2GlossaryAgribusiness - Farms operated by large companies such as Birds EyeArable - The growing of crops eg Wheat/BarleyCash Crops - Crops grown to be sold for a profitChagras - A clearing in the Amazon ForestCommercial Farming - Farming to make a profitEutrophication - Loss of oxygen in streams caused by fertiliser runoffExtensive Farming - A farm using large areas of land but with little outputGreen Revolution - New techniques used in LEDC's to increase productionHYV - Crops that produce higher yields than ordinary seedsIrrigation - The artificial watering of the landIntensive - A small farm using a lot of equipment or people to have a high output
3Glossary continued Market - The customers who buy the produce Mixed Farming - The farming of crops and animalsMonoculture - When only one type of crop is grownMultiple Cropping - Where two or more crops are grown on the same landPastoral Farming - The rearing of animalsSoil Erosion - The removal of soil by wind or rainStaple Crop - The main crop grown eg Rice in BangladeshSubsistance Farming - Produce mainly grown for the family and not for sale
4Factors affecting farming - Physical Rainfall - Crops need between 250mm & 500mm per yearTemperature - Crops need a minimum of 6 degrees C and three months of 17 degrees to ripenGrowing Season - This is the length of time crops need to grow - wheat needs 90 frost free daysAltitude - The higher you are the colder it gets so this affects the type of farmingAspect - This is the direction a slope faces - South facing slopes receive more heatRelief - Steep slopes result in thin and infertile soils and machinery is difficult to useSoil - Deep, fertile and well drained soil is best for crops
5Factors affecting farming - Human Labour - Farming requires either human labour or machineryMarket - This is the demand for the agricultural productsAccessibility - Transport costs increase with distance from the marketSubsidies - Governments provide money to encourage certain types of farmingQuotas - Governments can also place limits on certain products to prevent surplusesAttitudes - Personnel interests of the public and farmer will also influence what is grownFinance - This may influence what is grown as certain types of farming need more capital
6The farm is a systemThe Farm as a system Farming operates as a system with inputs, processes and outputsProcessesPloughingFertilisingHarvestingMilkingLambing/CalvingPlantingInputsRelief -TemperaturePrecipitationLength of growing seasonSoil typeFarm sizeMachineryOutputsGrain - Barley/Wheat etcFlowersVegetablesAnimals - Calves/lambs/pigletsMilk/Wool
7Classification of Farming Types Arable - is the growing of crops Pastoral - is the keeping of animals Mixed - is when farmers grow crops and rear animalsSubsistence Farmers - produce food for themselves and their family, there is no profit Commercial Farmers - sell their crops and animals to make a profitIntensive - High inputs of money, labour or technology to achieve high outputs or yields per hectare. The farms are usually quite small Extensive - Low inputs, large areas of land, low outputs or yields per hectareSedentary is when the settlement is permanent and the landscape farmed every year Nomadic farmers move around looking for fresh pasture or new plots to cultivate
9Farming in the UK - Sheep Hill Sheep Farming in the Lake District In the upland areas of Britain, sheep farming is the main farming activity due to the difficult conditions and human factors. Breeds of hill sheep, e.g. Swaledales, can survive the extremes of weather and poor quality pasture.Characteristics of a hill sheep farm Three zones of land useThe Fell - the tops of the hills over 300m altitude - sheep graze on this open land in the summer.The Intake or Lower Slopes - divided into fields by dry stone walls - some pasture is improved by adding drainage and fertilizersThe Inbye - the small area of land on the valley floor close to the farm buildings - more fertile soils and sheltered. Used for lambing, shearing etc, and for growing some winter fodder crops
10Sheep farming the problems Recent ProblemsHill sheep farming is not always profitableThe threat of removal of subsidies from the E.U.Costs, e.g. fuel, machinery, fodder have all risen but lamb prices in the 1990's have collapsedFewer young people want to carry on sheep farmingConflicts with tourists and National Park Authorities
11Sheep farming – changes and improvements New breeding stock to improve the quality and quantity of meat and woolGreater use of fertilizers to improve the quality of the pastureEU subsidies and grants to encourage conservation of dry stone walls, natural pastures, stone barns and hedgerowsGrants for new farm buildings so lambing can be done indoorsDiversification of farms to do organic farming, other animals such as deer/goats or non farming activities such as camping, sports activities and forestrySome farms have been sold as second homes
13Dairy farming - UK Mainly found in the west and central UK On gently sloping groundUsually heavy clay soilsMild and wet climateSize is often 150 hectares with a herd of about 100milking cowsMachinery will include tractors, ploughs and hay cuttingLabour will consist of the farmers familyOutput is mainly milk
