2Active form of amino acids in plants and obtainment systems It is possible to supply amino acids to the plant so that it can save energy in synthesizing them, thus obtaining a better and faster response from the plant being grown.By this means, amino acids are rapidly taken up by the plants and immediately transported to the growth points.However, the quality of an amino acid-based product is directly related with the obtainment method used. The easiest way to obtain amino acids that are useful for agriculture is by protein hydrolysis, breaking the peptide bridges by which the various amino acids are joined together. Hydrolysis gives amino acid chains or shortchain and free (single) amino acids. It is the latter that can be used most beneficially by plants.The better the hydrolysis process is, the more free amino acids and short-chain oligopeptides will be obtained, with less long-chain polypeptides.Racemization. The exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions such as those that take place during chemical hydrolysis,induces different chemical changes. One of them is the racemization of all L-amino acids to their D-isomers. The racemization of the Laminoacids in proteins depends on the pH, time and temperature. The presence of D-amino acid residues in the protein chain reducesits digestibility and nutritional quality.Enzymatic hydrolysis uses enzymes. Enzymes offer advantages that include efficient control of the hydrolysis process, fast reactionspeed, gentle hydrolysis conditions and high specificity. Although more expensive, this hydrolysis process is gentler and more naturalthan chemical hydrolysis and guarantees that all the amino acids obtained are in the “L” (levorotatory) form, which is the form requiredfor effective assimilation and use by plants. This is the system used by Prothemco – (APC Europe) in all its products.
3Acid hydrolysis / enzymatic hydrolysis, crop results with PEPTON In the following tests, carried out in lettuces and strawberries, yield of both crops on the plots treated with PEPTON was much higher than other plots, which were treated with a standard product (and current Spanish market leader), obtained by acid hydrolysis.Compared with an acid hydrolysis standard productPlant weigh en Gr. (10 days after treatment)Compared with an acid hydrolysis standard productFirst harvest production in Kg./Ha(130 days after transplant)Compared with an acid hydrolysis standard productCrop production efficacy (In 19 harvest) – Ton./HaDosage of product in Kg./Ha. (one application)Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 5 aplic.Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 7 aplic.In hydroponic tomato growing, the yield of 19 consecutive harvests, which encompass the main production period, shows the advantages of PEPTON over the acid hydrolysis standard.
4Amino acid Characteristics Typical aminogram % w/w Pepton 85/16 Aspartic acid9.932.93Very common in the soil. Involved in the formation of Nitrogen reserves.Glutamic acid7.252.77Improves pollen germination, activates development of growth tissues (meristems). Stimulates growth of young leaves. Provides resistance in stress situations, enhances photosynthesis and chlorophyll synthesis.Alanine6.900.64Stimulates chlorophyll synthesis and metabolism in the formation of growth hormones. It is also a precursor of fruit aromas and flavours.Arginine5.222.25Stimulates root growth and also takes part in chlorophyll synthesis. Precursor of polyamides that activate cell multiplication.Essential in cases of phosphorus deficiency and in deficiencies of other elements such as magnesium, potassium, calcium, manganese and zinc.Cysteine0.08Regulates production-related processes.Glycine4.061.59Takes part in chlorophyll synthesis and has a chelating effect. Involved in the formation of young leavesHistidine6.341.33Protein amino acid. Improves phosphorus deficiency. Easily degrades.Isoleucine0.150.12Leucine10.993.05Together with Glutamic Acid, it is the most commonly found amino acid in woody tissues (branches and shoots) and in olive leaves.Lysine7.192.94Protein amino acid. Assists photosynthesis, chlorophyll synthesis and stoma opening.Methionine0.710.22Vital link in ethylene synthesis, which favours fruit ripening. Favours root development.Phenylalanine5.93Precursor of lignin, a component of wood and woody parts of plantsProline2.840.76As a component of cell osmosis in plants, it causes a decrease in hydric potential during droughts, improves moisture content of biopolymers and acts as an energy source, increasing the resistance of plants exposed to these conditions.Protects against cold, drought or excess salt stress (by strengthening cell walls).Improves pollen germination and fertility. Regulates cell wall metabolism and water by regulating cell osmosis. Consequently, it is important in conditions of drought and extremely high or low temperatures.Serine3.880.93Regulates water balance and takes part in chlorophyll synthesis. Improves plants’ resistance to adverse situations.Tyrosine1.920.53Threonine2.470.80Has antioxidant propertiesTryptophanInsignificant0.26Precursor of Indole Acetic Acid, a basic hormone in root growth and set. Has antioxidant properties. Can degrade with some ease.Valine6.792.03Together with other compounds, it is present in olive branches and leaves. Precursor of fruit aromas. Gives resistance to plants in stress situations.
