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Implementing Inclusive Education Richard Rieser

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1 Implementing Inclusive Education Richard Rieser

2 MEDICAL MODEL THINKING SOCIAL MODEL THINKING Person is faultyPerson is valued DiagnosisStrengths and Needs defined by self and others LabellingIdentify Barriers and develop solutions Impairment becomes Focus of attention Outcome based programme designed Assessment, monitoring, programmes, of therapy imposed Resources are made available to ordinary services Segregation and alternative services Disability Equality Training for All Ordinary needs put on holdEncourage Social Relationships Re-entry if normal enough OR Permanent Exclusion Diversity Welcomed Disabled Person is Included Society remains unchangedSociety Evolves (Adapted from Micheline Mason 1994, R. Rieser 2005)

3 Inclusive Education -UNESCO Inclusive Education -UNESCO sees inclusive education as a process of addressing and responding to diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education. It involves changes and modifications in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which covers all children of appropriate age range and a conviction that it is the responsibility of the regular system to educate all children.

4 What is Inclusive Education Inclusive Education refers to the educational practice base on the philosophical belief that all learners, those with disabilities and those without, have a right to be educated together in age appropriate class groups, and that all will benefit from education in regular classrooms of community schools. Within these settings teachers, parents and others work collaboratively using appropriate and sufficient resources to interpret and enact the regular curriculum in a flexible manner in accordance with the individual abilities and needs of all learners. Prof Gary Bunch Ontario

5 Four key questions to help develop inclusive practice in lesson preparation. 1. As you are planning any lesson for pupils ask yourself what are the essential knowledge, skills or understanding you want all students to get from the lesson? 2. How do my pupils learn best? Take account of learning styles. Most pupils can learn in visual, auditory or kinaesthetic ways, though most have a preference and it is good to know these. 3. What modifications to the lesson plan would permit more pupils to learn more effectively in my classroom? All teachers are very used to modifying their lessons to enhance their pupils learning. 4. How will my pupils show what they have learned? Ask the pupils to respond in ways they can handle. Assess pupils through their strengths not their weaknesses. Gary Bunch How to Book of Inclusion

6 Maslows Hierarchy of Need: Good educational reasons to have zero tolerance for bullying.


8 Making Reasonable Adjustments for disabled pupils Sent out 9000 schools. Received nearly 400 nominations 54 LEAs nominated schools Chose a mix of schools Visited 41 schools for filming-3DVDs & CD Rom Gained many examples of reasonable adjustments Now available 1 free copy per school. You have to send & for it. Implementing the Disability Discrimination Act in Schools and Early Years Ref 0160-2006DOC-EN Tel. 084560 222 60 Online Small box £20 from DEE or Stationary Office

9 vision and values based on an inclusive ethos a can do attitude from all staff a pro-active approach to identifying barriers and finding practical solutions strong collaborative relationships with pupils and parents a meaningful voice for pupils a positive approach to managing behaviour … continued Reasonable Adjustments: Key Factors

10 Key factors … continued strong leadership by senior management and governors effective staff training and development the use of expertise from outside the school building disability into resourcing arrangements a sensitive approach to meeting the impairment specific needs of pupils regular critical review and evaluation the availability of role models and positive images of disability

11 Promoting Positive Attitudes to Disabled People Make sure disability is covered in a positive way in all parts of the curriculum. e.g. Art, History, Geography Science Gather examples from national press and media –use in displays Relate to TV and newspapers Encourage Peer Support Help pupils critiques stereotypes English Use a social model approach-identify barriers Examine ethical issues from a human rights perspective Ensure hidden curriculum is disability friendly Challenge disabilism Develop strong self esteem in disabled pupils

12 Maths and the Braille System Get pupils to work out how many different permutations you can get on the six pattern of a dice?

13 Gradients-What is the right angle for as wheelchair? Too steep-dangerous Too gentle-tiring Answer -Between 1 in 20 and 1 in 12

14 The Royal Impairment –Haemophilia Science and History Queen Victoria carried the gene for Haemophilia on her X Chromosome. Her Eighth Child Leopold was Haemophiliac and two of her daughters carriers of the condition into the Russian, German and Spanish Royal Families.

15 Ellis Island- United Stated Immigration Filtering out those with an Impairment 12 million immigrants passed through from 1890 to 1930s 100,000 were turned back.

16 Who would not have existed if we eliminate genetically and other carried impairments? Julius Caesar Pope Milton Beethoven Goya Monet Van Gogh Evelyn Glennie Stevie Wonder Che Guevara Cerrie Burnell Ray Charles Winston Churchill David Blunkett Gordon Brown Frida Kahlo Toulouse Lautrec Einstein Shrek or The Hulk Mr Magoo Howard Hughes Iris Murdoch


18 Teachers choices for an inclusive classroom For those committed to Transformability. Based on an analysis of the practice of 9 teachers committed to learning without limits. Learning Without Limits 2004, Open University/McGraw Hill Susan Heart, Annabelle Dixon, Mary Jane Drummond, Donald McIntyre et al.

19 Acting on the principle of co-agency Donts Manage classroom activities through imposition of authority. Respond to individuals on the basis of categories of perceived ability. Write off anybody Work on the basis of passing knowledge from teacher to learner Do Actively encourage and enable young people to share responsibility for achieving a productive, purposeful and harmonious working atmosphere. Respond to individuals by trying to understand classroom experience through their eyes, by using that understanding to ensure meaningful diversity and openness in learning opportunities. Draw on all info available to understand what is blocking learning Construct classroom interactions on the basis of a meeting of minds valuing as much what the young people bring as teachers.

