Presentation on theme: "THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE Education for AllTHE QUALITY IMPERATIVE
2 Education for All THE QUALITY IMPERATIVE The world is not on track to achieve the six EFA goalsWithout better quality, EFA is unattainableThis report defines education quality, shows why it matters and indicates how it can be improved, particularly in poorer countriesAchieving this and the other goals will require both policy change and more resources from the international communityThe EFA Goals include the two Millennium Development Goals of achieving universal primary education and eliminating gender disparity in education
3 103.5 million out-of-school children in 2001 Progress towards UPENET ENROLMENT RATIOS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION81.7% in 1990,84% in 2001Pace of change too slow to reach UPE by 2015103.5 million out-of-school children in 2001Net enrolment ratio:85% in 2005, 87% in 2015Out-of-school children by region (in millions), 2001Out of school children: About 75% live in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West AsiaProjections 2005 and 2015 are based on current trendsSSA: average NER rose from 54% in 1990 to 58% in 1998 and 63% in 2001South and West Asia: includes three of world’s nine high population countries (Bangladesh, India and Pakistan). Average NER rose from 73% to 79% between 1990 and Slow rise because of continued population growth.Latin America Caribbean: rose from 86% to 94% between 1990 and 1998 and reached almost 96% in 2001Arab States: slow progress toward UPE from 1990 to NER rose from 75% to 78% between 1990 and 1998, and reached 81% in 2001.East Asia Pacific: moved away from UPE over : from 96% in 1990 to 94% in 2001
4 Progress towards Gender Parity 57% of out of school children are girlsGender parityGirls’ enrolment lags behind boys’ in 40% of countries at primary levelDisparities more extreme at secondary and tertiary levels
5 Literacy and adult learning 800 million adults without literacy, 70% live in nine countries64% of adult illiterates are womenGender parityGPI (F/M) in adult literacy,India has 33.8% of the world’s illiterates. Figures for the other eight countries are China 11.2%, Bangladesh 6.5%, Pakistan 6.4%, Nigeria 2.8%, Ethiopia 2.7%, Egypt 2.6%, Indonesia 2.3%, Brazil 1.9%,)
6 Progress towards ECCE A strong influence on future school performance Slow global progress: in the majority of countries, GER in pre-primary education is still below 50%Children from disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to be excludedAttendance rates considerably higher for urban children than those living in rural areasSee page 87 and 88 of full report. Viet Nam is one example of strong urban-rural disparity.
7 Overall progressThe EFA Development Index measures progress towards UPE, gender parity, literacy and quality41 countries have achieved or nearly achieved the four goals51 countries have EDI values between 0.80 and Almost half the countries in this category, most of them in Latin America, lag on the education quality goal35 countries are very far from achieving the goals, with EDI values below are in Sub-Saharan Africa, plus Bangladesh, India and PakistanThe 41 countries are almost all in North America and Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe
8 Education Quality Goal 6 “Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills”Dakar Framework for Action, 2000
9 The Quality Challenge A good quality education encompasses: Cognitive development: reading, writing, numeracyCreative and emotional development and the promotion of attitudes and values necessary for effective life in the communityA good quality education carries personal and social benefits:Examples of these include respect for human rights, for the environment, for cultural diversity, equity and non discriminationbetter health, lower fertility, lower exposure to HIV/AIDShigher personal incomestronger national growth
10 Education and HIV/AIDS: Knowledge causes behaviour to change ¨Pupil teacher ratios: in most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia, the number of pupils per teacher exceeds 40 in primary education and climbs over 60 in several cases, including Malawi, Mozambique,Central African RepublicHIV prevalence in rural Uganda (%) by education category, (individuals aged 18-29)
11 The Paradox: Test scores and changes in per pupil expenditures in OECD
12 Expenditure Impact Production function studies, developing countries
13 Learning from the evidence A wide range of evidence indicates that additional resources improve education quality, particularly where they are scareStudies show that more resources for:Low pupil-teacher ratiosmore and better textbookstime spent learning in school or at hometeacher qualifications and experiencematter for quality
14 How resources are used is important for quality Research on the characteristics of effective schools highlights the importance of the following factors:strong leadershipemphasis on learning basic skillsorderly and secure school environmenthigh expectations of pupil attainmentfrequent assessment of progress
