Presentation on theme: "What is Invitational Education®?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What is Invitational Education®? Compiled and edited by:Melissa CainContributions by:William PurkeyJohn NovakKen SmithDave ChapmanJack SchmidtDan Shaw
2 “Education is fundamentally an imaginative act of hope” (Novak, 1996). Educators hold in their hands the power to excite children to become lifelong learners who are capable of taking their place in a continuing democracy.Their success in this important responsibility depends upon the approach they take to the entire enterprise of education.
3 What is Invitational Education®? A systematic way to describe communication in schools and other human service organizations that results in learning and human development;A theoretical framework and practical strategies for creating effective schools and other institutions;Foundations are:the democratic ethosthe perceptual traditionself-concept theoryThe development of Invitational Education began over 25 years ago as an attempt to find a systematic way of describing the process of communication in the total school environment that results in learning. The founding group of 12 educators and other helping professionals, called together by Dr. William Purkey and Dr. Betty Siegel, met at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania in the summer of These 14 founding members established the International Alliance for Invitational Education, a not-for-profit organization that now has over 600 members in 15 countries.Invitational Education provides both a theoretical framework and practical strategies for creating schools where people want to be and want to learn.The foundations of Invitational Education are based upon three related ideas:the democratic ethosthe perceptual traditionself-concept theory
4 The Democratic EthosInvitational Education® emphasizes deliberative dialogue and mutual respect.Goal: people work together to construct character, practices, and institutions that promote democratic life.The democratic ethos is the idea that democracy is based upon the conviction that all people matter and that they can meaningfully participate in self-rule.Democracy is the belief that those who are affected by decisions should have a say in those decisions. Indeed, people can become more able and responsible by doing so.Invitational Education reflects this democratic ethos by emphasizing deliberative dialogue and mutual respect.The goal is to have people work together to construct character, practices, and institutions that promote a democratic shared life.Democracy is based upon the conviction that all people matter—that they can meaningfully participate in self-rule.
5 The Perceptual Tradition Each person considers, constructs, interprets, and then acts.Individuals view the world through personal and cultural filters.Behavior is based on individual perceptions (Syngg and Combs, 1949).Perceptions are learned, so they can be reflected on and changed.The perceptual tradition says that people are not influenced by events so much as by their perceptions of events.Each person is a conscious agent who considers, constructs, interprets, and then acts.Human behavior is the product of the unique ways that individuals view the world due to their personal and cultural filters.“All behavior, without exception, is completely determined by, and pertinent to, the phenomenal field of the behaving organism" (Syngg and Combs, 1949, p. 15), i.e., each of us behaves according to how the world appears at the moment of behaving.Behavior, thus, is based on perceptions.Perceptions are learned, influenced by culture and experience.However, perceptions can be reflected on and changed.People are not influenced by events so much as by their perceptions of events.
6 Perceptual Tradition…….Continued There is no such thing as illogical behavior….What seems illogical makes sense to the behaving person.Learning to “read behavior backwards” is a vital skill for practitioners of IE.This skill is sharpened by understanding and applying self-concept theory.There is no such thing as illogical behavior…. Every person behaves in the way that makes the most sense to him/her at that particular instant.Thus, what may seem illogical from an external point of view is only an inadequate understanding of what the world looks like from the internal point of view of the behaving person.Learning to “read behavior backwards,” i.e. to see the meaningfulness of a person’s actions from that person’s point of view, is a vital skill for practitioners of Invitational Education.This skill is sharpened by understanding and applying self-concept theory.
7 Self-concept is the picture people construct of who they are and how they fit into their perceived world.Self-concept is the picture people construct of who they are and how they fit into their perceived world.
8 Self-Concept Theory (Jourard, 1968; Rogers, 1968; Purkey, 1970 and 2005) Self-concept includes learned beliefs.Beliefs are influenced by how a person interprets and acts upon events.Self-concept is manifested in ongoing internal dialogue, or the “whispering self” (Purkey, 2005).Self-Concept Theory (Journard, 1968; Rogers, 1968; Purkey, 1970 and 2005)Self-concept includes learned beliefs that each person holds to be true about his/her personal existence.This system of personal beliefs is maintained, protected, and enhanced by the way a person interprets and acts upon events.Self-concept is also manifested in an individual’s ongoing internal dialogue, the “whispering self” (Purkey, 2005).The “whispering self,” I.e. what each person says to him/herself, can be monitored and directed in positive ways.A healthy self-concept is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for achievement.The “whispering self” can be monitored and directed in positive ways.
9 Self-Concept Theory…….Continued Self-concept alone does not cause misbehavior.As an example, a disruptive student has learned to see him/herself as a troublemaker and behaves accordingly.Self-concept is the reference point, or anchoring perception, for behavior.A student’s self-concept does not cause him/her to misbehave. A better explanation is that the disruptive student has learned to see him/herself as a troublemaker and behaves accordingly, i.e., self-concept serves as the reference point, or anchoring perception, for behavior.A good self-concept is little more than the memory of inviting acts, which are accepted, extended, and successfully acted upon.Good self-concept is the memory of inviting acts, which are accepted and successfully acted upon.
10 Everything the teacher does, as well as the manner in which he does it, incites the child to respond in some way or another and each response tends to set the child's attitude in some way or another (Dewey, 1933).“Everything the teacher does, as well as the manner in which he does it, incites the child to respond in some way or another and each response tends to set the child's attitude in some way or another” (Dewey, 1933).
11 Motivation Motivation is internal and continuous. Every person has motivation. If not, they would do nothing.Rather than trying to “motivate” people, inviting educators cordially summon them to see themselves as able, valuable, and responsible, and to behave accordingly.They trust people to be capable of overcoming obstacles and accomplishing positive goals.A basic assumption of Invitational Education is that there is only one kind of human motivation. This motivation is an internal and continuous incentive that every person has at all times, in all places, during all activities. People may not do what we would like them to do, but that is not the same as being unmotivated. If they were unmotivated, they could not do any thing. .There is a tremendous advantage in assuming that motivation is a force that comes from within each person. Rather than spending huge amounts of time trying “build,” “enhance,” “shape,” “modify,” “enhance’ “turn on,” and “motivate” people, those who apply Invitational Education cordially summon people to see themselves as able, valuable, and responsible, and to behave accordingly. Invitational Education invites people to see themselves as capable of overcoming obstacle and accomplishing positive goals.Motivation is internal and continuous.
12 The Basic Assumptions of Invitational Education Invitational Education® is a metaphor for an emerging model of the education process consisting of five value-based assumptions about the nature of people and their potential. These are:TrustIntentionalityRespectCareOptimismThe Basic Assumptions of Invitational EducationInvitational Education provides a guiding theory for creating, maintaining, and enhancing truly welcoming schools. Rather than relying on one program, one policy, or one process, Invitational Education addresses the total zeitgeist or spirit within the school. The goal is to make school a more exciting, satisfying, and enriching experience for everyone – all students, all staff, and all visitors. This effort goes far beyond “restructuring” or “reforming,” for its goal is to transform the fundamental character of the school by centering itself on optimism, trust, respect, care, and intentionality, Invitational Education provides both a language of transformation and consistent theory of practice.Thus, Invitational education is a metaphor for an emerging model of the education process consisting of five value-based assumptions about the nature of people and their potential. These are trust, intentionality, respect, care, and optimism.
