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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land

2 Fig For more than the first 3 billion years of Earths history, the terrestrial surface was lifeless

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 29.1: Land plants evolved from green algae Green algae called charophytes are the closest relatives of land plants

4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Morphological and Molecular Evidence Many characteristics of land plants also appear in a variety of algal clades, mainly algae However, land plants share four key traits only with charophytes: – Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis – Peroxisome enzymes – Structure of flagellated sperm – Formation of a phragmoplast

5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Comparisons of both nuclear and chloroplast genes point to charophytes as the closest living relatives of land plants Note that land plants are not descended from modern charophytes, but share a common ancestor with modern charophytes

6 Fig µm 5 mm Chara species, a pond organism Coleochaete orbicularis, a disk-shaped charophyte that also lives in ponds (LM)

7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land In charophytes a layer of a durable polymer called sporopollenin prevents exposed zygotes from drying out The movement onto land by charophyte ancestors provided unfiltered sun, more plentiful CO 2, nutrient-rich soil, and few herbivores or pathogens Land presented challenges: a scarcity of water and lack of structural support

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The accumulation of traits that facilitated survival on land may have opened the way to its colonization by plants Systematists are currently debating the boundaries of the plant kingdom Some biologists think the plant kingdom should be expanded to include some or all green algae Until this debate is resolved, we will retain the embryophyte definition of kingdom Plantae

9 Fig ANCESTRAL ALGA Red algae Chlorophytes Charophytes Embryophytes Viridiplantae Streptophyta Plantae

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Derived Traits of Plants Four key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophytes: – Alternation of generations (with multicellular, dependent embryos) – Walled spores produced in sporangia – Multicellular gametangia – Apical meristems

11 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Additional derived traits such as a cuticle and secondary compounds evolved in many plant species Symbiotic associations between fungi and the first land plants may have helped plants without true roots to obtain nutrients

12 Fig. 29-5a Gametophyte (n) Gamete from another plant n n Mitosis Gamete FERTILIZATIONMEIOSIS Mitosis Spore n n 2n2n Zygote Mitosis Sporophyte (2n) Alternation of generations

13 Fig. 29-5b Embryo Maternal tissue Wall ingrowths Placental transfer cell (outlined in blue) Embryo (LM) and placental transfer cell (TEM) of Marchantia (a liverwort) 2 µm 10 µm

14 Fig. 29-5c Spores Sporangium Sporophyte Longitudinal section of Sphagnum sporangium (LM) Gametophyte Sporophytes and sporangia of Sphagnum (a moss)

15 Fig. 29-5d Female gametophyte Male gametophyte Antheridium with sperm Archegonium with egg Archegonia and antheridia of Marchantia (a liverwort)

16 Fig. 29-5e Apical meristem of shoot Developing leaves Apical meristems Apical meristem of root Root 100 µm Shoot

17 Fig (a) Fossilized spores (b) Fossilized sporophyte tissue Fossil evidence indicates that plants were on land at least 475 million years ago

18 Table 29-1 ferns Club mosses

19 Fig Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Origin of vascular plants (about 420 mya) Origin of extant seed plants (about 305 mya) ANCES- TRAL GREEN ALGA Liverworts Hornworts Mosses Lycophytes (club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts) Pterophytes (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns) Gymnosperms Angiosperms Seed plants Seedless vascular plants Nonvascular plants (bryophytes) Land plants Vascular plants Millions of years ago (mya)

20 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Bryophyte Gametophytes In all three bryophyte phyla, gametophytes are larger and longer-living than sporophytes Sporophytes are typically present only part of the time

21 Fig Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Protonemata (n) Bud Male gametophyte (n) Female gametophyte (n) Gametophore Rhizoid Spores Spore dispersal Peristome Sporangium MEIOSIS Seta Capsule (sporangium) Foot Mature sporophytes Capsule with peristome (SEM) Female gametophytes 2 mm Raindrop Sperm Antheridia Egg Archegonia FERTILIZATION (within archegonium) Zygote (2n) Embryo Archegonium Young sporophyte (2n)

22 Fig. 29-9d Gametophyte Seta Capsule Sporophyte (a sturdy plant that takes months to grow) Polytrichum commune, hairy-cap moss

23 Fig (a) Peat being harvested (b) Tollund Man, a bog mummy

24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 29.3: Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were the first plants to grow tall Bryophytes and bryophyte-like plants were the prevalent vegetation during the first 100 million years of plant evolution Vascular plants began to diversify during the Devonian and Carboniferous periods Vascular tissue allowed these plants to grow tall Seedless vascular plants have flagellated sperm and are usually restricted to moist environments

