Presentation on theme: "A Contemporary Mission for Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Contemporary Mission for Physical Education PET349 Ayers Spring 2003A Contemporary Mission for Physical EducationFoundations of HR Fitness:Based on the work of Pate, R.R., & Hohn, R.C. (Eds.) (1994). Health and fitness through physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
2 Physical Education Paradox I Positive elements for the professionPhysical education is an established component of the U.S. school system.American “Fitness Revolution” of the 1970’s and 1980’s has lead to increased adult interest and participation in physical activity, public support for increased physical activity and fitness programming.Summary Statement:“When viewed comprehensively and from a national perspective, physical education in the United States represents an enormous societal investment of school time, space, and personnel” (Pate & Hohn, 1994).
3 Physical Education Paradox II Negative elements for the professionInsufficient time & space allocated for school physical education programs (Siedentop, Mand, & Taggart, 1986).Use of poorly prepared & disinterested classroom teachers to deliver physical education in schools (NASPE, 1993; Siedentop, 1990).Erosion of state requirements for physical education (NASPE, 1993).Summary Statement:“Such trends indicate that, when confronted with financial restrictions and public concerns about academic achievement, school administrators often respond by transferring resources away from physical education to other school programs” (Pate & Hohn, 1994).
4 Analysis of the Problem “We propose that societal support for school physical education has decreased despite an overall increase in support for activity and fitness programs, because it is society’s perception that physical education has not ‘delivered the goods.’ We suspect that society’s attitude toward physical education is fundamentally ambivalent” (Pate & Hohn, 1994).Tax-paying adults acknowledge the importance of children’s physical activity, physical fitness, & motor skill acquisition, but remain unconvinced of physical education’s potential contribution in these areas.What factors have contributed to the public’s ambivalence towards physical education?
5 Problematic Issues in PE Personal experiencesPain & embarrassmentBoredom & trivialityIrrelevanceMuddled mission of PEMotor skill acquisitionPhysical fitnessCognition learningSocial developmentCultural awarenessAcademic performanceLifelong physical activity
6 Contemporary Mission of Physical Education “In our view, physical education will not come to be or be seen as a successful enterprise until it tracks out meaningful, realistic goals and then documents their attainment” (Pate & Hohn, 1994).The aim or mission of the physical education profession must meet certain criteria. The aim must be:ImportantRealisticUnderstandableProfessionally accepted
8 The Development of Youth Fitness Education & The Physical Best Program PET349 Ayers Spring 2003The Development of Youth Fitness Education & The Physical Best ProgramA Brief HistoryWe will begin by surveying the development of youth fitness education in the United States – and some of the events that have brought fitness education to its current point in the physical education profession.
9 1954 Dr. Hans Kraus study Results indicated: PET349 Ayers Spring 20031954Dr. Hans Kraus studyResults indicated:Only 42% of American children passed the assessment, while92% of European school children passed the assessmentDr. Hans Kraus was responsible for the Kraus-Weber studies that compared the fitness of American youth with that of European youth. In 1954 he released a study with the following results.(read study results from slide)
10 PET349 Ayers Spring 20031956President Eisenhower was shocked by the scores from the Kraus study!Thus, Eisenhower established the President’s Council on Youth Fitness.(first bullet point on slide)IN ORDER TO FULLY APPRECIATE EISENHOWER’S REACTION, WE HAVE TO REMEMBER WHAT WAS THE POLITICAL CLIMATE WAS LIKE IN THE 50’S.WORLD WAR II IS ONLY RECENTLY OVER.THE SOVIET UNION AND SIX OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE COMMUNISTIC AND THEY HAVE DELCARED THEMSELVES AGAINST THE USA AND OTHER NON-COMMUNIST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES LIKE GERMANY, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN.SO NOW, WE HAVE THE COLD WAR. THE COMMUNISTS VERSUS THE NON-COMMUNISTS.IN SUCH A TIME, THE FITNESS OF THE YOUTH IS A BIG CONCERN. OUR YOUTH ARE OUR FUTURE SOLDIERS. WE NEED TO BE PREPARED NATIONAL EMERGENCIES.(second bullet point on slide)
11 1957 The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test: Pull-ups/flexed arm hang Sit-ups PET349 Ayers Spring 20031957The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test:Pull-ups/flexed arm hangSit-upsShuttle runStanding broad jump50-yard dashSoftball throw for distance600-yard walk/runFitness-related tests (not h-r)AAHPER (now known as AAHPERD) responds with: The AAHPER Youth Fitness TestThe Test Items were: Pull-Ups (boys), Flexed Arm Hang (girls), Sit-Ups, Shuttle-Run, Standing Broad Jump, 50-yard Dash, Softball Throw for Distance, 600-yard Run-WalkThese were fitness related skills pertinent to physical skills needed for combat or for sport team participation.