20 Acting on the principle of everybody Dont Overtly differentiate between young people in tasks and activities. Routinely use ability-based grouping or grouping by similar attainment. Keep peer interaction to a minimum to avoid interference with learning Do Construct learning activities as a common endeavour in which everybody can take part on an equal footing. Encourage diverse grouping and negotiate patterns of grouping and seating with young people. Work to develop the peer group as a community of learners who support and increase one anothers learning capacity

21 Acting on the principle of trust Dont Match tasks to perceived attainment/ability. Attribute the problem to the learners when they are unresponsive to the task and experiences provided to them. Take for granted the value, relevance and worthwhileness of curriculum content Do Construct a range of attractive opportunities accessible to everybody, with space for learner input to shape experiences and outcomes. Constantly seek for better kinds of opportunities through which initially unresponsive learners might be encouraged to engage effectively with classroom activities. Choose content and devise tasks that encourage young people to draw on diverse experiences and make connections with what is worthwhile and important to them.

22 1. Pre-planning information. Have you been given information on the nature and degree of impairment and the access needs of the disabled pupils in the class? Have you been shown or do you know how these disabled pupils access needs and personal care needs will be met in the class? If you dont know how the disabled pupils needs will/can be met seek advice from SENCO, Head or Deputy or from other agencies such as Educational Psychologists, Advisors or Health Professionals.

23 2. What preparation have you made with the class/ group for: one to one peer support collaborative teaming group work valuing difference of race, gender, ethnicity, disability, age or religion How do you ensure that mutual respect is encouraged within your classroom? Are you clear about how to deal with bullying and harassment in the class? Doers the school have a consistent policy?

24 3. Lesson planning: how will you support the needs of all learners? Consider: - timing, - variation of activities, - types of activities [concrete/abstract], - reinforcement of key ideas, - extension work - recall of previous work, - links to future work, - clear instructions. Will the content of the lesson engage all pupils from the beginning? Will there be sufficient variation in activities and pace to engage all? Are you able to access specially adapted equipment for some pupils to enable them to participate fully? If not, can an alternative way be found? Will the diversified and differentiated work allow all pupils to experience success at their optimum level?

25 4. What different teaching styles are you going to use? Visual e.g. use photos, mind maps, maps and diagrams, pictures, film clips, digital cameras, wall displays? Auditory e.g. use story telling, talking, effective questions, problem solving, clear sequencing, music, singing? Kinaesthetic e.g. use movement, role play, artefacts, use the environment

26 5. Preparing materials Are written materials accessible to all: formats; readability; length; content? Scaffolding [practical materials] e.g. writing frames, pictograms, sounds, pictures, objects, artefacts, word lists, number lines, etc, are they accessible to all? Appropriate use of augmented communication and ICT

27 6. Self presentation (hidden curriculum) Have you thought about how you will: react to situations of stress, humour, seriousness, embarrassing questions; offer encouragement to all; challenge the behaviour not the pupil? Are all the pupils aware that you might approach the behaviour of some students in a different manner to the rest of the class? How will you use your voice in the lesson, e.g: volume, tone, and make sure all children are understanding you? Where will you position yourself in the classroom and when? Who will you question and when?

28 7. Use of support staff Have you met with or at least communicated with support staff before the lesson? How are you going to use other support in the lesson? Does their use allow all pupils to be equally included in the class activities? If you are using support staff for withdrawal, how do you know the pupils are gaining from this? If you are using withdrawal, how are the groups organised? When do you take small groups and support take class?

29 8. Classroom organisation Is seating carefully planned and/or the activity accessible for students with: - mobility impairments e.g. circulation space, table height - hearing impairments e.g. sight line for lip reading/ interpreter/ no glare - visually impaired e.g. maximise residual sight, if touch can reach - challenging behaviour e.g. in adult gaze; at front for eye contact - short attention span/easily distracted, eg: sit on own - learning difficulties who need a lot of support, eg: next to peer supporter - short attention span, e.g.: distraction free zone What seating plans are you using and why? Will seating plans make use of peer support and how?

30 9. How will you organise and group pupils in lessons? Friendship groupings? Mixed gender/same gender groupings? Mixed ability/same ability groupings? Specific pairs of pupils working together, e.g. : stronger reader/weaker reader? Disabled and disabled non-disabled students How do you decide which grouping to use for what?

31 10. How will you deal with unexpected incidents? Are you aware of the systems for dealing with unexpected incidents, e.g.: evacuation, fainting or fits, psychotic incidents, arguments, incontinence, medical emergencies?

32 11. How will you ensure that all pupils feel equally valued through their experiences of: the allocation of teacher and support staff time; being listened to/ paid attention to; being respected; achieving; interacting with their peers being free of harassment.

33 12. How will you assess the outcomes? Do you have a scheme for assessing the achievements of all? Have you looked at alternative forms of assessment? e.g. video recording progress, peer evaluation, self evaluation? How will you involve pupils in assessing their progress and their peers progress?



36 Maresa now at University Studying English Non –verbal and quadriplegic, with a mental age of 2 was the diagnosis. I was in a special school until I was eleven and then in a unit for 2 years. Nobody learnt to communicate with me. When I went to a comprehensive it was just ordinary teachers who decided to have a go. So I got my GCSEs. At college they believed in me. The University said I could submit essays for admission instead of exams which are exhausting. Now I am in the last year of my English Degree and want to be a writer.

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