5Sprouting and root growth Harvesting/Production 3. Benefits of amino acids in the plant life cycleThe amino acids are basic nutrients and building blocks for proteins. They are essential for all of the different forms of life, which include plant life. They take part in multiple plant metabolism processes and make up the proteins in plant cells.The plants synthesize these compounds from inorganic nitrogen, using its metabolic pathway, depending on their requirements. However, this synthesis requires expenditure of a considerable quantity of energy which could be used in protein synthesis to accelerate the plants’ growth.At times of stress, the plants’ energy is not used to form proteins but to synthesize different AA (Mertz 1952).Consequently, a direct supply of amino acids facilitates protein synthesis and plant growth.Almost all of the AA in plants are in the “L” form, which is the only form in which the plants can use them.The “L”-form AA are the only biologically useful amino acids in that they can be used to form plant proteins.It has been found in experiments that, depending on the type of stress to which they are exposed, plantsaccumulate and, therefore, require certain types of AA. An external supply of amino acids in an appropriatebalance helps considerably in overcoming the different periods of stress that plants may suffer for variousreasons.Sprouting and root growthHarvesting/ProductionPlant growthSet/fructificationFlowering
6PLANT LIFE CYCLE AND BENEFITS OF PEPTON DURING THE LIFE CYCLE PEPTON promotes initial sprouting and root growth, enabling stronger plant rooting.This is a very important aspect after transplanting the young plants, when they have to overcome external aggressions and grow quickly. It is even more important in forced greenhouse growing, when plants must start producing as quickly as possible. It also enables greater plant homogeneity, avoiding planting failures and inconvenientreplantings.The roots development efficacyRoots weigh in gr./plantTrial realized in 2005 in strawberry (Camarosa) in HuelvaIn Camarosa strawberries grown in Huelva in bedded soil under tunnels, the mean weight of the treated and control plants’ roots was measured after four applications of PEPTON, one application every two weeks, in spring by drip irrigation, obtaining the following results:Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 4 aplic.During intense cold stress at the start of growthThe roots development efficacyPercentage of the roots dry weight increase after transplant(60 days after transplant)“Frigo” strawberry plants (naked-root plants kept in cold storage at -2ºC) from a high-elevation nursery were transplanted to the final bedded fields and under a semicircular tunnel, initially uncovered. A winter treatment programme was started immediately, with a total of five applications spaced 2 weeks apart at the doses given below. It just so happened that therewere very sharp night frosts during the five days after transplantation, with minimum temperatures down to -6ºC. By 60 days after transplantationand with four applications completed at the time of performing the test, the results given below were obtained.Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 4aplic
7PEPTON has been shown to stimulate growth Of young plants and also growth of their leaf area. This is an important property in leafy vegetables and also in ornamental plants, where thehighest commercial value is obtained with large leaf volumes. In vegetable garden fruits, faster growth means stronger plants and earlierproduction, enabling better prices to be commanded for these crops.The plants growth efficacySize of the Plants in cms.(40 days after transplant)The leaves growth efficacyFoliar area in cms.2 (40 days after transplant)The plants growth efficacyPlants weigh in gr./plant.(40 days after transplant)Dosage of product in gr/lt. Mixed into the soil subtractDosage of product in gr/lt. Mixed into the soil substractThe leaves growth efficacyFoliar area in cms.2 (40 days after transplant)The leaves growth efficacyfresh weigh of the leaves in gr./plant (13 days after treatment)In just two foliar applications of PEPTON (in summer and autumn) performed on olive trees, a slight increase was observed in the number of new leaf pairs (in the new shoots appearing during the year).Dosage of product in gr/lt. Mixed into the soil substractDosage of product in Kg./Ha. (one application)
8July 13 September 29 In mandarin orange trees grown in the Valencia region, the strength of the sproutsof growing 3 and 5-year-old trees afterweekly applications of PEPTON via dripirrigation, from May to the end of August,was measured on a scale from 1 to 5 on twooccasions, mid-July and end of September,with the results given below.This shows the increased tree strength thatan application schedule can provide.Stronger trees are more resistant and alsomore productive, with all the benefits thisentails.Efficacy over the trees vigourTrees vigour in scale of values from 1 to 5At July 13 and September 29July 13September 29ControlPepton-3Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 14aplic.Efficacy over wood buts development in treesButs lengt in cns.In olive trees, just two foliar applications ofPEPTON (in summer and autumn) during thefirst year obtained a significant growth of newshoots, which will promote increasedproduction the following year.Dosage of product in gr./Hl. .x 2aplic.