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Origins and Traits of Vascular Plants Fossils of the forerunners of vascular plants date back about 420 million years These early tiny plants had independent, branching sporophytes Living vascular plants are characterized by: Life cycles with dominant sporophytes Vascular tissues called xylem and phloem Well-developed roots and leaves

26 Fig Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) MEIOSIS Spore dispersal Sporangium Mature sporophyte (2n) Sorus Fiddlehead Spore (n) Young gametophyte Mature gametophyte (n) Archegonium Egg Antheridium Sperm FERTILIZATION New sporophyte Gametophyte Zygote (2n)

27 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Transport in Xylem and Phloem Vascular plants have two types of vascular tissue: xylem and phloem Xylem conducts most of the water and minerals and includes dead cells called tracheids Phloem consists of living cells and distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products Water-conducting cells are strengthened by lignin and provide structural support Increased height was an evolutionary advantage

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Evolution of Roots Roots are organs that anchor vascular plants They enable vascular plants to absorb water and nutrients from the soil Roots may have evolved from subterranean stems

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Evolution of Leaves Leaves are organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy that is used for photosynthesis

30 Fig

31 Fig. 29-UN4 Gametophyte Mitosis Spore Gamete Mitosis n n n n 2n MEIOSISFERTILIZATION Zygote Sporophyte Haploid Diploid Alternation of generations Apical meristems Multicellular gametangia Walled spores in sporangia Archegonium with egg Antheridium with sperm Sporangium Spores Apical meristem of shoot Developing leaves

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig A seed consists of an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat

34 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 30.1: Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations for life on land In addition to seeds, the following are common to all seed plants – Reduced gametophytes – Heterospory – Ovules – Pollen

35 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Reduced, independent (photosynthetic and free-living) Gametophyte Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n) Sporophyte Example Gametophyte (n) Dominant Reduced, dependent on gametophyte for nutrition Mosses and other nonvascular plants Ferns and other seedless vascular plants Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) PLANT GROUP GymnospermAngiosperm Microscopic female gametophytes (n) inside ovulate cone Microscopic male gametophytes (n) inside pollen cone Sporophyte (2n) Microscopic female gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers Microscopic male gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Seed coat (derived from integument) (c) Gymnosperm seed Embryo (2n) (new sporophyte) Food supply (female gametophyte tissue) (n) (b) Fertilized ovule(a) Unfertilized ovule Integument Immature female cone Spore wall Megasporangium (2n) Male gametophyte (within a germinated pollen grain) (n) Megaspore (n) MicropylePollen grain (n) Egg nucleus (n) Discharged sperm nucleus (n) Female gametophyte (n)

37 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 30.2: Gymnosperms bear naked seeds, typically on cones The gymnosperms have naked seeds not enclosed by ovaries and consist of four phyla: – Cycadophyta (cycads) – Gingkophyta (one living species: Ginkgo biloba) – Gnetophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia) – Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood)

38 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Living seed plants can be divided into two clades: gymnosperms and angiosperms Gymnosperms appear early in the fossil record and dominated the Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems Gymnosperms were better suited than nonvascular plants to drier conditions Today, cone-bearing gymnosperms called conifers dominate in the northern latitudes

39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Phylum Cycadophyta Individuals have large cones and palmlike leaves These thrived during the Mesozoic, but relatively few species exist today

40 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5a Cycas revoluta

41 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Phylum Ginkgophyta This phylum consists of a single living species, Ginkgo biloba It has a high tolerance to air pollution and is a popular ornamental tree

42 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5b Ginkgo biloba pollen-producing tree

43 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5c Ginkgo biloba leaves and fleshy seeds

44 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Phylum Gnetophyta This phylum comprises three genera Species vary in appearance, and some are tropical whereas others live in deserts

45 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5d Gnetum

46 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5e Ephedra

47 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5f Welwitschia

48 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5g Welwitschia Ovulate cones

49 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Phylum Coniferophyta This phylum is by far the largest of the gymnosperm phyla Most conifers are evergreens and can carry out photosynthesis year round

50 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5h Douglas fir

51 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5i European larch

52 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5j Bristlecone pine

53 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5k Sequoia

54 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5l Wollemi pine

55 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 30-5m Common juniper

56 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Microsporangium (2n) Microsporocytes (2n) Pollen grains (n) Pollen cone Microsporangia MEIOSIS Mature sporophyte (2n) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Key MEIOSIS Surviving megaspore (n) Pollen grain Megasporocyte (2n) Ovule Integument Ovulate cone FERTILIZATION Pollen tube Female gametophyte Sperm nucleus (n) Egg nucleus (n) Archegonium Seedling Seeds Seed coat (2n) Food reserves (n) Embryo (2n) Megasporangium (2n)

57 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 30.3: The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits Angiosperms are seed plants with reproductive structures called flowers and fruits They are the most widespread and diverse of all plants All angiosperms are classified in a single phylum, Anthophyta The name comes from the Greek anthos, flower

58 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Carpel Ovule Sepal Petal Stigma Style Ovary Stamen Anther Filament

59 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Hazelnut Ruby grapefruit Tomato Nectarine Milkweed A fruit typically consists of a mature ovary but can also include other flower parts Modes of seed dispersal?