13 OptimismInvitational educators are optimistic about, and committed to, the continuous appreciation and growth of all involved in the educative process.Invitational educators believe that:People possess relatively untapped potential in all areas of worthwhile human endeavor.People have only just begun to use their many social, intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual skills.Better things are more likely to occur when self-defeating scripts, i.e. negative self-talk, are held to a minimum (Purkey, 2000).Human potential is always there, waiting to be discovered and invited forth.OptimismPeople possess relatively untapped potential in all areas of worthwhile human endeavor. Those who practice Invitational Education are committed to the continuous appreciation and growth of all involved in the educative process. They believe that people have only just begun to use their many social, intellectual, emotional, physical and spiritual potentials.The emphasis on human potential is not a naïve belief that good things will occur automatically, but it is a realistic assessment that better things are more likely to occur when self-defeating scripts are held in a minimum. The scripts are described in the book What Students Say to Themselves (Purkey, 2000). The optimism of Invitational Education applies to all realms of possibility, especially in difficult and challenging situations. Human potential, though not always apparent, is always there, waiting to be discovered and invited forth.
14 TrustTrust is derived from recognition of the fundamental interdependence of human beings.Invitational educators believe that:It takes time, effort, and collaboration to establish trustworthy interactions.Trust is established and maintained through the interlocking human qualities of:ReliabilityGenuinenessTruthfulnessIntentCompetence (Arceneaux, 1994).TrustInvitational Education is a cooperative, collaborative activity. It is built on the fundamental interdependence of human beings. People are viewed as parts of a complex ecosystem whose lives are affected by the quantity and quality of inviting or “disinviting “signal systems sent and received.To develop and sustain a cooperative stance requires the time and effort to establish trustworthy patterns of interaction. Trustworthy patterns of interaction depend on people who demonstrate the following sources of trust. Reliability (consistency, dependability, and predictability), Genuineness (authenticity and congruence), Truthfulness (honesty, correctness of opinion, and validity of assertions), intent (good character, ethical stance, and integrity), and competence (intelligent behavior, expertness, and knowledge (Arceneaus, 1994.). Trust is established and maintained through these interlocking human qualities, and each reflects Invitational Education in action.
15 RespectInvitational educators believe people are able, valuable, and responsible and should be treated accordingly.Invitational educators believe that:Personal and professional behavior demonstrates respect.Those who value respect will find ways for students to succeed.The stance of inviting schools is that people have inherent worth, self-directing power, and personal and social accountability.Respectful relationships recognize each person’s right to accept, reject, or negotiate the messages sent to them, positive or negative.RespectPeople are valuable, able, and responsible and should be treated accordingly. How educators behave personally and professionally among themselves and with others is determined by whether they accept this assumption. If educators believe that some students are unable, worthless, and irresponsible, they will find ways to fulfill the prophecy. If educators believe that each student is able to learn, is worthy of respect, and can be responsible, they will find ways for students to succeed in schools.A democratic society emphasizes the inherent worth of people, believes in their self-directing power, and stresses the importance of personal and social accountability. Invitational schools do the same. They share responsibilities based on mutual respect and expect positive outcomes. This respect is the essence of a cooperative relationship, a relationship that recognizes each person’s right to accept, reject, negotiate, or hold in abeyance the messages sent to them, positive or negative.
16 CareCare is the ongoing desire to link significant personal means with worthwhile societal ends.CAREInvitational educators believe that:The personal need for joy and fulfillment is realized in the process of producing something of value.No aspect of Invitational Education is more important than the educator's genuine ability and desire to care about people, their growth, and their accomplishments.Caring has its own ingredients ofwarmthempathypositive regardCareThe process is the product in the making. Means and ends are integrally linked.To attempt to arrive at inviting ends through disinviting means is to disregard how people go about doing anything.In Invitational Education, care is the ongoing desire to link significant personal means with worthwhile societal ends. This acknowledges the personal need for joy and fulfillment in the process of producing something of value. Careful planning and being oriented to positive possibilities help bring this about.No aspect of Invitational Education is more important than the educator's genuine ability and desire to care about others.Caring has its own ingredients of warmth, empathy, and positive regard.Caring gives intentionality the power to be a beneficial presence in one's own life and in the lives of others.
17 IntentionalityIntentionality is at the very heart of Invitational Education®.Invitational educators believe that:Intentionality explains the how of Invitational Education® and pulls together the optimism, trust, respect, and care that are essential to being a proficient professional (Schmidt, 2002).In practice, Invitational Education® focuses on the people, places, policies, procedures, and programs that transmit messages promoting human potential.Education is never neutral. Everything and everyone in and around schools adds to, or subtracts from, the educative process.Invitational Education® is characterized by purpose and direction.IntentionalityHuman potential can best be realized by places, policies, processes and programs specifically designed to invite development, and by people who are personally and professionally inviting with themselves and others. Intentionality is at the very heart of Invitational Education. This fifth assumption of intentionality explains the how of Invitational Education. In Nuts & Bolts practice, Invitational Education focuses on the people, places, policies, and programs that transmit messages promoting human potential.Invitational Education is characterized by purpose and direction. It recognizes that education can never be neutral, and that everything and everybody in and around schools adds to, or subtracts from the educative process.Assuming an invitational stance provides educators with a shared orientation from which to function. This enables all involved in schools to have a common framework for creating and maintaining a dependably inviting environment. This stance is made evident in the Starfish.
18 Theory into Practice—The 5 Ps Human potential can best be realized byplaces,policies,processes, and programs specifically designed to invite development, and bypeople who are intentionally inviting with themselves and others.The 5 Ps provide a framework to collaboratively address, evaluate, modify, and sustain a positive total school environment.Invitational Education provides a guiding theory for creating, maintaining, and enhancing truly welcoming schools. Rather than relying on one program, one policy, or one process, Invitational Education addresses the total zeitgeist or spirit within the school. The goal is to make school a more exciting, satisfying, and enriching experience for everyone – all students, all staff, and all visitors. This effort goes far beyond “restructuring” or “reforming,” for its goal is to transform the fundamental character of the school by centering itself on optimism, trust, respect, care, and intentionality, Invitational Education provides both a language of transformation and consistent theory of practice.There are five basic areas that Invitational Education addresses. By focusing on the five powerful “P’s that make up every school – people, places, policies, programs, and processes – educators can apply steady and persistent pressure to overcome the biggest challenges.
