHomebound ProgramsOther Domiciled SettingsResidential Settings
6 Team ModelsMultidisciplinary: Professionals work independently evaluating and serving the client in their own domains. Each applies the expertise and techniques of his or her discipline in isolation of what professionals in other disciplines are doing concurrently with a child or parent. Little or no interaction or ongoing communication occurs among professionals dealing with the same client.Interdisciplinary: Professionals form various disciplines work together cooperatively in both planning and delivering services to the child or parent. Emphasis is upon teamwork and interaction among team members, who help and rely upon each other to provide well-coordinated, integrated services for he individual, although each discipline ultimately delivers the service in its own domain.Transdisciplinary: Professionals from various disciplines work together cooperatively by educating one another in the skills and practice of their disciplines so that one team member can act as the single agent for carrying out services with a designated child or parent.VI. Teams:A. Everybody likes candy activity…..B. Show overheads for: Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary, Transdisciplinary
7 The IEP/IFSP Process Critical Components: present levels of functioning across domainsfamily resources, priorities, and concerns related to child developmentexpected intervention outcomes, including criteria, procedures, and timelinesdescription of the specific services needed to meet the child/family needsenvironments in which services will be provideddates for initiation & duration of servicesname of service coordinatorprocedures for transition
8 Types of Assessments…Standardized tests: Tests which are uniform in administration and scoring; have been normed on a representative sample of individuals for whom the test is designed.Norm referenced measures: Child’s performance is compared with that of other children.Criterion referenced measures: Child’s performance is compared with a specified level or standard of achievement.e.g. Curriculum based measures: assess performance along a continuum of objectives, especially within a developmentally sequenced curriculumSystematic Observations: observations by knowledgeable persons
9 What are the questions you should ask when choosing an assessment instrument? What is the purpose of the assessment?Is the assessment valid?Is the assessment reliable?Is this assessment reliable and valid given the characteristics of the child being tested?
10 The Assessment Process Identification: process of locating infants and toddlers and their families who might be eligible for early intervention.Screening: The process of identifying those children in need of further in-depth assessment.In-depth assessment for diagnosis and determination of eligibility: Comprehensive assessment used to verify the presence of conditions that may qualify a child for early intervention/ECSE services.Monitoring of child progress during intervention: According to the IEP/IFSP there will be ongoing monitoring of services.Population Tracking: As part of Part C services, states are required to have a system for compiling data on the # of infants in need of serves; the number served, and the types of services provided
11 Assessment for Program Planning and Service Delivery Procedures used by the assessment team to:a) determine the individual’s current level of functioningb) clarify strengths and needsc) identify special services needed by the studentd) identify intervention techniques that can be incorporated into the IEPe) revise these plans as necessary
12 Recommended Assessment Practices a) use multiple perspectivesb) use multiple techniquesc) assess on multiple occasionsd) assess the environmente) use authentic item contentf) make collaborative decisionsg) assess environment
13 Linking Assessment & Intervention functional rather than categoricaldevelopmental rather than psychometriccriterion referenced rather than norm- referencedtask and process specificlongitudinal instead of “one-time”planning purposes rather than diagnostic purposesecological rather than child-only view
14 Assessments “Types” that Link to Intervention Criterion Referenced Assessments: compares a child’s performance with a specified level or standard of achievement; Curriculum-based assessments are a sub-setParticipant Interviews: ask professionals or caregivers to record their perceptions of the child’s functioning.Systematic Observations: involves structured observation and recording of behavior and yields quantifiable dataAnecdotal Recordings: a written description of a child’s behavior in a particular situation/setting/interactionClassroom-based: in the environment in which instruction will occur
15 Dimensions of Authentic Assessment Performance dimension: Emphasizes a student's active generation of a response and highlights that the responses observable.Authentic dimension: Emphasizes the real life nature of a task and the natural context in which the assessment occurs or the observational data are gathered. Authenticity is important because:The more realistic or natural the task, the greater the motivation to the child and the more applicable the task to everyday events and situationsAuthentic tasks and circumstances promote the importance of a competency-based approach to the education of young children with special needs and the focus the assessment across all disciplines on a complex sets of skills and processes and the generalization of learning across settingsAuthentic tasks require the assessor to make no inferences about a child's capabilities, because the behaviors sampled are directly observable.Instructional linkage dimension: Emphasizes the extent to which the assessment tasks are aligned with curriculum outcomes.