60 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Barbs Seeds within berries Wings

61 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig MEIOSIS Key Microsporangium Microsporocytes (2n) Generative cell Anther Tube cell Pollen grains Microspore (n) Male gametophyte (in pollen grain) (n) Mature flower on sporophyte plant (2n) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) MEIOSIS Ovule (2n) Ovary Megasporangium (2n) Megaspore (n) Female gametophyte (embryo sac) Antipodal cells Central cell Synergids Egg (n) Pollen tube Stigma Sperm (n) Discharged sperm nuclei (n) FERTILIZATION Germinating seed Embryo (2n) Endosperm (3n) Seed coat (2n) Seed Nucleus of developing endosperm (3n) Zygote (2n) Egg nucleus (n) Style Sperm

62 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Carpel Stamen Archaefructus sinensis, a 125-million-year-old fossil (a) (b)Artists reconstruction of Archaefructus sinensis 5 cm Angiosperms originated at least 140 million years ago

63 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Angiosperm Diversity The two main groups of angiosperms are monocots (one cotyledon) and eudicots (true dicots) The clade eudicot includes some groups formerly assigned to the paraphyletic dicot (two cotyledons) group

64 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Basal angiosperms are less derived and include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages Magnoliids share some traits with basal angiosperms but are more closely related to monocots and eudicots

65 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Basal Angiosperms Three small lineages constitute the basal angiosperms These include Amborella trichopoda, water lilies, and star anise

66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig a Amborella trichopoda

67 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig b Water lily

68 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig c Star anise

69 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Magnoliids Magnoliids include magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants Magnoliids are more closely related to monocots and eudicots than basal angiosperms

70 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig d Southern magnolia

71 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Monocots More than one-quarter of angiosperm species are monocots

72 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig e Orchid

73 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig e1 Pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii)

74 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig f

75 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig g Anther Barley Stigma Ovary Filament

76 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Eudicots More than two-thirds of angiosperm species are eudicots

77 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig h California poppy

78 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig i Pyrenean oak

79 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig j Dog rose

80 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig k Snow pea

81 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig l Zucchini flowers

82 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig m Monocot Characteristics Eudicot Characteristics Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Veins usually parallel Veins usually netlike Vascular tissue scattered Leaf venation One cotyledon Embryos Two cotyledons Stems Roots Pollen Root system usually fibrous (no main root) Pollen grain with three openings Taproot (main root) usually present Pollen grain with one opening Floral organs usually in multiples of three Flowers Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five

83 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Chapter 31 Fungi

84 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 31-1

85 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organic compounds The versatility of these enzymes contributes to fungis ecological success

86 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures Hyphae Mycelium 20 µm

87 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host

88 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig (b) Haustoria (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha Hyphae 25 µm

89 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles

90 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote Spores GERMINATION MEIOSIS

91 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig µm

92 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig µm Parent cell Bud

93 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings DNA evidence suggests that fungi are most closely related to unicellular nucleariids while animals are most closely related to unicellular choanoflagellates This suggests that fungi and animals evolved from a common flagellated unicellular ancestor and multicellularity arose separately in the two groups The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only about 460 million years old Concept 31.3: The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist

94 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig µm

95 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

96 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Chytrids Chytrids (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats They can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that chytrids diverged early in fungal evolution Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release

97 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Flagellum 4 µm

98 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Zygomycetes The zygomycetes (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit great diversity of life histories They include fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts The zygomycetes are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions

99 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Sporangium Spores Dispersal and germination ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Sporangia Mycelium 50 µm

100 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually aim their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources

101 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig mm

102 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ascomycetes Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci, usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps Ascomycetes are commonly called sac fungi Ascomycetes vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels

103 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Tuber melanosporum, a truffle Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel

104 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Basidiomycetes Basidomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota) include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi, mutualists, and plant parasites The phylum is defined by a clublike structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle The basidiomycetes are also called club fungi

105 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood Maiden veil fungus (Dictyphora), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat Puffballs emitting spores

106 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Basidium Fig SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n +n) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia (n+n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei MEIOSIS Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidiospore 1 µm Haploid mycelia

107 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lichens A lichen is a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae

108 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen Crustose (encrusting) lichens

109 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium


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