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Invasive Species In Asia: A Management Challenge to Sustainable Crop Production Wai-Hong LOKE, CABI SEA.

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Presentation on theme: "Invasive Species In Asia: A Management Challenge to Sustainable Crop Production Wai-Hong LOKE, CABI SEA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Invasive Species In Asia: A Management Challenge to Sustainable Crop Production Wai-Hong LOKE, CABI SEA

2 Invasive Species Presentation Introduction to invasive species (IS) and context Invasive species - a management challenge Effects and consequences Addressing the problem About CABI and IAS Summary

3 1. Introduction to Invasive Species Invasive species are plants, animals or micro-organisms that are not native to a specific ecosystem and whose introduction threatens biodiversity, food security, health or economic development. 55

4 Global / Regional Context Occur in all major taxonomic groups of biological organisms One of greatest threats to ecological and economic well-being of planet Direct and indirect effects are serious and often irreversible Serious problems in many economic and health sectors Trade-related IS problem to market access vis-à-vis WTO IS cost > $1 trillion per annum (nearly 5% global GDP) Increasing – travel, trade, transport, tourism Exacerbation by climate change Lack of biosecurity planning against IS Global in scope and requires international cooperation to supplement actions at national and local levels

5 IPPC WTO-SPS CBD International Regulatory Framework CP Protecting wild flora Trade while protecting biodiversity biodiversity Trade LMOs No more trade restriction than necessary LMOs identified as pests as pests Protectingbiological diversity diversity Plant Protection

6 Some of the Asias Worst IS 1.Banana bunchy top virus 2.Papaya ring-spot virus 3.Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) 4.Giant mimosa (Mimosa pigra) 5.Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) 6.Sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci / argentifolii) 7.Fruit Flies (Bactrocera spp.) 8.Rice planthoppers (Nilaparvata, Nephotettix) Serious management challenges

7 2. IS – A Management Challenge General Traits/Characteristics of a Successful IAS Large reproductive output Rapid growth rate Efficient dispersal capabilities No / lack of natural enemies Broad environmental tolerance

8 An Important Management Consideration Pathways the means by which an invasive species is moved

9 The 4 Ts Trade (expanded) Travel (faster) Transport (further) Tourism (increased)

10 Packing materials Cut-flowers Planting materials TRADE



13 Pest complex Weed community Crop rising temperature, air humidity, CO 2, N 2 O, CH 4., rainfall, fire risks changes in soil water / nutrient dynamics

14 Effect of higher temperatures on crop yields < 3 o C increase higher yields in temperate zones > 3 o C increase lower yields in temperate zones Any increase lower yields in tropics adapted by Norgrove from IPCC (2007), summarising 69 studies

15 Furthermore, Climate change will alter pest / crop / soil dynamics Ranges of some pests may expand to higher altitudes & latitudes More extreme climatic disturbances will create opportunities for pest colonisation and establishment Predicted crop yield declines in the Tropics

16 3. Effects of IS Competition with native taxa of flora and fauna Hybridization with genetically close species Changes in physical & chemical characteristics of soil Modification of natural and semi-natural habitats Disruption of ecosystem services Propagation of pests and diseases

17 Consequences: Environmental Waterhyacinth Introduced from Latin America as ornamental plant, has eliminated more than 10 native aquatic plant species and more than 15 native freshwater fishes in Lake Rawapening, Indonesia (Soerjani, 1982, 1996)

18 Consequences – Environmental One of top drivers of environmental change Great threat to species composition of ecosystems Second to habitat loss in biodiversity disruption Cascading effect on biological systems / food chains Deplete natural resources, e.g. water Disrupt ecosystem services One of most serious environmental challenges

19 Consequences: Economic Golden Apple Snail Introduced from Latin America as a high protein food source, the golden apple snail caused losses to Philippine rice crops during the 1980s of $1 billion (Naylor 1996)

20 Consequences – Economic Significant damage / losses in key economic sectors, e.g. agriculture, forestry Impact on food security Barriers to sustainable development Impediments to trade Significant costs in control operations / inputs Issues of compensation in quarantine situations

21 4. Addressing the Problem Goals: Prevention Early Detection Eradication Control Restoration

22 Addressing the Problem Processes: Risk Assessment and Management Research Monitoring Publicity and Education Policy and Regulation Information Management Measure Accomplishments Multi-agency / stakeholder cooperation, collaboration and capacity building are essential

23 Addressing the Problem Complexity Uncertainty Mobility (both invaders and pathways) Time lags Scientific Challenges:

24 Addressing the Problem Lack of awareness Mustering resources Lack of coordination Speed of operations Conflicting policies, policy gaps High costs / financial issues Political Challenges:

25 Addressing the Problem Animal rights Risks of pesticides Risks of biological control GMOs Ethical Challenges:

26 Ten Strategic Responses to Manage IS Element 1 Build management capacity Element 2 Build research capacity Element 3 Promote sharing of information Element 4 Develop economic policies and tools Element 5 Strengthen national, regional and international legal and institutional frameworks Element 6 Institute system of environmental risk analysis Element 7 Build public awareness and engagement Element 8 Prepare national strategies and plans Element 9 Build IAS issues into global change initiatives Element 10 Promote regional/international cooperation to deal with the problems of invasive alien species

27 5. About CABI Established in 1910 Not-for-profit status Owned by 45 member countries Multicultural staff based in 16 countries worldwide Global leader in scientific publishing, research consultancy, science communication and project delivery Bioscience & Health Databases, abstract journals, books, CD-Rom and web-based products Some 300 development assistance projects in 70 countries

28 CABIs and Invasive Species Track record – e.g. 100 years expertise Effectiveness – through global network of centres Status – intergovernmental, independent Information – abstracts, compendia, e-portals, etc. Diagnostics – Global Plant Clinic / PlantWise Alliance Facilities – 3 rd country quarantine Leadership – policy, strategy, control

29 Influencing Global Policy & