Presentation on theme: "Internationalism and globalisation as contexts for international education Dr James Cambridge Head of Research Projects IB Research Team University of."— Presentation transcript:
Internationalism and globalisation as contexts for international education Dr James Cambridge Head of Research Projects IB Research Team University of Bath, UK
Internationalism … is seen by its advocates as the antithesis of both nationalism and isolationism. It denotes a cosmopolitan, nonparochial stance toward obligation beyond borders (Lynch 1999).
Tension between perspectives Globalisation is seen as economic integration, achieved in particular through the establishment of a global marketplace marked by free trade and a minimum of regulation. In contrast, internationalism refers to the promotion of global peace and well-being through the development and application of international structures, primarily but not solely of an intergovernmental kind. Despite important conceptual difficulties in formulating the case for internationalism and despite the worlds patchy record of putting its principles into effect, the essentially pro- democratic logic of internationalism stands in sharp contrast to the logic of globalisation (Jones 1998).
Contrasting perspectives internationalist: an orientation towards international relations, with aspirations for the promotion of peace and understanding between nations. globalist: influenced by and contributing to the global diffusion of the values of free market capitalism.
International education internationalist: a transformative discourse which locates all fields of enquiry in a supra- national frame of reference and upholds the cause of peace (Rawlings 2000). globalist: may be compared with other globally marketed goods and services such as soft drinks and hamburgers; a reliable product conforming to consistent quality standards throughout the world (Cambridge 2000).
Contrasting philosophies and aims internationalist: an existential, experiential philosophy of education which values the moral development of the individual and recognises the importance of service to the community and the development of a sense of responsible citizenship. globalist: serves a market which requires the global certification of educational qualifications for portability between schools and transferability between systems.
Approaches to cultural diversity internationalist: celebrates cultural diversity and promotes international co- operation & internationally-minded outlook. globalist: leading to global cultural convergence towards the values of the transnational capitalist class (Sklair 2001)
Multiculturalism Multiculturalism in education can be a substantial monoculturalism as to values, mitigated by tolerance of exotic detail (Zaw 1996)
Implications for management Global capitalism succeeds by turning most spheres of social life into businesses, by making social institutions - such as schools, universities, prisons, hospitals, welfare systems - more business-like (Sklair 2001) Language and practice of managerialism, of accountability, inspection, testing and targets preclude debates about the purposes of education beyond preparation for the economy (Tomlinson 2000) Discourse of New Public Management draws attention to outputs and performance rather than inputs, views organisations as chains of low-trust relationships, identifies parts of organisations as profit centres, uses competition to enable exit or choice by service consumers, and decentralises budgetary and personal authority to line managers (Clarke et al 2000)
Performativity Education is no longer to be concerned with the pursuit of ideals such as personal autonomy or emancipation, but with the means, techniques or skills that contribute to the efficient operation of the state in the world market and contribute to maintaining the internal cohesion and legitimation of the state (Marshall 1999) Performativity is a technology, a culture, and a mode of regulation that employs judgment, comparisons, and displays as means of control, attrition, and change (Ball 2000) In a performative culture, demonstrated productivity by everyone is demanded and all participants in an organisation/school are required to develop as active, enterprising, and optimistic individuals who are market assets (Meadmore & Meadmore 2004).
Emancipatory reason gives way to technocratic rationalisation (Lyon 1999) The global market requires a shift in the institutional culture-ideology of schools away from exclusively pedagogical issues towards the development of market-oriented values. Values of free market capitalism associated with globalist international education are leading to transformation of international education into a globally branded product.
Educational values (Bernstein 1977) Expressive order: conduct, character, manner; Instrumental order: specific skills and bodies of knowledge.
Typology of schools
Instrumentalisation of the expressive Cultivation of expressive order values to enhance performativity; Appropriation of other intelligences, such as emotional intelligence, which can somehow combine with bureaucratic rationality, as a way of creating more successful schools and businesses (Hartley 2003)
Strategic use of diversity The spirit of multiculturalism in education has shifted from a concern with the formation of tolerant and democratic national citizens who can work with and through difference … … to a more strategic use of diversity for competitive advantage in the global workplace (Mitchell 2003).
Strategic cosmopolitan (Mitchell 2003) A move away from person-centred education for all, or the creation of the tolerant, multicultural self … … towards a more individuated, mobile and highly tracked, skills-based education, or the creation of the strategic cosmopolitan.
Typology of schools
Issues for further discussion Are the internationalist and globalist perspectives of international education opposite or complementary? To what extent does Bernsteins expressive order map onto internationalist international education? Does Bernsteins instrumental order map onto globalist international education? How do IB programmes balance expressive order and instrumental order values? How do IB programmes balance international values and globalist values? How do we know? In what ways can values be recognised?