Presentation on theme: "1 A Contemporary Mission for Physical Education Foundations of HR Fitness: Based on the work of Pate, R.R., & Hohn, R.C. (Eds.) (1994). Health and fitness."— Presentation transcript:
1 A Contemporary Mission for Physical Education Foundations of HR Fitness: Based on the work of Pate, R.R., & Hohn, R.C. (Eds.) (1994). Health and fitness through physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
2 Physical Education Paradox I n Positive elements for the profession –Physical education is an established component of the U.S. school system. –American Fitness Revolution of the 1970s and 1980s has lead to increased adult interest and participation in physical activity, public support for increased physical activity and fitness programming. –Summary Statement: When viewed comprehensively and from a national perspective, physical education in the United States represents an enormous societal investment of school time, space, and personnel (Pate & Hohn, 1994).
3 Physical Education Paradox II n Negative elements for the profession –Insufficient time & space allocated for school physical education programs (Siedentop, Mand, & Taggart, 1986). –Use of poorly prepared & disinterested classroom teachers to deliver physical education in schools (NASPE, 1993; Siedentop, 1990). –Erosion of state requirements for physical education (NASPE, 1993). –Summary Statement: Such trends indicate that, when confronted with financial restrictions and public concerns about academic achievement, school administrators often respond by transferring resources away from physical education to other school programs (Pate & Hohn, 1994).
4 Analysis of the Problem n We propose that societal support for school physical education has decreased despite an overall increase in support for activity and fitness programs, because it is societys perception that physical education has not delivered the goods. We suspect that societys attitude toward physical education is fundamentally ambivalent (Pate & Hohn, 1994). –Tax-paying adults acknowledge the importance of childrens physical activity, physical fitness, & motor skill acquisition, but remain unconvinced of physical educations potential contribution in these areas. –What factors have contributed to the publics ambivalence towards physical education?
5 Problematic Issues in PE n Personal experiences –Pain & embarrassment –Boredom & triviality –Irrelevance n Muddled mission of PE –Motor skill acquisition –Physical fitness –Cognition learning –Social development –Cultural awareness –Academic performance –Lifelong physical activity
6 Contemporary Mission of Physical Education n In our view, physical education will not come to be or be seen as a successful enterprise until it tracks out meaningful, realistic goals and then documents their attainment (Pate & Hohn, 1994). n The aim or mission of the physical education profession must meet certain criteria. The aim must be: –Important –Realistic –Understandable –Professionally accepted
The Development of Youth Fitness Education & The Physical Best Program A Brief History
1954 Dr. Hans Kraus study Results indicated: –Only 42% of American children passed the assessment, while –92% of European school children passed the assessment
1956 President Eisenhower was shocked by the scores from the Kraus study! Thus, Eisenhower established the Presidents Council on Youth Fitness.
1957 The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test: Pull-ups/flexed arm hang Sit-ups Shuttle run Standing broad jump 50-yard dash Softball throw for distance 600-yard walk/run Fitness-related tests (not h-r)
1958 - 1980 The AAHPERD Fitness Test Batteries Skill-RelatedHealth-Related Added single-leg balance Dropped standing broad jump Flexed arm hang Replaced pull-ups with push-ups Sit-ups 600-yard walk/run
1980 AAHPERD redefined FITNESS (shifted focus to health, not skill) The Health-Related Fitness Test was created and replaced all fitness tests
1980 - 1989 The AAHPERD Health-Related Fitness Aerobic Capacity (1-mile walk/run) Muscular strength & endurance (60-sec sit-ups, pull-ups, flexed arm hang, modified pull-ups) Flexibility (sit-n-reach) Body composition (skinfold measurements)
1987 The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research introduced
16 What is unique about: Health-related Criterion referenced Background info on FGRAM standards available at: www.cooperinst.org
1987 - 1989 In 1989 PB test became criterion referenced The Physical Best Educational Program: Developed by educators to enhance the existing physical education curriculum and supplement daily lesson plans.
1993 Partnership For Common Goals Physical Best program of AAHPERD educational arm FITNESSGRAM program of The Cooper Institute assessment piece
22 Philosophy… for Educators BY Physical Educators / FOR Physical Educators To help students DO & UNDERSTAND
23 Philosophy… for Educators n Health-Oriented –Healthful level of physical fitness –Regular physical activity
24 Philosophy… for Educators –Linked to national standards –Teaches students how and why –Educational progression Educational
25 The Stairway to Lifetime Fitness C.B. Corbin and R.P. Pangrazi, 1989 3. Personal Exercise Patterns 4. Evaluate Own Fitness Levels 5. Problem Solve/Decision Making 1. Participate in Regular Exercise 2. Achieve Physical Fitness
26 Philosophy… for Students Enjoyable Realistic Fair
27 Benefits to Educators n Supports Standards n Infuse into an existing curriculum n Ready made & appropriate activities
28 Benefits to Students n Teaching knowledge & values n Enjoyable Participation n All students can be successful
29 Benefits to Students n INDIVIDUALIZED –Students compete only with themselves! –Results/printouts –Intrinsic motivation
30 An Important Message! Educating all children – to achieve their Physical Best