15Market Gardening Located usually near large towns Usually on flat well sheltered landSoil is usually fertile loamsClimate is warm in summer with not too much rainFarming is intensive with small area of landUsually a small number of workers with a lot of specialised machineryOutput is mainly salad crops, fruit and vegetables
17Arable Farming in East Anglia The main type of farming found in East Anglia is Arable due to the gently sloping ground which allows large scale use of machinery, deep fertile soils usually consisting of boulder clay, an ideal climate of warm dry summers and cool winters which kill off bugs and encourage ripening in the summer
18Changes in Arable Farming Chemicals - have allowed the continuous production of wheat and Barley to be grown by using fertilisers and pesticides/herbicides to increase productionLand Reclamation - To produce more and more yields, hedges have been removed, fields enlarged, marshes drained, woodland cleared and hills flattened to make the area ideal for crop growingImproved Buildings - Drying sheds have been built to store grain to protect the harvestMechanisation - Fields were increased in size to allow larger machines such as combine harvesters etc to operate more easily. Also farms were joined together to increase profit margins and buy fertilisers etc more cheaply - This is called economy of scale
22The Common Agricultural policy (CAP) The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) governs farming in the countries of the European Union including the UK.CAP protects farmers from competition from cheap foreign importsCAP encourage farmers by using a variety of methods to produce the food needed by the inhabitants of the E. U.In recent years E. U. farmers have produced surpluses in many food types and CAP have had to use a variety of methods to restrict the growth of certain foodstuffs.
23Policies of the EU Price Support Policies These are a target price that is set for all farm produce as well as an intervention price. If the price of farm produce falls to the intervention price, the EU will buy the product. This guarantees a minimum price for the farmer but can lead to the EU building up food mountains.
24Policies of the EU Quotas In the 1980's farmers in the EU were producing too much milk. Milk quotas were introduced in 1984 to limit the production from each farm. Farmers can increase their quota by buying another farmer's quota.
25Policies of the EU Subsidies This is money paid to farmers for producing certain crops such as oil seed rape. They encourage farmers to grow more of the subsidised crop, making the EU more self-sufficient in many foodstuffs. But the drive to increase yields has led to many of the features seen below
26Policies of the EU Set-Aside To limit the quantity of cereal crops being produced the EU pays farmers a subsidy to leave land uncultivated. All arable farmers must leave a proportion (15% of farms over 20 hectares) uncultivated or Set-Aside . They cannot farm this land but it can be used for other purposes, eg. golf courses or camp sites which will earn the farmer money, wildlife areas for which the farmer will be given an extra subsidy, or left under grass for which the farmer is paid a grant.
27DiversificationThis is when farmers develop business activities other than farming on their land as can be seen opposite.
31Farming in LEDC’sMost people in less economically developed countries are farmers and most of these are subsistence farmers. Subsistence farming means producing crops and rearing animals for the use of the farmer. Very little surplus produce is grown
32Types of farming Extensive Shifting Cultivation An area of land is cleared by cutting and burning the vegetation. Crops are planted and harvested. When the land loses its fertility after about 5 years the area is abandoned and another area is cleared and farmed e.g. shifting cultivation in the Amazon Rainforest, BrazilExtensive Pastoral NomadismIn regions where grazing is poor, farmers herd animals over wide areas in search of pasture e.g. sheep herding in North Africa.
33Types of farming Intensive Arable Farming The most common kind - Usually small patches of land near to the village are farmed. Most of the work is done by hand or using oxen - eg rice farming in S.E. Asia
35Case Study - Subsistence Rice Farming in the Ganges Valley Physical FactorsA five month growing season with temperatures over 21degrees centigradeMonsoon rainfall over 2000mmFlat land to allow the fields to floodA dry period for harvestingRich alluvial soils to provide nutrientsA large labour force (intensive)
36Case Study - Subsistence Rice Farming in the Ganges Valley
37Human factorsRice gives high yields per hectare which helps to feed the large population.Water buffaloes are used for work and as a source of manure for the fieldsRice seeds are stored from one year to provide the next year's cropRice growing is labour intensive so many people can be employed in the paddy fields looking after the crops.
