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Special Education in China SUSAN FAHEY & MARIO MARTINEZ.

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Presentation on theme: "Special Education in China SUSAN FAHEY & MARIO MARTINEZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Special Education in China SUSAN FAHEY & MARIO MARTINEZ

2 SPECIAL EDUCATION China has 1,540 schools for special education, with 375,000 students China has 1,540 schools for special education, with 375,000 students –More than 1,000 vocational training institutes for disabled people, –nearly 3,000 standard vocational training and education institutes that also admit disabled people –More than 1,700 training organizations for rehabilitating hearing- impaired children –Over 100,000 trained and in-training children. –In 2004, 4,112 disabled students entered ordinary schools of higher learning. –Of disabled children receiving special education, 63.6 percent of total recruitment numbers and 66.2 percent of enrollment were in ordinary schools or special classes thereof.

3 Special Education These children have the right to receive systematic school educationThese children have the right to receive systematic school education The number and scale of Chinas existing special education schools cannot satisfy enrollment requirementsThe number and scale of Chinas existing special education schools cannot satisfy enrollment requirements States financial and material resources do not permit building special education schools.States financial and material resources do not permit building special education schools. Regular schools must begin to enroll children with disabilities in regular classes otherwise these children will not receive an education.Regular schools must begin to enroll children with disabilities in regular classes otherwise these children will not receive an education.

4 Milestones and Laws Confucian text Liji ( Book of Rites) Confucian text Liji ( Book of Rites) –People should respect each others parents, and treat others children like their own… handicapped and sick should also be supported (Pang & Richey, 2006). 19 th Century 19 th Century –U.S. and European missionaries help establish special schools

5 Milestones and Laws –First school established by Chinese to help special needs students. –Zhang Jian established a training school for teachers of the blind and deaf –special school for blind and deaf students Trained students to help themselves by placing priority on vocational education, teaching general knowledge and focusing on Chinese traditions of self-respect and independence. Trained students to help themselves by placing priority on vocational education, teaching general knowledge and focusing on Chinese traditions of self-respect and independence.

6 Milestones and Laws 1949-Peoples Republic of China 1949-Peoples Republic of China –Government placed importance on education of children with special needs. –State instituted a series of laws and regulations to safeguard the rights to education of the disabled and begin reform process. 1970s 1970s –Special schools for children with special needs began to be established (separate from regular education schools)

7 Milestones and Laws –National Conference on Education Recognizes the importance of special education and needs of special education children. Recognizes the importance of special education and needs of special education children –Compulsory Education Law Mandates the teaching of special needs students. Mandates the teaching of special needs students. Mandates local governments to set up special schools or classes for special needs students. Mandates local governments to set up special schools or classes for special needs students.

8 Milestones and Laws –Learning in the Regular Classroom (LRC) begins Children with disabilities integrated into general education classes. Children with disabilities integrated into general education classes. A necessity for special needs children who do not live in areas where special schools are present or where families cannot afford these special schools. A necessity for special needs children who do not live in areas where special schools are present or where families cannot afford these special schools. –First Internal Work Conference on Special Education Calls for special classes attached to regular schools. Calls for special classes attached to regular schools.

9 Solution and Current Status Learning in the Regular Classroom (LRC)- Inclusive Education Begins in 1987 Begins in 1987 Has more than 8 million school-age children with disabilities. Has more than 8 million school-age children with disabilities. To change special education from a single and unitary form of schooling involving special education schools to a diversified form that consists primarily of LRC and special education classes backed up by special education schools. To change special education from a single and unitary form of schooling involving special education schools to a diversified form that consists primarily of LRC and special education classes backed up by special education schools.

10 Current Status LRC LRC –Provides children and adolescents with disabilities with more opportunities to go to school. –Greatly accelerates the development of compulsory education.

11 LRC Implementation and Promotion Methods 1. Include all children and adolescents with special needs who can adapt to studies and life at ordinary schools. 2. Enrollment in nearby schools. Age of LRC enrollment the same as for ordinary children.Age of LRC enrollment the same as for ordinary children. Age limits (for school attendance) extended for special circumstancesAge limits (for school attendance) extended for special circumstances

12 LRC Implementation and Promotion Methods 3. Teaching materials and teaching strategies Same materials used for special education students as general population-adjusted to the special education student needsSame materials used for special education students as general population-adjusted to the special education student needs Teachers modify their lessons/individualize teaching based on:Teachers modify their lessons/individualize teaching based on: Childrens aptitude Childrens aptitude Individualized Education Plans Individualized Education Plans Collective teaching with increased individual tutoring for LRC students. Collective teaching with increased individual tutoring for LRC students. Resource Room Teachers Resource Room Teachers

13 LRC Implementation and Promotion Methods 4. Teacher qualifications and professional requirements: Have basic knowledge in and basic skills in special education.Have basic knowledge in and basic skills in special education. Must understand basic principles of LRC education.Must understand basic principles of LRC education. Resource Room TeachersResource Room Teachers Specialized training in special education Specialized training in special education Main task is to help students with disabilities conduct remedial studies, guide students in using of auxiliary appliances, conduct rehabilitative training and cultivate social adaptation abilities. Main task is to help students with disabilities conduct remedial studies, guide students in using of auxiliary appliances, conduct rehabilitative training and cultivate social adaptation abilities. Assist LRC teacher in developing and evaluating IEP. Assist LRC teacher in developing and evaluating IEP.

14 Needs Training of teachers in special education and differentiating instruction strategies for teachers teaching special education students in LRC. Training of teachers in special education and differentiating instruction strategies for teachers teaching special education students in LRC. Smaller class sizes: Smaller class sizes: –In key secondary and elementary schools in some cities, there are on average about 50 students and sometimes students. With 2 students with disabilities in the classroom, teachers may not be able to meet the needs of LRC students.

15 Needs LRC students need support in LRC students need support in –Communication –Self-help –Social skills –Study methods –Everyday life adaptation –Health –Safety Support system to include Support system to include –Family education –Help to families –Facilities adapted to LRC students –Community support –Coordination from medical workers To be successful, support system must be coordinated with education and training. To be successful, support system must be coordinated with education and training.

16 CURRICULUM REFORM

17 Reforms Curriculum Reform Objectives Curriculum Reform Objectives –Reforming the excessive emphasis on knowledge transmission in current curricula –Curricula should promote the physical and mental development of each student. –Cultivate the desire and ability to engage in lifelong study.

18 Curriculum Reform 1. Comprehensiveness, flexibility and diversity in curriculum structure. 2. Lessen rigidity in disciplinary divisions of traditional curricula and classical contents and strengthen links among curriculum contents, social and science tech developments and students lives

19 Curriculum Reform 3. Correct teaching materials to include regional and cultural information and address social development, science and technology-give teacher material more variety. 4. Curriculum LessenLessen Importance on acceptance, memorization, and imitative learning in the teaching process Importance on acceptance, memorization, and imitative learning in the teaching process PromotePromote Multiple learning activities among students (active participation, communication, cooperation and inquiry and research) Multiple learning activities among students (active participation, communication, cooperation and inquiry and research)

20 Curriculum Reform 5. Assessments Reform assessments that emphasize knowledge memorization and the functions of selection and screening.Reform assessments that emphasize knowledge memorization and the functions of selection and screening. Set up multiple assessment criteria and methods of evaluation (formative evaluation)Set up multiple assessment criteria and methods of evaluation (formative evaluation) 6. Decentralize curriculum policies and establish a policy for management at three levels- state, local and school-and improve curriculums adaptability.


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