19 Just as a starfish applies slow and steady pressure from each of its five arms to open the single powerful muscle that keeps an oyster together, focusing upon the 5 Ps helps educators apply persistent pressure to overcome big challenges.Just as a starfish applies slow and steady pressure from each of its five arms to open the single powerful muscle that keeps an oyster together, focusing upon the 5 Ps helps educators apply persistent pressure to overcome big challenges.Just as a starfish applies slow and steady pressure from each of its five arms to open the single powerful muscle that keeps an oyster together, focusing upon the 5 Ps helps educators apply persistent pressure to overcome big challenges.The Starfish AnalogyThe starfish lives to eat oysters. To defend itself, the oyster has two stout shells that fit tightly together and are held in place by a powerful muscle. When a starfish locates an oyster it places itself on the top shell. Then gradually, gently, and continuously, the starfish uses each of its five arms in turn to keep steady pressure on the one oyster muscle. While one arm of the starfish pulls, the others rest. The single oyster muscle, while incredibly powerful, gets no rest. Irresistibly and inevitably, the oyster shell opens and the starfish has its meal. Steady and continuous pressure from a number of points can overcome the biggest muscles of oysters and, by analogy, the biggest challenges faced by any school. The Starfish Drawing illustrates the comprehensive transformation process of Invitational Education.
20 The 5 Ps Together = Inviting Schools and Other Organizations PeoplePoliciesPlacesAs illustrated, Invitational Education requires a holistic mentality that encompasses everybody and everything in the school. This is done by giving close attention to the five powerful “P’s.”ProcessesProgramsInvitational Education® requires a holistic mentality that encompasses everybody and everything. While the following examples apply to schools, they can be easily related to other organizations.
21 People Invitational Education® begins and ends with people. Every person in the school—teachers, administrators, food service professionals, custodians, counselors, librarians, bus drivers, and, most importantly, students—is an emissary of Invitational Education®.People create a respectful, optimistic, trusting, and intentional society within inviting schools.If policies, procedures, programs, or processes inhibit or inconvenience people, they are altered wherever possible.PeopleInvitational Education begins and ends with people. Every person in the school, from teachers and administrators, to food service professional and custodians, to counselors and psychologists, to librarians and bus drivers, to aids and volunteers, and, most importantly, the students, is an emissary of Invitational Education.Unconditional respect for everyone, intentional caring, and honoring diversity are vital in creating and maintaining inviting schools. Special attention is given to developing a trusting, optimistic, and courteous stance for everyone. Schools that have adopted Invitational Education are easy to spot. They are the ones whose doors are unlocked early on frigid days so that students do not have to stay out in the cold. There are the ones where the faculty call students by name, where courtesy and civility are the rule, and where there is a general atmosphere of warmth and respect. Places, policies, programs and processes are all-important aspects of Invitational Education, but people come first. If places, policies, programs, and processes directly or indirectly inconvenience people or inhibit their development, they should be altered where ever possible.
22 “Nobody cares how much you know until they know how much you care” (Purkey, 1996). People are most important because, as William Purkey says, “Nobody cares how much you know until they know how much you care.”
23 PlacesIf classrooms, offices, hallways, common rooms, cafeteria, library, playgrounds, and restrooms are clean, neat, attractive and well-maintained, they show that people care about the entire school.Even if the building itself is ancient, you can create an inviting physical environment:Spray paint old lockers bright colors.Display indoor plants/flowers and home-like lamps.Paint murals on dreary walls.Display photos of children in positive activity.PlacesPlaces offer an excellent beginning point for introducing Invitational Education to a school because they are so visible. If hallways are littered, paint is peeling, restrooms are smelly, classrooms are dusty, offices are cluttered, cafeteria is grimy, and windows are dirty, one can assume that the school’s policies, programs, processes, and people are the same. From an invitational perspective, there is no excuse for self-induced squalor.Fortunately, the places offer the best opportunity for immediate improvement. Even if the school building is ancient, it is still possible to create a clean, attractive, and inviting physical environment. The landscape and upkeep of the school can announce that people in the school care and are on top of any situation, or they can proclaim that nobody cares and no one feels responsible. This requires careful attention to the aesthetic, functional, and efficient qualities of the school.Involving children in as simple a task as playground clean-up engenders pride in their school. Involving their parents as well creates an atmosphere of belonging and ownership.Because they are so visible, places are a good starting point to introduce the practice of invitational theory.
24 Imagine a family visiting a school… Here is a scenario about a family visiting an inviting school: As the group walks down the hallways, past working clock, water fountains in good repair, up-to-date bulletin boards, and a full-length mirror (for everyone in the school to check their grooming, they enter the school cafeteria, identified by a sign “Dining Room.”The Dining Room has a French village theme. It features scenic murals on the walls, curtains on the windows, individual tables, and even paper place mats for student food trays. Family members are surprised that some tables are much higher than others. The guide points out that some students prefer to each lunch standing up. Classical music is always played in the cafeteria during lunchtime. “If we can’t hear the music, we are being too loud” the student guide explains. A vending machine offers healthy drinks, rather than sodas and colas. Nowhere in the school are there candy/soda/cookie/chips vending machines. It is obvious that the school has an active wellness program in place and that good health practices are encouraged.The Dining Room has a French cafe theme. It features scenic murals on the walls, curtains on the windows, individual tables, and even paper place mats for student food trays. Flowers are carefully placed on each table. Classical music is playing in the background. “If we can’t hear the music, we are being too loud,” the student guide explains.
25 As the tour continues, the family sees… Children’s work displayed to include all children and celebrate individuality and diversity.Well-tended, safe playground with no litter.Flowers, mini-ecosystems, and a butterfly garden.Padded rocking chairs for reading aloud.Throw pillows on the floor for reading or quiet conversation.Agendas transparently posting the daily schedule and expectations.Signage worded positively.Clever postings demonstrating humor and love of life.As the tour continues, the family sees children’s work displayed to include all children and to celebrate individuality and diversity. Photos of children engaged in their own learning, demonstrating the school’s adopted life skills, and displaying acts of kindness are displayed. Outside, the family sees that children and their parents have planted flowers and a butterfly garden. Mini-ecosystems of a pond, grassland, and woodland were collaboratively created and children are engaged in being good stewards of these environments.One classroom is temporarily unoccupied, so the guide invites the family to take a look. There is a padded rocking chair for reading aloud. Large throw pillows on the floor invite reading or quiet conversation. Future student assignments and dates are listed on the board. Student work is displayed on every available wall. The room is clean, orderly, and attractive. It is equipped for the latest electronic teaching technology. Emergency alarm instructions are well posted and easy to follow. One interesting thing is that the student desk chairs are padded for comfort, and that the classroom offers a variety of furniture arrangements..As the group tours the building, members notice that every sign in the school is positively worded. Instead of “No students allowed!” on the teachers’ workroom door, the sign reads “Teacher Workroom. Please knock before entering. Thank you.” The guide knocks politely, then escorts the family in. A large display of educational literature is arranged on ample bookshelves. An attractive up-to-date bulletin board contains information on future academic and social events. Team teaching and interdisciplinary studies are emphasized. Like the rest of the school, the workroom is clean, the air fresh, the furniture comfortable, and the noise subdued.There are a number of funny, yet friendly, cartoons and clever sayings posted on the workroom bulletin board. Judging by the funny items posted, teachers in this school have a sense of humor and a love of life.
