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GENERAL ENGLISH FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS. Articles A/ An are called the indefinite articles because they refer to indefinite person or thingA/ An.

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Presentation on theme: "GENERAL ENGLISH FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS. Articles A/ An are called the indefinite articles because they refer to indefinite person or thingA/ An."— Presentation transcript:


2 Articles A/ An are called the indefinite articles because they refer to indefinite person or thingA/ An are called the indefinite articles because they refer to indefinite person or thing The is called the definite article because it refers to the definite person or thing Indefinite articles can be used before singular count noun Definite article is used before singular count nouns as well as non-count nouns

3 USE OF A AND AN Use of a before a word beginning with a consonant sound and use of an before a vowel sound In the numerical sense of one With units and rates When someone is unknown to the person addressed To make common noun a proper noun

4 USE OF A AND AN When two articles or objects are thought as one unit With certain expression of quantity Before singular nouns in all of sudden exclamatory expressions An is used before word beginning with silent h Alphabets with vowel sound used in abbreviation M. A.

5 USE OF THE USE OF THE With the name of a particular person or thing already referred to When the singular noun represents the whole class Note: Man and Woman can be used in general sense without articles With the names of oceans, rivers, canals, deserts, group of islands, mountain- ranges, religious books, musical instruments

6 USE OF THE USE OF THE With natural objects With superlative degree and double comparative degree With ordinals With an adjective when noun is understood

7 OMISSION OF ARTICLES Before the name of substances and abstract nouns, plural countable nouns Before most proper nouns Before languages, school, college, university, religious places, history Before the names of relations

8 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Singular subject must have singular verb Plural subject must have plural verb Two or more nouns or pronouns joined by and require a plural verb If nouns joined by and suggest one idea or unit, or refer to suggest one person or thing, the verb should be singular

9 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Words joined to a singular subject by with, as well as are parenthetical. The verb should be according to the former subject Subjects joined by or or nor require a verb depending upon the subject nearer the verb Each, every, one, none, somebody, someone, anybody, nobody, either, neither, any, many a, such indefinite pronouns always take singular verbs

10 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Two nouns qualified by each or every connected by and require a singular verb Collective nouns require singular verb when the group works as a unit, therefore take singular verbs; but if members of the group are acting individually, they require plural verb.

11 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Certain words such as news, measles, mumps, end in –s but represents a single thing. These words need singular verbs. Some words such as scissors, trousers, spectacles, shorts –end in –s, seem to represent a single unit,take plural verb.

12 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Title of the books need singular verbs. If the subject is the number of----- singular verb should be used. If the subject is a number of------ plural verb should be used. Nouns with adjectives such as much, more, little, less take singular verb.

13 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS A noun is a word used as a name of a person, place or thing Nouns which are used in singular form Scenery, luggage, information, furniture, advice, machinery, stationery, news, poetry, business, mischief, fuel, issue, repair, bedding, physics, economics, classics, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows, brick, bread, fruit, word (promise)

14 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Nouns which are used in plural form Cattle, police, poultry, people, gentry, peasantry, artillery, scissors, trousers, stockings, spectacles, shorts, alms, remains, riches, goods, measles, mumps etc. Words like dozen, score, hundred, thousand, million, preceded by a numeral take singular form of verbs.

15 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Certain expressions always use singular form of noun as well as verb Nouns used both in singular and plural forms Deer, sheep, fish, apparatus, wages, jury, public, team, audience, committee, government, congregation, orchestra etc. One, any, none are followed by of followed by plural words.

16 SOME COLLECTIVE NOUNS Garland of beads Bouquet of flowers Bunch of grapes Pile of books Library of books Herd of cows Flight of birds

17 SOME COLLECTIVE NOUNS Pack of wolves Group of people Crowd of people Mob of angry people Swarm of bees Crew of sailors

18 SOME COLLECTIVE NOUNS Army of soldiers hoarde of nomads Band of musicians Orchestra of musicians

19 PRONOUNS Pronoun is a word which is used to replace noun or noun groups already mentioned. The pronoun one must be followed by ones When one means one in number, the pronoun for it is third person singular pronoun

20 PRONOUNS Each, every, anyone anybody must be followed by the singular pronoun of their person Let, but, except are followed by pronoun in the objective case Such as is followed by subjective pronoun Verbs like enjoy, avail, pride, resign, apply, acquit, assert, are followed by reflexive pronouns.