15 Rising to the challenge The report draws lessons from 11 “ambitious” and“high-performing” countries on the quality frontThe ambitious countriesBangladesh, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Senegal, South Africa and Sri Lankahave introduced policies to expand access and address quality. Reforms focus on teachers, training, curriculum, management and achieving greater equityThe high-performing countriesInternational assessments (SACMEQ, PASEC AND PISA) implemented in these countries on a comparable basis and completed over the last decade.See Page of the full report for details on these tests plus data on national achievement tests.Canada, Cuba, Finland and Republic of Koreahave achieved universal access, give teachers high status, have explicit vision of education’s objectives and policy continuity over time
16 Quality diagnosis highlights In many low-income countries more than one thirdof children have limited reading skills even afterfour to six years in schoolStark regional inequalities: a child in Africa spends five to six fewer years in school than one in Western EuropeDrop-out: in 30 out of 91 countries with data, less than 75% of children reach grade 5Large classrooms: pupil-teacher ratios on the rise in countries where education has expanded rapidly.Lack of teacher training and poor conditions of service hinder learning in many low-income countries.¨Pupil teacher ratios: in most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia, the number of pupils per teacher exceeds 40 in primary education and climbs over 60 in several cases, including Malawi, Mozambique,Central African Republic and Chad. See table 13A annex of report.In Arab States, Asia, LAC and SSA, disadvantaged areas tend to receive less trained teachersTeacher training: In some Sub-Saharan Africa countries, fewer than 60% of primary school teachers have received some pedagogical training. In Latin America, percentage of trained primary school teachers is under 78% in half the countries with data for 2001.Disadvantaged areas generally receive fewer trained teachers.
17 Quality diagnosis: achievement tests International assessments point to weak performanceSouthern Africa: in 4 countries less than 10% and in 3 others around one-third or less of tested grade 6 students reach a ‘desirable level’ in readingFrancophone Africa: in 6 countries, between 14% and 43% of grade 5 pupils have low achievement in French or mathematicsOECD countries: between 2% and 10% of 15-year-olds have serious deficiencies in literacy skills, whereas in middle and low-income countries, between 20% and 50% do soInternational assessments (SACMEQ, PASEC AND PISA) implemented in these countries on a comparable basis and completed over the last decade.See Page of the full report for details on these tests plus data on national achievement tests.
18 Literacy scores Changes between Sacmeq 1 and 2 ¨Pupil teacher ratios: in most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia, the number of pupils per teacher exceeds 40 in primary education and climbs over 60 in several cases, including Malawi, Mozambique,Central African Republic and Chad. See table 13A annex of report.In Arab States, Asia, LAC and SSA, disadvantaged areas tend to receive less trained teachersTeacher training: In some Sub-Saharan Africa countries, fewer than 60% of primary school teachers have received some pedagogical training. In Latin America, percentage of trained primary school teachers is under 78% in half the countries with data for 2001.Disadvantaged areas generally receive fewer trained teachers.
19 Quantity versus quality in primary schooling StudyCountryCohort% that has everenrolled(ages 6-14)% thatsurvived tograde 5% that achievedminimummasteryNER in primaryfor the periodbefore the testSACMEQMalawi1009131769(1995)Mauritius999852Grade 6 Reading testNamibia97741984U. R.Tanzania87701854PIRLS (2001)Colombia6027Grade 4 Reading testMorocco775981PASECBurkina Faso35252128(mid 1990s)Cameroon88453373Grade 5 French testCôte d’Ivoire653849Guinea483236Madagascar782063Senegal4251Togo824066Quantitative versus qualitative indicators of participation in primary schooling
20 Towards better quality: a holistic approach Start with learners and take all actors into accountOn page 143 of main report●Start with learners: inclusive policies that respond to very diverse circumstances (gender, HIV/AIDS, conflict, disabilities)●Improve teaching and learning●Gain and use knowledge to improve practice●Equitable and accountable use of resources●Management and governanceReport considers each dimension, this presentation focuses on select policies
21 In the classroom: investing in teachers Only one-third of students reach last grade of primary education where pupil/teacher ratios are highPrimary education: pupil/teacher ratios and survival to the last grade, 2001Note: Countries with a survival rate of less than 75% are labelled. See figure 3.26 in full report.