9Efficacy of PEPTON versus other Biostimulants The response obtained with PEPTON has been compared with other plant-based amino acid formulations in mandarin orange and strawberry crops.PEPTON has been shown to be clearly superior to these other composites in terms of increased vigour of the trees and quantity and quality of the harvest obtained.In the total number of fruits harvestedIn the number of kg harvestedCompared with a vegetal origin of aminoácids standard productFruits quantity / treatment (In 4 harvest)Compared with a vegetal origin of aminoácids standard productKg./ treatment (In 4 harvest)Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 4 aplic.Dosage of product in Kg./Ha. .x 4 aplic.
10Dose in foliar application Dose when applied through irrigation Dose and method of administrationPEPTON can be applied as a foliar spray and to the soil in fertirrigation. When several applications are made, the number of applications will vary depending on the crop’s requirements and the goals pursued with the crop.As a general rule, we recommend: In foliar spraying:PEPTON 85/16, apply 150 to 300 g /100 l of water per applicationIn the case of PEPTON 25/90, 300 to 600 cc/Hl. (At least two to three applications)Through the irrigation system:PEPTON 85/16, apply 2 to 4 kg /Ha. per applicationIn the case of PEPTON 25/90, 4 to 8 L/Ha. (At least three to four applications)If very frequent applications are made, it is recommended to give half the dose in each application (it can be mixed with other fertilisers)CROPApplication timesDose in foliar applicationDose when applied through irrigationPepton 85/16 g/hlPpepton 25/9 cc/hlPepton 85/16 kg/haPepton 25/9 L/haVegetables in general and strawberriesFrom transplantation to end of harvest and in stress situations2-44-8Orchard and citric fruitsFrom beginning of flowering to harvest and in stress situationsOliveFrom flowering to harvesting and in stress situations2-34-6Wine and table grapeBefore and after floweringCerealsAt start of growth and in stress situationsTropical fruitsFrom flowering to before harvestingTropical cropsDuring fruit growth and before harvestingIndustrial cropsDuring growth and in stress situations1-32-6Flowers and ornamental plantsDuring growth and before flowering
11CONCLUSIONS: Benefits provided by PEPTON during crop growth and production periods o PEPTON promotes growth of the root system, improving plant rootingo PEPTON stimulates general growth of the plantso PEPTON promotes formation of new sprouts in tree crops and increases their strengtho PEPTON stimulates the formation of flower buttonso PEPTON promotes set and fructification, increasing the number of fruitso PEPTON improves the plants’ resistance in stress situations caused by excess cold or heato PEPTON increases the number of higher grade fruitso PEPTON increases the fruits’ sugar levelso PEPTON helps reduce certain diseases in tomatoeso PEPTON contributes to earlier harvests and increased volume in early harvestso PEPTON increases the harvest’s quantity or general weighto PEPTON promotes better quality productiono PEPTON helps reduce rejects (the part of the harvest that has no commercial value)