21 PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are never used with verbs like keep, conceal, qualify, spread, rest, stay. When first, second and third person singular pronouns are to be used together, they should be used in the sequence of: you, he and I.

22 PRONOUN Who denotes subject Whom denotes objects Whose denotes possession of a person Which denotes lifeless objects Which denotes additional information That denotes explanation.

23 PRONOUN The expressions like only, any, It is, all, superlatives usually take that in place of which or who Each other is used for two persons and one another is used for more than two persons.

24 PRONOUN SubjectiveObjectivePossessiveReflexive IMeMy/MineMyself WeUsOur/OursOurselves YouYouYour/YoursYourself HeHimHisHimself SheHerHerHerself TheyThemTheirThemselves

25 PREPOSITIONS Definition: - A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show in what relating the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else. The word preposition means which is placed before

26 Preposition of Time At: (a) with a definite point of time, (b) with festivals and special occasions In: (a) with parts of the day, months, seasons and years, (b) with the future sense referring to the period in which an action may take place. On: (a) with days and dates (b) to show sharp timings

27 Preposition of Time By: refers to the latest time by which an action will be over For: used with the perfect continuous tense showing the duration of an action Since: used with the point of time when the action begins and continues. From: refers to the starting point of action To: refers to the ending point of action.

28 Preposition of position At: refers to an exact point. In: refers to the larger area Between: used for two persons or things Among: used for more than two persons or things that begin with a consonant letter Amongst: used for more than two persons or things that begin with a vowel letter

29 Preposition of position Above: used for higher than Over: used for vertically above Below: used for lower than Under: used for vertically below Beneath: used for lower position

30 Preposition of direction To: used to express motion to some place, destination From: used to express the starting point Towards: refers to the direction Into: denotes motion towards the inside of something

31 Preposition of direction For: denotes the direction Against: shows pressure Off: shows separation At: refers to the aim About: shows nearness of time

32 Other uses Along: shows in the same line Across: shows from one side to another After: shows sequence Behind: at the back of

33 Other uses Before: stands for in front of Beyond: shows on the farther side of Beside: means by the side of Besides: means in addition to

34 Words followed by to Attention, objection, difference, alternative, access, approach, assent, attachment, exception, invitation, limit, reference, concession, refer, lead, listen, prefer, submit, senior, junior, superior, inferior, allot, aspire, attend, belong, contribute, yield,

35 Words followed by to detrimental, essential, exposed, indebted, favourite, beneficial, alien, agreeable, applicable, acceptable, loyal, opposite, partial, preferable, prior, profitable, suitable, restricted, hostile, equal, entitled, supplementary.

36 Words followed by IN Confidence, dressed, interested, succeed, absorbed, believe, faith, fail, write in ink, enveloped, correct, dabble, glory, indulge, involve, persist, perseverance.

37 Words followed by OF Beware, boast, complain, despair, die, disapprove, dream, taste, assurance, afraid, aware, accused, cautious, conscious, devoid, fearful, ignorant, proud,

38 Words followed by OF sure, desirous, suspicious, fond, independent, jealous, full, warn, guilty, care, complain, die, deprive, consist, acquit, dispose.

39 Words followed by FOR Affection, ambition, aptitude, sorry, anxiety, capacity, pretext, useful, fondness, need, sufficient, contempt, hope, start, canvass, feel

40 Words followed by FOR wish, yearn, desire, passion, pity, fitness, leisure, esteem, compensation, blame, motive, apology, guarantee, liking.

41 Words followed by WITH Busy, consistent, enmity, endowed, acquaintance, bargain, delighted, gifted, inspired, overcome, infected, intimacy, touched, associate, clash, comply, correspond, quarrel, sympathize, bear, coincide

42 ADJECTIVES Modifiers are adjective Nouns as adjectives: A brick wall Participles as adjectives: Running Water Gerunds as adjective: A seating arrangement

43 ADJECTIVES Adverbs as adjective: The above statement Possessives as adjectives: A volcanos crater Prepositional phrase as adjective: The workmen on the site

44 ADVERBS Front position Adverbs: How, when, where, why Mid position adverbs: often, sometimes, never, usually, generally, frequently, occasionally, rarely, seldom, regularly, ever. End position adverbs: well, at once

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