Presentation on theme: "WTO AND VIETNAM HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Edilberto C de Jesus Secretariat Director Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization."— Presentation transcript:
WTO AND VIETNAM HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Edilberto C de Jesus Secretariat Director Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization
I.General Comments 1. Explicit focus on Higher Education But Higher Education is only one of the five categories of education services identified under GATS
I.General Comments 2. Involvement of trade and education officials at the highest levels Normally, little interaction between the two ministries Driving force for linkage--cross border education Other ministries also have a stake in the issue: Foreign Affairs, Defense
I.General Comments 3. Specific context of policy reform
II.Cross Border Education 1. Not a new phenomenon for three of the four modes of supply Consumption Abroad (Mode 2) Presence of Natural Persons (Mode 4) Commercial Presence (Mode 3) Cross Border Supply
II.Cross Border Education 2. Receptiveness to Cross Border Education Cultural Values: high value attached to education Colonial Influence
II.Cross Border Education 3. New Elements Scale Commercial motivation
III.Government and Education 1. Interests in Education Human Resources Development Civic Formation Nation-Building
III.Government and Education 2. Role Patron Steward Direction Quality Rewards and Sanctions
IV.Concerns of Government 1. Expanding access to education 2. Raising the quality of educational services 3. Obtaining professional services 4. Generating revenue 5. Projecting Soft Power
V.Conclusions 1. Governments need to recognize the potential consequences of submitting to the GATS framework. They become subject to a legally enforceable set of rules
V.Conclusions Adherence to GATS imposes some unconditional obligations Most Favored Nation Treatment Transparency
V.Conclusions Requires commitment to progressive liberalization expanding coverage of sectors open to access decreasing limitations on access
V.Conclusions The system allows for negotiations across sectors. Trade offs are possible, so that there are potential risks if the negotiations are conducted solely by trade ministers, without input from ministries of education.
V.Conclusions 2. But GATS poses little immediate cause for concern. Untested and still evolving Many issues still require clarification Education is not a priority sector for negotiators
V.Conclusions 3. Technology and markets are moving much faster than GATS process. Need for quality services Sellers market Availability of delivery systems Less protectionist pressures
V.Conclusions 4. Technology and markets are also moving faster than government bureaucracies. Government efforts at structural changes. Government difficulties in assuring oversight of on-line educational programs. Concern with rogue providers.
V.Conclusions 5. With or without GATS, governments must continue addressing education issues. Developing data base Deciding on policies Building institutions Strengthening its own higher education institutions
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