26 PoliciesPolicies include mission statements, directives, codes, rules—written and unwritten—regulating the school.Polices influence the attitudes of those involved in the school.It is especially important to develop inviting policies regarding attendance, grading, discipline, and promotion and to apply them fairly and reasonably.Policies should pass the litmus test of Invitational Education®: Do they reflect trust, optimism, respect, care, and intentionality for everyone in the school?PoliciesPolicies include official mission statements and the directives, codes, and rules, written and unwritten, used to regulate the schools. A school system’s policies can have a strong influence on the attitudes of those involved in the school. When policies are perceived as fair, inclusive, democratic, caring and respectful, they will have a positive effect on peoples’ attitudes.It is especially important that inviting policies be developed regarding attendance, grading, discipline, and promotion. Above all, they should be fairly applied and reasonably enforced. Policies are critical “semantic webs” that influence the deep-seated structure of any school. All policies are measured by the litmus test question of Invitational Education: Do they reflect optimism, trust, respect, care, and intentionality for everyone in the school?
27 ProgramsPrograms should encourage active engagement with significant content.Programs that appear to be elitist, sexist, ethnocentric, homophobic, discriminatory, or lacking in intellectual integrity are to be changed or eliminated.IE encourages conflict management and group guidance activities integrated into the curriculum.School safety is promoted and maintained through preventing conflicts before they occur.Small group collaboration enables children to extend their interests and learn to work with others.ProgramsPrograms can be formal or informal, curricular or extracurricular. It is important for educators to ensure that all the school’s programs work for the benefit of everyone and that they encourage active engagement with significant content. This means that programs that appear to be elitist, sexist, ethnocentric, homophobic, discriminatory, or lacking in intellectual integrity need to be changed or eliminated.In Invitational Education, programs are introduced that emphasize conflict management and group guidance activities. The goal of Invitational Education is to promote and maintain school safety by preventing conflicts before they occur. Programs that reflect Invitational Education are inclusive They encourage students to see themselves as lifelong learners capable of understanding matters of importance. The use of small-group programs can be especially helpful to enable students to extend their interests and work with others.
28 Programs, whether formal or informal, curricular or extracurricular, should benefit everyone. Programs can be formal or informal, curricular or extracurricular. It is important for educators to ensure that all the school’s programs work for the benefit of everyone and that they encourage active engagement with significant content. This means that programs that appear to be elitist, sexist, ethnocentric, homophobic, discriminatory, or lacking in intellectual integrity need to be changed or eliminated.In Invitational Education, programs are introduced that emphasize conflict management and group guidance activities. The goal of Invitational Education is to promote and maintain school safety by preventing conflicts before they occur. Programs that reflect Invitational Education inclusive They encourage students to see themselves as lifelong learners capable of understanding matters of importance. The use of small-group programs can be especially helpful to enable students to extend their interests and work with others.
29 ProcessesProcesses can be simply defined as “the way we do things in this school.”Processes are characterized by a democratic ethos, collaborative and cooperative procedures, and continuous networking among teachers, students, parents, staff, and the community.Invitational Education® is a democratic process in which those who are affected by a decision have a say in its formulation, implementation, and evaluation.ProcessesFinally, the processes that give life to the school should be characterized by a democratic ethos, collaborative and cooperative procedures, and continuous networking among teachers, students, staff, parents, and the community. In schools where isolation, alienation, and bullying exist, the processes are major contributors. When distilled, processes can be simply defined as “the way we do things in this school.”This final P, “processes’ addresses the feel and flavor of the other four qualities and orchestrates them in a democratic manner. Invitational Education is a democratic process in which those who are affected by a decision have a say in its formulation, implementation, and evaluation.
30 The Jell-O™ AnalogyEverything is connected. The total school is like a big bowl of Jell-O™: if it is touched anywhere, the whole thing jiggles.Thinking about people, places, policies, programs, and processes—each within a framework of trust, respect, care, optimism, and intentionality—provides a strategy for systematic transformation of the whole school.The five powerful P’s provide a framework and language for transforming the total school environment. With Invitational Education, everything is connected. This connection might be analogized by thinking of the school as a big bowl of jello: if it is touched anywhere, the whole thing jiggles. Everybody and everything in and around schools adds to, or subtracts from the school environment. Thinking about People, Places, Policies, Programs and Processes, each within a framework of respect trust, optimism, care and intentionality, provides a strategy for systematic transformation of the whole school.The 5 Ps of Invitational Education® provide a powerful framework for transforming the total school environment.
31 Invitational Education® identifies four levels of functioning in personal and professional living, called the Ladder.The LadderThere are many ways to categorize the signal systems found in every school. . They can be positive or negative, intentional or unintentional, beneficial or lethal, strong or weak, active or passive, valuable or worthless. They can invite people to realize their potential, or they can be used to hinder and destroy. The approach in Invitational Education, called the “Ladder,” involves the following four categories or levels of functioning in personal and professional living: Level One, intentionally disinviting; Level Two, unintentionally disinviting; Level Three, intentionally inviting; and Level Four; intentionally inviting.
32 The Ladder: Levels of Functioning From least to most desirable, the levels of functioning are:Level One: Intentionally DisinvitingLevel Two: Unintentionally DisinvitingLevel Three: Unintentionally InvitingLevel Four: Intentionally InvitingIt is possible for a message, no matter how high-minded and well-meaning, to be perceived as disinviting.The LadderFrom least to mose desirable, the levels of functioning are: Level One, intentionally disinviting; Level Two, unintentionally disinviting; Level Three, intentionally inviting; and Level Four; intentionally inviting.Earlier the idea was presented that each professional has the ability and responsibility to function in a professionally inviting manner. However, it is possible for a message, no matter how high-minded and well meaning, to be perceived as disinviting. Appealing or repellent qualities remain in the eyes of the beholder. There is no guarantee that the most well intentioned actions will be viewed positively by others. In addition, the level of a message does not depend solely on what educators do, but on how and why they do it. .Every person and every school occasionally sends messages at each of four levels. However, it is the typical level of functioning that indicates the person’s and the school’s atmosphere and ‘stance.” A dependable stance, where school personnel understand the dynamics of an inviting relationship, increases the likelihood that a cordial summons will be accepted and acted upon. It requires persistence, resourcefulness, and integrity to reach the highest level.What follows is a four-level “Ladder” for describing what takes place in and around schools. Obviously, people, places, policies, programs and processes are much more complex than this simple category. But these four levels provide a starting point for analysis and prescription.It is the typical level of functioning that indicates the person’s and organization’s atmosphere and stance.
