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1 THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE Education for All. 2 The world is not on track to achieve the six EFA goals Without better quality, EFA is unattainable This.

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Presentation on theme: "1 THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE Education for All. 2 The world is not on track to achieve the six EFA goals Without better quality, EFA is unattainable This."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE Education for All

2 2 The world is not on track to achieve the six EFA goals Without better quality, EFA is unattainable This report defines education quality, shows why it matters and indicates how it can be improved, particularly in poorer countries Achieving this and the other goals will require both policy change and more resources from the international community Education for All THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE

3 3 Progress towards UPE NET ENROLMENT RATIOS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION 81.7% in 1990, 84% in 2001 Pace of change too slow to reach UPE by 2015 Net enrolment ratio: 85% in 2005, 87% in 2015 103.5 million out-of-school children in 2001 Out-of-school children by region (in millions), 2001

4 4 Girls enrolment lags behind boys in 40% of countries at primary level Disparities more extreme at secondary and tertiary levels 57% of out of school children are girls Gender parity Progress towards Gender Parity

5 5 64% of adult illiterates are women Gender parity GPI (F/M) in adult literacy, 2000-2004 800 million adults without literacy, 70% live in nine countries Literacy and adult learning

6 6 Slow global progress: in the majority of countries, GER in pre-primary education is still below 50% Children from disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to be excluded Attendance rates considerably higher for urban children than those living in rural areas A strong influence on future school performance Progress towards ECCE

7 7 41 countries have achieved or nearly achieved the four goals 51 countries have EDI values between 0.80 and 0.94. Almost half the countries in this category, most of them in Latin America, lag on the education quality goal 35 countries are very far from achieving the goals, with EDI values below 0.80. 22 are in Sub-Saharan Africa, plus Bangladesh, India and Pakistan The EFA Development Index measures progress towards UPE, gender parity, literacy and quality Overall progress

8 8 Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills Education Quality Goal 6 Dakar Framework for Action, 2000

9 9 Cognitive development: reading, writing, numeracy Creative and emotional development and the promotion of attitudes and values necessary for effective life in the community better health, lower fertility, lower exposure to HIV/AIDS higher personal income stronger national growth A good quality education encompasses: A good quality education carries personal and social benefits: The Quality Challenge

10 10 Education and HIV/AIDS: Knowledge causes behaviour to change HIV prevalence in rural Uganda (%) by education category, 1990-2001 (individuals aged 18-29)

11 11 The Paradox: Test scores and changes in per pupil expenditures in OECD

12 12 Expenditure Impact Production function studies, developing countries

13 13 Studies show that more resources for: Low pupil-teacher ratios more and better textbooks time spent learning in school or at home teacher qualifications and experience matter for quality A wide range of evidence indicates that additional resources improve education quality, particularly where they are scare Learning from the evidence

14 14 strong leadership emphasis on learning basic skills orderly and secure school environment high expectations of pupil attainment frequent assessment of progress How resources are used is important for quality Research on the characteristics of effective schools highlights the importance of the following factors:

15 15 Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Senegal, South Africa and Sri Lanka The report draws lessons from 11 ambitious and high-performing countries on the quality front Rising to the challenge have achieved universal access, give teachers high status, have explicit vision of educations objectives and policy continuity over time have introduced policies to expand access and address quality. Reforms focus on teachers, training, curriculum, management and achieving greater equity The ambitious countries The high-performing countries Canada, Cuba, Finland and Republic of Korea

16 16 Stark regional inequalities: a child in Africa spends five to six fewer years in school than one in Western Europe Drop-out: in 30 out of 91 countries with data, less than 75% of children reach grade 5 Large classrooms: pupil-teacher ratios on the rise in countries where education has expanded rapidly. Lack of teacher training and poor conditions of service hinder learning in many low-income countries. In many low-income countries more than one third of children have limited reading skills even after four to six years in school Quality diagnosis highlights