12 The AAHPERD Fitness Test Batteries PET349 Ayers Spring 2003The AAHPERD Fitness Test BatteriesSkill-RelatedHealth-RelatedAdded single-leg balanceDropped standing broad jumpFlexed arm hangReplaced pull-ups with push-upsSit-ups600-yard walk/runIn 1958, AAHPERD made some changes to the test battery. These changes lasted until 1980.Added: the Single-leg BalanceReplaced: pull-ups with push-upsDropped: the Standing Broad JumpSo, the battery included both skill-related and health-related test items.Skill-related: Single-leg balance , Shuttle run, 50-yard dash, Softball throw for distanceHealth-related: Push-Ups, Flexed arm hang, Sit-Ups, 600-yard walk/run
13 1980 AAHPERD redefined FITNESS (shifted focus to health, not skill) PET349 Ayers Spring 20031980AAHPERD redefined FITNESS (shifted focus to health, not skill)The Health-Related Fitness Test was created and replaced all fitness testsIn 1980, AAHPERD redesigned the meaning of fitness.Professionals now defined fitness in terms of health rather than skill performance.(bring in or read bullet points)
14 1980 - 1989 The AAHPERD Health-Related Fitness PET349 Ayers Spring 2003The AAHPERD Health-Related FitnessAerobic Capacity (1-mile walk/run)Muscular strength & endurance (60-sec sit-ups, pull-ups, flexed arm hang, modified pull-ups)Flexibility (sit-n-reach)Body composition (skinfold measurements)Emphasis was placed on assessing the components of fitness – (refer to slide)The assessments were: 60 second sit-ups, 1 Mile run/walk, Skinfold measurements, Sit-and-reach, Pull-ups, flexed arm hang & modified pull-upsNotice that the shuttle run, the 50 yd dash, the softball throw, and the single-leg balance tests were dropped. Those are considered measures of one’s skill – which are important for successful sports participation, but they are not directly linked to one’s health.
15 1987 The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research introduced PET349 Ayers Spring 20031987The Cooper Institutefor Aerobics ResearchintroducedThe Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research introduced the FITNESSGRAM assessment program and its’ software to schools throughout the United States.**The Cooper Institute was founded in 1970 by Dr. Kenneth Cooper, M.D., M.P.H., as a research and education center dedicated to understanding the relationship between living habits and health. The Institute produces a significant amount of research that has been used in the last 3 decades to help establish exercise and physical activity guidelines, and to educate health professionals and the public on the importance of the connection between lifestyle habits and health.
16 What is unique about: Health-related Criterion referenced PET349 Ayers Spring 2003What is unique about:Health-relatedCriterion referencedBackground info on F’GRAM standards available at:FITNESSGRAM was the first nation-wide health-related assessment program to use criterion referenced standards and not normative based data.**Explain criterion…this is often misunderstood. <scores that compare the students’ results to an established level of achievement believed to be needed for health (based upon the best available scientific evidence and research) – rather than a norm referenced scoring system – which compares students to each other by percentages>An example of a normative based test that you are probably familiar with is the President’s Challenge. With the Challenge, students are being compared against each other. For example, if a student scores better than 85% of the students their age on all 5 fitness tests they receive the Presidential Physical Fitness Award.Background information on the establishment of the FITNESSGRAM standards is available on-line at: under FITNESSGRAM, Reference Guide.