33 Level One: Intentionally Disinviting The message sent by intentionally disinviting people is that others are incapable, worthless, or irresponsible.These people may excuse their actions as “good” for students, clients or patients.There is no justification for being intentionally disinviting.People who operate at this level should be gently removed from daily contact with those they should be serving.Level 1: Intentionally DisinvitingThis lowest level of functioning describes behaviors, policies, programs, places, and processes that are deliberately meant to demean, diminish, or devalue the human spirit. People who function at this lowest level often use their power to inform others (and themselves) that they are incapable, worthless, and irresponsible.This bottom level of behavior can be seen in educators who are willfully racist, sexist, homophobic, or elitist. It can be seen in policies that deliberately discriminate, programs that are purposefully demeaning, or places that are intentionally left dark and dingyA major problem with Level One behavior is that these intentionally disinviting actions bend to be justified by the individual and others as being “good” for students. The authors of this book can think of no circumstances in which it is good to demean students or where a professional can justify intentionally disinviting people, places, programs, policies and processes.Why some few people choose to function at this bottom level is unclear. But regardless of the reasons - –whether because of racial, gender, or sexual prejudice, unrequited love, personal inadequacy, or negative self-image, - if they are unable or unwilling to change, fellow professionals have the responsibility to caringly remove them from daily contact with students. Intentionally disinviting forces can be lethal to the human spirit.In this lowest level of functioning, behaviors, policies, programs, and places are deliberately meant to demean, diminish, shun, or devalue the human spirit.
34 Level Two: Unintentionally Disinviting Level Two people are often condescending, obsessed with policies and procedures, and unaware of people’s feelings.Their classrooms, for example, may be disorganized, boring, and filled with busywork.Students and teachers in Level Two schools may have low morale and high absence rates.In frustration, Level Two professionals may resort to Level One behaviors.It is a concern when all 5 Ps are unintentionally disinviting.Level 2. Unintentionally DisinvitingIntentionally disinviting forces in schools are rare. A much larger concern in schools stems from the people, places, policies, programs, and processes that are unintentionally disinviting. Educators who function at Level Two are typically well meaning, but their behavior they create and maintain are seen by others as chauvinistic, racist, sexist, homophobic, condescending, or simply thoughtless.Teachers who are functioning at Level Two may not be reflecting on what they are doing. Their classrooms are often characterized by boredom, busywork, and lack of organization. Much of the work students are doing may be seen as irrelevant or incomprehensible.Schools that operate at Level Two are likely to have high dropout and absentee rates for both students and teachers. Morale is low in such schools. Reform strategies are unimaginative or out of touch with the realities the students face.Educators who function at Level Two spend a lot of time wondering “What did I do wrong?” “Why aren’t my students learning more?” “Why is everyone so upset with me?” The result is that, in frustration, they often resort to lower levels of functioning.Professionals who function at Level Two are typically well-meaning, but may not reflect upon their actions.
35 Level Three: Unintentionally Inviting Many “natural-born” teachers operate at this level.Unfortunately, like early aviators who “flew by the seat of their pants,” these teachers lack dependable guidance systems.Thus, they may be uncertain and unpredictable.If whatever accounts for their success fails them, they don’t know what to do to next and may resort to Level One or Level Two functioning.Consistency and dependability in education and human service require an intentionally inviting stance.Level Three: Unintentionally InvitingEducators who function at Level Three seem to have developed particular ways of functioning that are usually effective, but they have a difficult time explaining why this is so. As successful as they usually are, they lack a consistent stance from which to function. Many so-called “natural born” teachers, those who have never spent much time thinking about why they are successful, are effective because they are functioning at Level Three. They typically behave in ways that result in student success, although the teachers are largely unaware of the invitational dynamics involved.As explained in an earlier book (Purkey & Novak, 1996) professionals who function at Level Three are like the early “barn storming” airplane pilots. These pioneer pilots didn’t know much about aerodynamics, weather forecasts, or navigational systems. It is said that they flew “by the seat of their pants.” As long as the weather was kind and they stayed close to the ground so they could follow railroad tracks, they did fine. However, when the weather turned ugly, or night fell, it was easy for them to become disoriented and lost. In other words, they lacked a dependable guidance system.The difficulty with Level Three functioning is that educators can become disoriented. Because they are unable to explain the reasons for their successes, they are unable to explain their failures. If whatever “it” is that accounts for their success stops working, the teachers do not know how to start it up again.A colleague remarked that he would rather work with someone who is at Level One than one who is at Level Three. With Level One individuals one knows where he or she stands. With Level Three, there is guesswork and unpredictability. Consistency and dependability in education requires an intentionally inviting stance.Professionals who function at Level Three are reasonably effective, but cannot explain why.
36 Level Four: Intentionally Inviting Level Four professionals are like modern pilots: because they know how things work, they can “fly on instruments” over dangerous weather fronts.They are persistent, imaginative, resourceful, and courageous, even when things get tough.They affirm, yet guide students, deliberately choosing to be caring and democratic.They focus on what is most important in education and relationships: an appreciation of people and the value of their development.Level Four professionals know why they are doing what they are doing, so they examine and modify their practices to continuously grow.Level Four: Intentionally Inviting.Educators who are intentionally inviting demonstrate integrity in their actions, in the policies and programs they establish, and the places and processes they create and maintain. Because they know why they are doing what they’re doing, Level Four educators are able to examine and modify their practices and to grow continuously.Returning to the barn storming pilot analogy, educators functioning at Level Four are like modern commercial jet pilots. Thanks to their knowledge of why things work, they can “fly on instruments” around or over dangerous weather fronts, They have a system of flying. .A deep commitment to Level Four functioning is not easy to attain and sustain. It involves a persistence of purpose, an imaginative resourcefulness, and the courage to hold on when the going gets tough.At the intentionally inviting level, educators deliberately choose caring and democratic purposes. They remind themselves of what is truly important in education: an appreciation of people and the value of their development. Those who practice Invitational Education strive to be intentionally inviting in everything they do and every way they do it. They develop the courage to stand up to cynics and hostile critics because they possess a defensible theory of practice.
37 Just as teachers invite or disinvite students, student behavior can invite or disinvite teachers. Teachers, however, have the ability and responsibility to consistently invite students. Teachers are professionals and should be the primary source of inviting messages (Purkey and Novak, 1996).IE practitioners have exciting daily opportunities to implement the theory and observe its power to create schools where children want to be and want to learn.
38 The Four Corner Press Being personally inviting with oneself Invitational Education® encourages individuals to enrich their lives in each of four vital corners:Being personally inviting with oneselfBeing personally inviting with othersThe Four Corner PressBy its nature, Invitational Education seeks to encourage educators to enrich their lives in four vital corners of one’s life: Being personally inviting with themselves, Being personally inviting with others. Being professionally inviting with themselves. Being professionally inviting with others. The term “Four Corner Press” is used to call attention to the importance of each of the four corners of one’s life..Being professionally inviting with oneselfBeing professionally inviting with others
39 The purpose of education is to summon people to realize potential in all areas of worthwhile human activity, including meeting the goals of a democratic society and participating in the progress of civilization.The Four Corner PressThe purpose of education is to summon people to realize potential in all areas of worthwhile human activity, including meeting the goals of a democratic society and participating in the progress of civilization. To accomplish this, educators must be personally and professionally inviting with both themselves and others. Like a symphony orchestra with its strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion sections, each corner of the Four Corner Press can be orchestrated to construct a fuller, more enriching life, personally and professionally. While there are times when one of the four corners may be temporarily more important and thus receive extra attention, the goal of Invitational Education is to seek balance, harmony, and vibrancy among the four corners. Somewhat like a four-cylinder engine, the four corners require regular fine tuning to be sure they work in concert.While the following corners are easy to describe, they are not easy to implement. The challenge is to balance the constant demands of the four corners and blend them together.