38Problems of rice growing Flooding - This provides water and fertile silt to grow the rice but sometimes disaster strikes when the floods are so severe that they destroy the rice crop.Drought - In some years the monsoon rains fail and the rice crop is ruined.Shortage of land and a growing population - many patches of land are far too small to support the family. The situation is made worse by the ever increasing population. Food shortages are a real problem.
39Plantation farming – South Africa, Maria’s Pineapple Plantation Plantation farming involves the growing of one type of crop over a large area such as Bananas as in Ecuador, Sugar Cane and coffeeIt requires a lot of investment, usually from a wealthy company in an MEDC. Plantations are well organised to get the highest possible yields.
40Advantages to LEDC’s Plantations can provide employment They provide investments in modern machinery and workers are trainedThey provide export earnings for LEDC's
41Disadvantages to LEDC’s They can destroy large areas of natural vegetationMuch of the profit from plantations goes to MEDC'sWorkers are low paid and usually exploitedIf world prices in the crop fail the country gets very little incomeMonoculture plantations are vulnerable to pests diseases or climatic hazards can wipe out a whole years crop
43Background to the Green Revolution In the mid 1960's scientists working in Mexico and the Philippines and backed by money from the USA developed new varieties of wheat, maize and rice.With these new varieties farmers could increase yields from each hectare by two or three times.These hybrid varieties became known as HYV's or high-yielding varietiesThe use of chemical fertilisers was also increasedIn less than 5 years yields of rice, wheat and maize rose by up to 40% in many countries in Asia including India and Bangladesh.Grants and loans were made available to buy the new seeds and fertilizersAlthough there were many advantages of HYV's there were also disadvantages
44Advantages of the Green Revolution Yields increased three timesMultiple croppingOther crops grown which varied the dietSurplus to sell in cities creating a profit improving the standard of livingAllows purchase of fertilizers, machinery etc
45Disadvantages of the Green Revolution Poor farmers could not afford HYV's fertilizers and machinery.Some borrowed and ended up with large debtsHYV's need more water and fertilizer, which is expensiveNew machinery replaced manual labour leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration
46IrrigationDespite the monsoon rains the water supply can be inadequate for growing rice, especially if more than one crop is grown. So irrigation is neededIn the Ganges valley there are:Wells - holes dug to reach underground water supplies, the water is lifted from the well using a shaduf or waterwheel or electric pumps - The water is then fed along open channels to the fieldsInundation canals on the river banks which fill up as the river floods and takes the water to the fields
47Appropriate Technology This is technology suited to the needs, skills, knowledge and wealth of the people. Large expensive irrigation projects and dams have many disadvantages. Appropriate technology is needed, for example,Individual wells with easy to maintain pumpsRenewable energy sources which use local resources such as wind power, solar power and biogasProjects which use local labour rather than machineryNo Hi-tech machines needing expensive fuel and foreign sparesLow cost schemes which are sustainable
48Questions you need to be able to answer What are the main physical/Human inputs into a farmWhat physical/ Human factors affect farmingWhat is a subsistent/commercial/extensive/intensive farmerDefine the term - Arable Farming
49Questions you need to be able to answer Using an example, explain what changes have taken place on a farm you have studiedDescribe and explain the pattern of farming in the United KingdomWhat are the factors that make East Anglia suitable for Arable farmingFor an extensive farming system you have studied explain the physical and human factors that affect this type of farming
50Questions you need to be able to answer In what ways do the EU have an effect on the farming type in the UKUsing an example explain how farms have increased production in the EUExplain how modern farming can have an effect on the environmentExplain the ways farmers are increasing their income by diversifying
51Questions you need to be able to answer Using an example explain how physical and human factors affect the farming type in an LEDC countryWhy is S. E. Asia an ideal location for Rice farmingWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of plantation farming in tropical countriesExplain how one of the following improvements can bring changes in LEDCs - Irrigation, appropriate technology or soil conservation
52Questions you need to be able to answer What is the Green RevolutionWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of the Green Revolution to farmers