22 Can conditions of service attract teachers? Real wages of teachers have declined relative to average incomes in low-income countriesIn Africa, teacher earnings were lower in real terms in than they were in 1970Earnings often too low to provide an acceptable standard of living: less than $2 a day in Sierra Leone government schools, but even less in community schoolsSignificant reductions from in Argentina, Indonesia, Philippines, Tunisia and UruguaySee page of full report
23 In the classroom: pedagogical renewal Rigid chalk and talk pedagogy is widespreadDiscovery-based pedagogies pioneered in many programmes are difficult to implement on national scale in resource-constrained contextsStructured teaching is a pragmatic option in low-income settings. Teacher presents material in small steps, checks student understanding and encourages interactionRegular assessment and feedback improves learningSee page of full report
24 Other essentials that make the difference Curriculum: relevant, balanced with carefully defined aimsInstructional time: few countries reach recommended 850-1,000 hours/yearLearning materials: strong impact on learning but small percentage of education spending goes to textbooksLanguage: Successful models start in mother tongue and make gradual transition to second or foreign languageSchool environment: safety, health, sanitation for girls and boys, access for disabledCurriculum: Literacy is a critical tool for the mastery of other subjects and is one of the best predictors of longer-term achievement. It must be considered a priority area in efforts to improve the quality of basic education (pp )Instructional time has decreased in Sub-Saharan Africa in grades 1-4 between 1980 in 2000 reflecting pressure to meet higher demand under tight resource constraints. Regional average in Arab States = 805 hours, 830 in Latin America, 817 in East Asia Pacific, 789 hours in South and West Asia, 866 in Sub-Saharan Africa. (pp )Language policy: 20% of world population speaks ‘local language’ as mother tongue. Zambia, Papua New Guinea, China, Cambodia among examples cited in the report (pages )Until recently, school construction projects in Sub-Saharan Africa rarely included latrines or water supply
25 Beyond the classroom: policies conducive to better quality Governance: school leadership, room for consultation between teachers, governments and other stakeholders on curriculum, employment and working conditionsParticipatory learning networks and professional advisory bodies to encourage sharing of best practiceCombating corrupt practices: fraud in public tendering for school buildings and textbooks, nepotism and bribes in teacher appointment and examinationsEquity: reducing regional and social inequalities advances education for allGovernance: pp. 174,Corruption: in Zambia, a study in 2000 found that less than 10% of books produced had actually reached the classroom. Page main report. P. 185 on main forms of corruption in the education sectorBrazil: national programmes to equalize funding, help poor families and give late entrants a chance to catch up
26 National resources: finance and quality In low income countries, increasing spending has a positive impact on learners’ cognitive achievement6% of GNP recommended on education spending not reached in majority of countriesEducation spending higher in rich countries (5.1% of GNP) than in systems where access and quality remain a top challenge (under 4% in Africa and East Asia/Pacific)Spending increases in East Asia and Pacific and Latin American and Caribbean in late 1990s, but -24% in Philippines; -8% in IndonesiaTotal public expenditure on education as % of GNP: 3.4% SSA, 3.3% South and West Asia; 4.6% LAC, 3.6% East Asia and the Pacific, figure not available for Arab States
27 National resources: finance and quality Students in countries that invest more in education tend to have better literacy skills. In high-income states, the impact of additional resources is less clearvariation in literacy scores limited even as expenditure doubles from PPP US$40,000 to US$80,000
28 International commitments: the need for sustained investment The Dakar Pledge: No country seriously committed to education will be thwarted by lack of resourcesBilateral and multilateral aid to basic education = $1.54 billionNew pledges could increase aid to $3.2 billionThis falls short of $5.6 billion additional resources to achieve UPE and gender parity goalsFast Track Initiative: total resources so far raised are tiny compared with requirements. Even in the first ten countries endorsed, a financing gap of $200 million remainsAdditional information on external assistance:●Eight donors account for 85% of bilateral aid● All donors except Finland that give relatively high priority to education aid make post-secondary education the most important level● Fragmented programmes: donors disburse aid to an average 63 countries; recipient countries dealt on average with seven to twelve bilateral donors in
29 Improving aid effectiveness Eight donors account for 85% of bilateral aid to educationAll donors -except Finland - that give relatively high priority to education aid make post-secondary the most important levelFragmented programmes: donors disburse aid to an average 63 countries; recipient countries dealt on average with seven to twelve bilateral donors inFew studies link aid and better learning outcomesAdditional information on external assistance:●Eight donors account for 85% of bilateral aid● All donors except Finland that give relatively high priority to education aid make post-secondary education the most important level● Fragmented programmes: donors disburse aid to an average 63 countries; recipient countries dealt on average with seven to twelve bilateral donors in
30 Education quantity and quality are complements, not substitutes Wrapping upEducation quantity and quality are complements, not substitutesSuccessful qualitative reforms require:Prime attention to quality of teaching professionStrong leading role by governmentA societal project for improving educationPolicy continuity over timeEFA Global Monitoring Report/