40 Corner One: Being Personally Inviting with Oneself Invitational Professionals see themselves as valuable, able, responsible, and growing.One way to be inviting with oneself is to monitor your internal dialogue or “whispering self” (Zastrow, 1994; Purkey, 2000; Meichenbaum, 1985).Those who learn to change negative interpretations into positive ones enrich their own lives and more deeply appreciate others’ inner worlds.Corner One: Being Personally Inviting with OneselfTo be a long-term beneficial presence in the lives of others, it is vital that educators care for themselves. This means that they view themselves as able, valuable, responsible, and growing in their experiences. Educators who adopt Invitational Education as their theory of practice understand that, while they are not all they could be, they are more than they were, and that they like the direction in which they are heading.An important way to be inviting with oneself is to monitor what one says to oneself internally. Call it mediation, inner conversation, internal dialogue, or self-talk – it is clear that this “whispering self” of inner speech plays a vital role in determining how educators see themselves and how they fit into the world. The importance of the inner voice has been documented by Meichenbaum, 1985, Zastrow, 1994, Purkey, 2000 and many others. Educators who attend to the quality and subtlety of their personal whispering self, and change negative to positive interpretations, can enrich their own lives and develop a deeper appreciation of the inner world of others.To be a long-term beneficial presence in the lives of others, it is vital for professionals to care for themselves.
41 Practice being inviting on your own behalf by making a habit of having some “alone time.” Corner One: Being Personally Inviting with OneselfPractice being inviting on your own behalf by making a habit of having some “alone time.”
42 Corner Two: Being Personally Inviting with Others The basic assumptions of optimism, trust, respect, care, and intentionality point the way to being personally inviting with others, thus promoting promote positive relationships.This is especially important in relationships with students and significant others.Students, for example, are keenly aware of the nuances in messages received in school.Corner Two: Being Personally Inviting With OthersThe second important corner of Invitational Education is being personally inviting with others. Most human activities involve interdependence, particularly with family and friends. Invitational Education, with its basic assumptions of optimism, trust, respect, care and intentionality, points the way to be personally inviting with others.It is important to remember that all the professional success in the universe will not make up for lack of success with significant others. To promote positive success with family, friends, colleagues, and others, educators are encouraged to develop and maintain care and respect for. And trust in, other human beings. This is especially true when it comes to relationships with students.Students are keenly aware of the nuances in messages they receive in schools. In Invitational Education, teachers give careful consideration to students’ feelings and interests.Most human activities involve interdependence.
43 Teachers can influence how students perceive themselves by learning their names and interests, sharing out-of-class experiences, expressing pleasure when they perform well, and expressing positive expectations for everyone.Corner Two: Being Personally Inviting With OthersTeachers can influence how students perceive themselves as learners, and ultimately how they perform academically in the classroom, by making a special effort to learn their names and interests, share out-of-class experiences, express pleasure when they perform well, and express positive expectations for everyone.“You can do it and here’s how to do it,” invites a child who is doubting him/herself to give it a try. The only failure in inviting classrooms is failure to try.
44 Corner Three: Being Professionally Inviting with Oneself In our pluralistic, democratic culture, helping professionals must attend to the perceptual worlds of students or clients.They must also develop skill in utilizing new electronic sources of information.To be professionally inviting with oneself, join professional groups, try new teaching or counseling methods, research, make professional presentations, read, write, and become active in a learning community.Corner Three: Being Professionally Inviting With Oneself.Educators, as intellectual workers, have a special responsibility to study the ideas they teach. In a post-modern, pluralistic, democratic culture it is vital that educators attend to the perceptual worlds that students and colleagues bring to the educational setting.Moreover, educators have a special obligation to gain skill in and be aware of the possibilities and limitations of new electronic sources of information. The knowledge revolution requires the skill and wisdom of educators who are professionally inviting with themselves.In practical terms, inviting oneself professionally involves joining professional groups, trying new teaching or counseling methods, participating in on online discussion groups, doing research, making professional presentations, spending time reading and writing, and being an active member of a learning community.Educators, as intellectual workers, have a special responsibility to study the ideas they teach.
45 The professional who does not invite him/herself to grow runs the risk of becoming obsolete. Corner Three: Being Professionally Inviting With Oneself.It is difficult to overestimate the importance of being active in one’s own professional development. The educator who does not invite himself or herself to grow professionally runs the grave risk of becoming obsolete.
46 Corner Four: Being Professionally Inviting with Others Being professionally inviting with others does not involve bribes, tricks, or coercion.In schools, the focus is on improving academic achievement, teaching to standards, showing children how to take tests, posting a daily agenda to make expectations clear, and celebrating mistakes as learning experiences.Practical strategies are outlined in The Inviting School Treasury: 1001 Ways to Invite Student Success (Purkey and Stanley, 2002).Corner Four: Being Professionally Inviting with OthersAs advocated previously, the primary purpose of education is to summon people cordially to realize their potential in all areas of worthwhile human activity. This includes meeting the democratic goals of society and participating in the progress of civilization. Thus, being professionally inviting with others involves interactions with the entire school community and the larger community as well. This may mean stretching oneself professionally to take part in state and national activities, such as achievement test item review committees, standards review teams, standards lesson sharing websites, or even testifying before the legislature. Classroom teachers can and do make a difference when they get involved outside their own classrooms as educational leaders.Practical strategies for inviting others professionally are so numerous that they have been compiled in a separate book, The Inviting School Treasury: Ways to Invite Student Success. (Purkey & Stanley, 2002). The Treasury is a desk reference that provides more than a thousand concrete suggestions to improve student academic achievement. None of these suggestions involves bribes, tricks, coercion, or deceptions.Being professionally inviting with others involves interactions with the school, agency, and larger community.
47 Being professionally inviting with others is best accomplished by building on the strengths provided by the first three corners. The successful professional is one who artfully blends and synchronizes the four corners into a seamless whole.Corner Four: Being Professionally Inviting with OthersBeing professionally inviting with others is best accomplished by building on the strengths provided by the first three corners. Once the first three corners are functioning smoothly, they serve as a balance wheel for the fourth corner. The successful educator is one who artfully blends and synchronizes the four corners into a seamless whole.
48 The Helix: Internalizing Invitational Education The helix is based upon the idea that professionals spiral up from awareness, to understanding, to application, to adoption of IE as a pervasive theory of practice.There are three phases of interest from occasional to systematic to pervasive.The helix is a 12-step guide to school transformation.The HelixThe “Helix” is defined as something spiral in form. The term seems to fit the developmental nature of Invitational Education. Beginning with initial exposure to the theory, educators can spiral upward from occasional interest, to systematic application, to pervasive adoption. Helix is based on the idea that for educators to involve themselves in Invitational Education they spiral upward from being aware of it, to understanding it, to applying it, and finally adopting it as a pervasive theory of practice.Commitment to Invitational Education may vary in intensity. Some schools may be seeking to introduce a few inviting practices, others may be wishing to apply it systematically, while still others may be wanting to use Invitational Education as a pervasive philosophy to guide everything involved in the educative process..Using the four upward spiraling stages of awareness, understanding, application, and adoption, and three phases of interest from occasional, to systematic, to pervasive, the Helix provides a 12 step guide to school transformation.A helix is a spiral.