17 1987 - 1989 In 1989 PB test became criterion referenced PET349 Ayers Spring 2003In 1989 PB test became criterion referencedThe Physical Best Educational Program:Developed by educators to enhance the existing physical education curriculum and supplement daily lesson plans.Also, in 1987, AAHPERD released the Physical Best program. (first bullet point)Physical Best is an educational program of teacher resources and workshops that are (read second bullet point)The words enhance and supplement are underlined to reinforce a crucial point. Utilizing Physical Best does not mean a teacher needs to completely change his/her program. It is a tool that can enhance and supplement a physical education program to teach students about the importance of lifetime fitness and health – by infusing the program’s philosophy, concepts and activities throughout a complete curriculum.During this time - AAHPERD continued to produce a fitness assessment – which became known as the Physical Best test – and changed the test from norm to criterion-referenced in 1989.
18 1993 Partnership For Common Goals PET349 Ayers Spring 20031993 Partnership For Common GoalsPhysical Best program of AAHPERD educational armFITNESSGRAM program of The Cooper Instituteassessment pieceIn 1993, realizing that they shared common goals of promoting of youth fitness and physical activity patterns for life – AAHPERD and The Cooper Institute formed a partnership:AAHPERD develops and produces fitness education materials through Physical Best (and conducts workshops in Physical Best and FITNESSGRAM).The Cooper Institute develops fitness assessment materials through FITNESSGRAM.At this time, Physical Best discontinued its fitness assessment to endorse and adopt the FITNESSGRAM.
19 PET349 Ayers Spring 2003PresentIn 1998, AAHPERD restructured their Physical Best resources - from educational kit to book and CD ROM format - and both Physical Best and FITNESSGRAM joined with Human Kinetics, as publisher for their programs’ materials.(You may want to update people on the progress of the software component today, and the many improvements being made – Some have had bad experiences in the past).In 1998, Physical Best also sought sponsorship grant funds – to support the ongoing development of these resources and the new workshop certification structure. Today, FlagHouse and Cateye Fitness together are the sponsors and official equipment suppliers for the program.
20 Primary Resources Today: PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Primary Resources Today:Today, the program is administered through NASPE – one of the six associations of AAHPERD(describe the resources shown – then also mention additional and complementary resources, as time permits)The Physical Best program of NASPE/AAHPERD, the FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM programs of The Cooper Institute and Human Kinetics will continue to promote and develop health-related fitness programs for today’s youth and tomorrows leaders.
21 PET349 Ayers Spring 2003 Physical Best & FITNESSGRAM PHILOSOPHYPhysical Best & FITNESSGRAMThis short presentation provides an overview of the programs’ philosophy – in relation to both educators and students, and the benefits to both.
22 Philosophy…for Educators PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Philosophy…for EducatorsBY Physical Educators / FOR Physical EducatorsTo help students “DO & UNDERSTAND”(bullet 1) BY Physical Educators / FOR Physical Educators – Physical Best is a practitioner program, supported by research and supporting standards, but focused on practical activities that have been used successfully in the classroom.(bullet 2) The program is designed by physical educators from around the country to help students “do and understand” the importance of regular physical activity.
23 Philosophy…for Educators PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Philosophy…for EducatorsHealth-OrientedHealthful level of physical fitnessRegular physical activity(bullet 1) Health Oriented – Rather than being performance-based, Physical Best (and FITNESSGRAM) are health-related or health-oriented –(bullet 2) meaning that the focus is on achieving and maintaining a healthful level of physical fitness,(bullet 3) as well as promoting the habit of regular physical activity.
