Presentation on theme: "Special Education in China"— Presentation transcript:
1Special Education in China SUSAN FAHEY&MARIO MARTINEZ
2SPECIAL EDUCATIONChina has 1,540 schools for special education, with 375,000 studentsMore than 1,000 vocational training institutes for disabled people,nearly 3,000 standard vocational training and education institutes that also admit disabled peopleMore than 1,700 training organizations for rehabilitating hearing-impaired childrenOver 100,000 trained and in-training children.In 2004, 4,112 disabled students entered ordinary schools of higher learning.Of disabled children receiving special education, 63.6 percent of total recruitment numbers and 66.2 percent of enrollment were in ordinary schools or special classes thereof.
3Special EducationThese children have the right to receive systematic school educationThe number and scale of China’s existing special education schools cannot satisfy enrollment requirementsState’s financial and material resources do not permit building special education schools.Regular schools must begin to enroll children with disabilities in regular classes otherwise these children will not receive an education.
4Milestones and Laws Confucian text Liji ( Book of Rites) 19th Century People should respect each others’ parents, and treat others’ children like their own… handicapped and sick should also be supported (Pang & Richey, 2006).19th CenturyU.S. and European missionaries help establish special schools
5Milestones and Laws1912First school established by Chinese to help special needs students.Zhang Jian established a training school for teachers of the blind and deafspecial school for blind and deaf studentsTrained students to help themselves by placing priority on vocational education, teaching general knowledge and focusing on Chinese traditions of self-respect and independence.
6Milestones and Laws 1949-People’s Republic of China 1970’s Government placed importance on education of children with special needs.State instituted a series of laws and regulations to safeguard the rights to education of the disabled and begin reform process.1970’sSpecial schools for children with special needs began to be established (separate from regular education schools)
7Milestones and Laws 1985 1986 National Conference on Education Recognizes the importance of special education and needs of special education children.1986Compulsory Education LawMandates the teaching of special needs students.Mandates local governments to set up special schools or classes for special needs students.
8Milestones and LawsLearning in the Regular Classroom (LRC) beginsChildren with disabilities integrated into general education classes.A necessity for special needs children who do not live in areas where special schools are present or where families cannot afford these special schools.First Internal Work Conference on Special EducationCalls for special classes attached to regular schools.
9Solution and Current Status Learning in the Regular Classroom (LRC)- Inclusive EducationBegins in 1987Has more than 8 million school-age children with disabilities.To change special education from a single and unitary form of schooling involving special education schools to a diversified form that consists primarily of LRC and special education classes backed up by special education schools.
10Current StatusLRCProvides children and adolescents with disabilities with more opportunities to go to school.Greatly accelerates the development of compulsory education.
11LRC Implementation and Promotion Methods Include all children and adolescents with special needs who can adapt to studies and life at ordinary schools.Enrollment in nearby schools.Age of LRC enrollment the same as for ordinary children.Age limits (for school attendance) extended for special circumstances
12LRC Implementation and Promotion Methods Teaching materials and teaching strategiesSame materials used for special education students as general population-adjusted to the special education student needsTeachers modify their lessons/individualize teaching based on:Children’s aptitudeIndividualized Education PlansCollective teaching with increased individual tutoring for LRC students.Resource Room Teachers
13LRC Implementation and Promotion Methods Teacher qualifications and professional requirements:Have basic knowledge in and basic skills in special education.Must understand basic principles of LRC education.Resource Room TeachersSpecialized training in special educationMain task is to help students with disabilities conduct remedial studies, guide students in using of auxiliary appliances, conduct rehabilitative training and cultivate social adaptation abilities.Assist LRC teacher in developing and evaluating IEP.
14NeedsTraining of teachers in special education and differentiating instruction strategies for teachers teaching special education students in LRC.Smaller class sizes:In key secondary and elementary schools in some cities, there are on average about 50 students and sometimes students. With 2 students with disabilities in the classroom, teachers may not be able to meet the needs of LRC students.
15Needs LRC students need support in Support system to include CommunicationSelf-helpSocial skillsStudy methodsEveryday life adaptationHealthSafetySupport system to includeFamily educationHelp to familiesFacilities adapted to LRC studentsCommunity supportCoordination from medical workersTo be successful, support system must be coordinated with education and training.
17Reforms Curriculum Reform Objectives Reforming the excessive emphasis on knowledge transmission in current curriculaCurricula should promote the physical and mental development of each student.Cultivate the desire and ability to engage in lifelong study.
18Curriculum ReformComprehensiveness, flexibility and diversity in curriculum structure.Lessen rigidity in disciplinary divisions of traditional curricula and classical contents and strengthen links among curriculum contents, social and science tech developments and students’ lives
19Curriculum ReformCorrect teaching materials to include regional and cultural information and address social development, science and technology-give teacher material more variety.CurriculumLessenImportance on acceptance, memorization, and imitative learning in the teaching processPromoteMultiple learning activities among students (active participation, communication, cooperation and inquiry and research)
20Curriculum Reform Assessments Reform assessments that emphasize knowledge memorization and the functions of selection and screening.Set up multiple assessment criteria and methods of evaluation (formative evaluation)Decentralize curriculum policies and establish a policy for management at three levels- state, local and school-and improve curriculum’s adaptability.