16 Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Guiding Principles:1. Family-centered collaboration is basic to the process2. The natural environment of the child and the family should be the environment for the development and implementation of the IFSP3. The process is critical
17 Critical Components present levels of functioning across domains family resources, priorities, and concerns related to child developmentexpected intervention outcomes, including criteria, procedures, and timelinesdescription of the specific services needed to meet the child/family needsenvironments in which services will be provideddates for initiation & duration of servicesname of service coordinatorprocedures for transition
18 Assessment collecting information tests observations interviews contexts:unstructured playstructured playpeer interactioncaregiver-child interactionmotor playmeal-timeInformation regarding:diagnosis and eligibilityintervention & placementongoing assessment
19 Inclusion Definitions Mainstreaming: initially referred to the reentry of children with mild disabilities into regular education programs.Integration: Early efforts to combine young children who were disabled and nondisabled into a single program.Inclusion: Rather than separating students on the basis of disability, students should simply be included, by right, in the opportunities and responsibilities of public schooling
20 Necessary for Successful Inclusion attitudeselection of appropriate settingtrainingvigilanceaccess to specialistscollaborative planning, decision making, and service deliveryappropriate materials and equipmentactivity based curriculaactive promotion of interaction between nondisabled and disabled students
21 Why Neither 0% nor 100% Works - Brown, et al. Best models are in regular educationmore social opportunities in regular educationregular education is chronologically appropriateintegration benefits all studentsbetter to be an insider who goes out than an outsider who goes intherapies generalize better when applied in regular classroomsindividualized, systematic, comprehensive, and long-term instruction in a wide array of environments must be a critical component of an educational plandirect instruction in one-on-one environments is necessarySpecialization not available in general education classroom is necessary for mastery of some subjects
22 Factors to Consider When Making Placement Decisions The number of skills that need to be masteredHow much abstract learning is possible by the student? How much concrete instruction occurs in the class?How many trials does the student generally need for skill acquisition?How much drill & practice will the student need for mastery?What activities will be necessary for generalization?What is the range of instruction for the class?
23 Options when Home-base is General Education Extend the curriculum downwardGenerate alternative activitiesprovide additional instruction in other environmentsprovide primary instruction in other activities
24 Individual Considerations Chronological ageRelated servicesNumber of environmentsPersonnelSocial RelationshipsStudent/Family prioritiesProbability of skill acquisitionFunctionalityPreparation for future
25 Effective Use of Human Resources... Outline all students’ needs for support during activitiesOutline students’ daily scheduleOutline adults’ daily schedule, including responsibilities during individual lessonsLook for other resources:volunteersclassmatesstudentsparents
26 Handouts to Download Inclusion Observation Checklist: Depending on how your individual computer and web browser works, either:(a) click on the highlighted text to open the handouts(b) insert the web address below on the “location” line of your web browserInclusion Observation Checklist:Parent Questionnaire & Environmental Checklist:** The handouts are in Adobe Acrobat Format. If you do not have that software program, the UIC computers do or you can download it for free. Instructions are on the Circle of Inclusion Web Page.
27 Additional References Bagnato, S. J., Neisworth, J. T., & Munson, S. M. (1997). Linking assessment and early intervention: An authentic curriculum-based approach. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Bredekamp, S. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.Bricker, D. (1995). The challenge of inclusion. Journal of Early Intervention, 19,Brown, L., Schwarz, P., Udvari-Solner, A., Kampschroer, E.F., Johnson, F., Jorgenson, J. & Gruenewald, L. (1991). How much time should students with severe intellectual disabilities spend in regular education classrooms and elsewhere? Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 16,Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (1994). Inclusive education and the radicalization of special education reform. Exceptional Children, 60,Henley, M., Ramsey, R. S., & Algozzine, R. F. (1996). Characteristics of and strategies for teaching students with mild disabilities. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Karp, Joan M. (1996). Assessing Environments. In M. McLean, D.B. Baily, & M. Wolery (Eds.), Assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs, (pp ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.Lutzker, J. R., & Campbell, R. (1994). Ecobehavioral family intervention in developmental disabilities. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole Publishing.Mowder, B. A. (1997). Family dynamics. In A. H. Widerstrom, B. A. Mowder, & S. R. Sandall, (Eds.), Infant development and risk: An introduction, (pp ). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.National Association for the Education of Young children (NAEYC); Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children (DEC/CEC), & National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). (1996). Guidelines for preparation of early childhood professionals. Washington, DC: NAEYC.