24 Philosophy…for Educators PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Philosophy…for EducatorsEducationalLinked to national standardsTeaches students how and whyEducational progression(bullet 1) Physical Best is educationally sound –(bullet 2) It is designed to support physical education, health and dance standards.(bullet 3) It provides activity that teaches students WHY activity is important, and HOW regular physical activity benefits them for a lifetime.(bullet 4) And the program follows an educational progression – so that upon graduation from high school, students will have the knowledge and skills to plan their own fitness programs and understand the importance of leading physically active lives. (demonstrated in the Stairway to Lifetime Fitness – next slide)
25 The Stairway to Lifetime Fitness C.B. Corbin and R.P. Pangrazi, 1989 PET349 Ayers Spring 2003The Stairway to Lifetime Fitness C.B. Corbin and R.P. Pangrazi, 1989Participate in Regular ExerciseAchieve Physical FitnessPersonal Exercise PatternsEvaluate Own Fitness LevelsProblem Solve/Decision MakingEducators can demonstrate that their curriculum follows the educational progression of the stairway to lifetime fitness through teaching Physical Best and FITNESSGRAM.Participate in Regular Exercise – learn personal fitness habits, exercise and enjoy it.Achieve Physical Fitness – meet minimum standards for health-related fitness; set realistic personal fitness goals.Personal Exercise Patterns – select personal activities, evaluate exercise programs and sports.Evaluate Own Fitness Levels – test personal fitness level; interpret scores, designs, and carry out personal fitness planProblem Solve / Decision Making – values and lives a fit lifestyle; becomes informed consumer
26 Philosophy… for Students PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Philosophy… for StudentsEnjoyableRealisticFor students, the program is designed to be –Enjoyable: Students participate in activity that they choose and enjoy.Realistic: Students explore many ways to be physically active and improve their health, so that the knowledge they learn transfers to real-life settings.Fair: Students are assessed on efforts toward personal improvement and scores are used for goal setting purposes.Fair
27 Benefits to Educators Supports Standards PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Benefits to EducatorsSupports StandardsInfuse into an existing curriculumReady made & appropriate activitiesThere are several benefits for physical educators and students who use the program. For educators…(bullet 1) Because PB & FG are linked to NASPE Physical Education Standards 3 & 4, and Dance and Health Education Content Standards (Instructor Note: Can personalize here and add state standards information) – teachers can demonstrate how their curriculum is designed to teach these standards.(bullet 2) The PB activities can be infused throughout an existing curriculum, without having to redesign a curriculum.(bullet 3) PB provides the tools to teach concepts through ready-made and tested activities – to maximize time in physical activity while teaching concepts
28 Benefits to Students Teaching knowledge & values PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Benefits to StudentsTeaching knowledge & valuesEnjoyable ParticipationAll students can be successfulBenefits for students –(bullet 1) PB & FG focus on teaching knowledge about & promoting the value of health-related fitness and physical activity – in order to foster lifelong learners as well as practice of a healthy and physically active lifestyle.(bullet 2) They emphasize enjoyable PARTICIPATION in physical activity.(bullet 3) All students can be successful, because… (Instructor Note: go to next slide)
29 Benefits to Students INDIVIDUALIZED PET349 Ayers Spring 2003Benefits to StudentsINDIVIDUALIZEDStudents compete only with themselves!Results/printoutsIntrinsic motivation(bullet 1) The Physical Best and FITNESSGRAM programs focus on individualization –(bullet 2) which allows all students to achieve without comparison to each other - Students can work at their own levels, so that they can become the best they are capable of becoming.(bullet 3) Their fitness result printouts provide prescriptive feedback based upon their results – (1) to provide feedback in comparison to what is healthy, not in comparison to others and (2) to provide individualization and enhance students’ learning about their bodies and how to make appropriate lifestyle choices and changes(bullet 4) And – The motivational focus is intrinsic – to motivate students to set their own fitness goalsThe essence of the philosophy is summarized on next and final slide…
30 An Important Message! Educating all children – PET349 Ayers Spring 2003An Important Message!Educating all children –to achieve their Physical Best(read slide) This is an important element of the philosophy.In essence, Physical Best and FITNESSGRAM focus on all children working to achieve their Physical Best.