49 The Helix Phase I: Occasional Interest Phase I: Occasional Interest builds upon the good things that are already being done in the school or other agency, with the objective of building awareness of and introducing Invitational Education®.Occasional Interest (Phase I)A key foundation of Invitational Education is to build on the good things that are already being done in the school. During this initial phase, generous recognition and praise are given to a variety of good practices already in place. This is followed by descriptions of what other schools are doing that the school might want to try. The purpose is to create awareness of and to introduce Invitational Education.
50 The Helix Phase I: Occasional Interest Step 1: Initial Exposure can happen by talking to a colleague, attending a conference, reading introductory materials, watching a video, or hearing a speaker.Step 2: Structured Dialogue involves organized discussion following a program, speech, or meeting focusing on inviting practices that are already in place.Step 3: General Agreement to Try involves seeking consensus to test a variety of new ideas to see what works.Step 4: Uncoordinated Use and Sharing involves reports on what changes went well, what might be done better, and how.Occasional Interest (Phase I)Step 1. Initial Exposure. Beginning awareness of Invitational Education can happen by talking to a colleague, reading some introductory materials, hearing a speaker, watching a videotape, or attending a conference. Initial exposure should be an enjoyable experience. It should remind educators of the nobility of teaching and what really should matter in education.Step 2. Structured Dialogue. This step involves organized discussion following a program, speech, or a meeting. Emphasis is on recognizing and appreciating inviting practices already taking place. This is followed by exploring why these practices are inviting.Step 3. General Agreement to Try. The purpose here is to seek a consensus to test out a variety of new ideas, see what works, and what might be continued. This step involves small alterations, such as changing the signs in a school, adding additional lighting, cleaning up the trash disposal area, or starting a new extracurricular club. These changes are considered temporary and can serve as a preliminary test of Invitational Education. By labeling the changes “termporary” it consoles those who are typically against change.Step 4. Uncoordinated Use and Sharing. During this step individuals and groups report on what changes went well, what could be done better, and how it might be done. Many of the new initiatives are adopted and are publicly recognized. As examples, telephone calls to the school are handled promptly, politely, and efficiently, and all visitors to the school receive immediate and cordial recognition. Highlighting successful new practices sets the stage to spiral upward toward deeper levels of Invitational Education.
51 The Helix Phase II: Systematic Application Phase II: Systematic Application involves groups working to introduce integrative change within schools or other agencies, going beyond their classrooms or offices to shared concern for the total helping professions community.Systematic Application (Phase II)After a period of initial small successes, groups can work to introduce integrative change within the school. Integrative change means that people are willing to work together and look beyond their subject matter and classrooms to find ways to make the whole school a shared concern.
52 The Helix Phase II: Systematic Application Step 5: Intensive Study happens when IE is studied as a system, aided by a trained leader.Step 6: Applied Comprehension means that those involved discuss their comprehension of the key ideas and apply them in their school.Step 7: Strand Organization involves organizing teams to focus on the 5 Ps: People, Places, Policies, Procedures, and Processes.Step 8: Systematic Incorporation involves regular progress sharing among the strand groups, communication among chairs, and networking with other inviting schools or agencies.Systematic Application (Phase II)Step 5: Intensive Study. An awareness of Invitational Education as a systemic approach is introduced here. Invitational Education, with its foundations, assumptions, practices, levels, four corners, and Helix is presented by an experienced leader in the school or by an Invitational Education consultant. Ideally this leader has a solid background of knowledge of Invitational Education and demonstrates it in his or her personal and professional life.Step 6: Applied Comprehension. Comprehension means that those involved in making Invitational Education an integrated plan of action in their school take the time to discuss their comprehension of its key ideas. It is here that what currently is happening in the school is examined in terms of the rigorous criteria for being an inviting school.Step 7: Strand Organization. Using the “5-P’s of Invitational Education presented in Chapter 4, teams are organized into five groups: People, Places, Policies, Programs, and Processes called “Strands.” Each Strand focuses on its particular “PAs strands woven together make a rope, Strands in schools woven together create Invitational Education. At intervals, each strand shares its invitational goals with the entire school, along with its ways of proceeding, obstacles envisioned, ways to overcoming obstacles, and methods of evaluation. Each strand selects its own chair.Invitational goals are established by consensus of Strand members..Step 8: Systematic Incorporation. It is now time for each of the five Strands to establish its own identity. The Strand members meet regularly.. In addition, Strand chairs also meet togethe. Information regarding progress is given to all members of the school community. During this step, networks may be formed with other inviting schools.
53 The Helix Phase III: Persuasive Adoption Phase III: Persuasive Adoption is when Invitational Education® permeates the organization. Leaders begin to provide leadership to others outside their setting.Pervasive Adoption (Phase III)In this highest phase of the Helix, Invitational Education permeates the school and becomes the way everything is done. School personnel move outside the school and begin to provide leadership to other schools and systems. In doing so, school personnel strengthen their own bonds with Invitational Education.
54 The Helix Phase III: Persuasive Adoption Step 9: Leadership Development occurs when emerging leaders further explore the complexity of IE, including examining new methods.Step 10: Depth Analysis and Extension involves deepening understanding of IE through critical analysis and comparison with other approaches to education or the helping professions. New initiatives are examined and modified in light of IE principles.Pervasive Adoption (Phase III)Step 9: Leadership Development An appreciation of the complexity of Invitational Education develops as emerging leaders formally explore the relationship between Invitational Education and other school goals. Members of the “5-P” Strands consider ways to explore new ways of teaching.Step 10: Depth Anaylsis and Extension. A deep understanding of Invitational Education means that educators critically analyze it and compare and contrast it with other approaches to education. New program initiatives are examined and modified using the criteria involved in Invitational Education.
55 The Helix Phase III: Persuasive Adoption Step 11: Confrontation of Major Concerns involves taking a proactive stance on key issues that affect the school/community, like racism, sexism, and elitism.Step 12: Transformation is when the organization functions like an inviting family and is a model for other schools and agencies aspiring to be inviting.Pervasive Adoption (Phase III)Step 11: Confrontation of Major Concerns. At this point, members of the school community take a proactive stance and address key issues that affect the school and community. Many of these key issues, such as racism, sexism, elitism, favoritism, the nature of privilege, have long been taboo subjects. Insights and participation from students, parents, faculty, staff, parents, and others outside the school are used to develop a deep sense of purpose for the school.Step 12: Transformation At this highest point in the Helix, Invitational Education permeates the whole school. The school functions somewhat like an inviting family. There is optimism respect, trust, care, and an invitational intentionality everywhere in and around the school. The school serves as a model for what schools can become, and members of the school community make presentations at other schools and conferences. Celebrations of success are everywhere. For a list of Inviting Schools, and details on the Inviting School Award, please contact The International Alliance for Invitational Education at Kennesaw State University, Marietta Georgia.“Human potential, though not always apparent, is there waiting to be discovered and invited forth” (Purkey, 2000).