17 17 Southern Africa: in 4 countries less than 10% and in 3 others around one-third or less of tested grade 6 students reach a desirable level in reading Francophone Africa: in 6 countries, between 14% and 43% of grade 5 pupils have low achievement in French or mathematics OECD countries: between 2% and 10% of 15-year-olds have serious deficiencies in literacy skills, whereas in middle and low-income countries, between 20% and 50% do so International assessments point to weak performance Quality diagnosis: achievement tests

18 18 Literacy scores Changes between Sacmeq 1 and 2

19 19 Quantity versus quality in primary schooling Quantitative versus qualitative indicators of participation in primary schooling

20 20 Start with learners and take all actors into account Towards better quality: a holistic approach

21 21 Only one-third of students reach last grade of primary education where pupil/teacher ratios are high Primary education: pupil/teacher ratios and survival to the last grade, 2001 In the classroom: investing in teachers

22 22 In Africa, teacher earnings were lower in real terms in 2000 than they were in 1970 Earnings often too low to provide an acceptable standard of living: less than $2 a day in Sierra Leone government schools, but even less in community schools Significant reductions from 1998-2001 in Argentina, Indonesia, Philippines, Tunisia and Uruguay Real wages of teachers have declined relative to average incomes in low-income countries Can conditions of service attract teachers?

23 23 Discovery-based pedagogies pioneered in many programmes are difficult to implement on national scale in resource-constrained contexts Structured teaching is a pragmatic option in low-income settings. Teacher presents material in small steps, checks student understanding and encourages interaction Regular assessment and feedback improves learning Rigid chalk and talk pedagogy is widespread In the classroom: pedagogical renewal

24 24 Curriculum: relevant, balanced with carefully defined aims Instructional time: few countries reach recommended 850- 1,000 hours/year Learning materials: strong impact on learning but small percentage of education spending goes to textbooks Language: Successful models start in mother tongue and make gradual transition to second or foreign language School environment: safety, health, sanitation for girls and boys, access for disabled Other essentials that make the difference

25 25 Governance: school leadership, room for consultation between teachers, governments and other stakeholders on curriculum, employment and working conditions Participatory learning networks and professional advisory bodies to encourage sharing of best practice Combating corrupt practices: fraud in public tendering for school buildings and textbooks, nepotism and bribes in teacher appointment and examinations Equity: reducing regional and social inequalities advances education for all Beyond the classroom: policies conducive to better quality

26 26 6% of GNP recommended on education spending not reached in majority of countries Education spending higher in rich countries (5.1% of GNP) than in systems where access and quality remain a top challenge (under 4% in Africa and East Asia/Pacific) Spending increases in East Asia and Pacific and Latin American and Caribbean in late 1990s, but -24% in Philippines; -8% in Indonesia In low income countries, increasing spending has a positive impact on learners cognitive achievement National resources: finance and quality

27 27 Students in countries that invest more in education tend to have better literacy skills. In high-income states, the impact of additional resources is less clear National resources: finance and quality

28 28 The Dakar Pledge : No country seriously committed to education will be thwarted by lack of resources Bilateral and multilateral aid to basic education = $1.54 billion New pledges could increase aid to $3.2 billion This falls short of $5.6 billion additional resources to achieve UPE and gender parity goals Fast Track Initiative : total resources so far raised are tiny compared with requirements. Even in the first ten countries endorsed, a financing gap of $200 million remains International commitments: the need for sustained investment

29 29 Eight donors account for 85% of bilateral aid to education All donors -except Finland - that give relatively high priority to education aid make post-secondary the most important level Fragmented programmes: donors disburse aid to an average 63 countries; recipient countries dealt on average with seven to twelve bilateral donors in 2001-2002 Few studies link aid and better learning outcomes Improving aid effectiveness

30 30 Successful qualitative reforms require: Prime attention to quality of teaching profession Strong leading role by government A societal project for improving education Policy continuity over time Wrapping up EFA Global Monitoring Report / Education quantity and quality are complements, not substitutes

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