56 MissionA democratic society is ethically committed to accepting people as able, valuable, and responsible, to valuing cooperation and collaboration, to viewing process as product in the making, and to developing untapped possibilities in all worthwhile areas of human endeavor.The unique mission of the International Alliance for Invitational Education® is to create and maintain truly welcoming relationships and environments that enhance life-long learning, promote positive organizational change, cultivate personal and professional growth, and enrich people’s lives.Through this theory of practice, called Invitational Education®, the Alliance also identifies and changes negative forces that defeat and destroy human potential.A democratic society is ethically committed to accepting people as able, valuable, and responsible, to valuing cooperation and collaboration, to viewing process as product in the making, and to developing untapped possibilities in all worthwhile areas of human endeavor.The unique mission of the International Alliance for Invitational Education is to create and maintain truly welcoming relationships and environments that enhance life-long learning, promote positive organizational change, cultivate personal and professional growth, and enrich people’s lives.Through this theory of practice, called Invitational Education, the Alliance also identifies and changes negative forces that defeat and destroy human potential.
57 ConclusionIAIE was co-founded by Dr. William Purkey and Dr. Betty Siegel.The International Alliance for Invitational Education® (IAIE) is a chartered, non-profit organization found in Hong Kong, South Africa, Canada, Britain, Australia, and the United States. The primary mission of the Alliance is to create, maintain, and enhance truly welcoming schools.See for details on how to join and help make our world more welcoming for everyone.ConclusionIAIE was co-founded by Dr. William Purkey and Dr. Betty Siegel.In the 25 years since its founding, the International Alliance for Invitational Education, a not-for-profit, tax-exempt organization has established itself in Hong Kong, South Africa, Canada, and throughout the United States. The Alliance is the only non-profit organization in existence whose primary mission is to create, maintain, and enhance truly welcoming schools. The reader is cordially summoned to join the Alliance and provide invitational leadership for the decades to come. Contact the International Alliance for Invitational Education Headquarters at Kennesaw state or visit the website at for details on how to join and help make our world a more welcoming place for everyone.
58 A Story about Michelangelo’s David A little boy was watching Michelangelo chipping away at a block of marble no previous sculptor had ever wanted. As he saw David emerging from the stone, he asked, “Sire, how did you know he was in there?”Just as Michelangelo freed David from the stone, inviting professionals must free people from preconceived notions of what they can or cannot do and who they will become.A Story about Michelangelo’s DavidA little boy was watching Michelangelo chipping away at a block of marble no previous sculptor had ever wanted. As he saw David emerging from the stone, he asked, “Sire, how did you know he was in there?”Just as Michelangelo freed David from the stone, inviting educators must free children from preconceived notions of what they can or cannot do and who they will become. Invitational educators must have vision to invite forth all forms of positive human potential.Invitational professionals must have vision to invite forth all forms of positive human potential.
59 After a decade of high stakes testing, zero tolerance, mandatory retention, and negative labeling of students, teachers, and schools, a renaissance is in sight. Invitational Education® is one voice in this renaissance. The aim is to realize human potential through sustained, imaginative acts of hope.ConclusionAfter a decade of being in an educational dark age of high stakes testing, zero tolerance, mandatory retention, and negative labeling of students, teachers, and schools, a renaissance is in sight. Invitational Education is one voice in this renaissance. The aim is to realize human potential through sustained imaginative acts of hope.
60 BibliographyArceneaux, C. J. (1994). Trust: An exploration of its exploration of its nature and significance. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 7,Ashton, P. & Webb, R. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers’ sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.Cohen, E. D. (2007). The new rational therapy. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield.Combs, A. (Ed.) (1962). Perceiving, behaving, becoming. Washington,D.C.: Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.DiPetta, T, Novak, J. & Marini, Z. (2002). Inviting online education. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Ellis, A. (1970). The essence of rational psychotherapy. New York: Institute for Rational Living.Ellis, A. (2001). Overcoming destructive beliefs, feelings, and behaviors. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
61 Bibliography…continued Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: How children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books.Journard, S. (1968). Disclosing man to himself. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Lawrence, D. (1996). Enhancing self-esteem in the classroom (2nd ed.). London: Paul Chapman.Maaka, M. (1999). Assessment for school success: A student-centred approach. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 6, 6-27.Meichenbaum, D. (1974). Cognitive behaviour modification. Morristown, NJ: Plenum.Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behaviour modification: An integrated approach. New York: Plenum.Novak, J.M. (Ed). (1992). Advancing invitational thinking. San Francisco: Caddo Gap Press.
62 Bibliography…continued Novak, J.M., Rocca, W., and DiBiasi A. (Eds.) (2006). Creating inviting schools. San Francisco: Caddo Gap.Novak, J.M. (1999). Inviting criteria for democracy’s schools. Thresholds in Education. 25 l, 4-6.Novak, J.M. & Purkey, W.W. (2001). Invitational Education. Bloomington, IN: Phi Deltal Kappa.Novak, J.M. (2002). Inviting educational leadership. Fulfilling potential and applying an ethical perspective to the educational process. London. Pearson.Novak, J.M. (2005). Invitational leadership. In B. Davies (Ed.), Essentials of school leadership. London: ChapmanNovak, J.M. (2003). Invitational leadership and the pursuit of educational living. In B. Davies & J. West-Burnham (eds.), Handbook of educational leadership and management. London: Pearson
63 Bibliography…continued Patterson, C. (1973). Humanistic education. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Purkey, W. (1970). Self concept and school achievement. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Purkey, W. & Fuller J. (1995). The Inviting School survey users' manual. Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina at Greensboro.Purkey, W., & Novak, J. (1988). Education: By invitation only. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.Purkey, W., & Novak, J. (1996). Inviting school success: A self-concept approach to teaching and learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Purkey, W. & Schmidt, J. (1987). The inviting relationship: An expanded perspective for professional counseling. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
64 Bibliography…continued Purkey, W. & Schmidt, J. (1990). Invitational learning and counseling and development. Ann Arbor, MI: ERIC/CAPS.Purkey, W.W. & Siegel, B.L. (2003). Becoming an invitational leader. Atlanta, GA: Humantics.Purkey, W. & Stanley, P. (1991). Invitational teaching, learning and living. Washington, DC: National Educational Association Professional Library, National Education Association.Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill.Schmidt, J. J. (2002). Intentional helping: A philosophy for proficient helping relationships. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.Smith, K. (2006). The Inviting School Survey - Revised. Radford, Virginia. Radford University Center for Invitational Education.Smith, K. (1999). Quality teaching and academic self-concept. Interlogue,10,
65 Bibliography…continued Smith, K. (2000). The self-concept and verbal academic achievement of primary and secondary student teachers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Stevenson, R. (1987). Foreword. In D. R. Cruickshank, Reflective teaching: The preparation of students teaching. Reston, VA: Association of Teacher Educators.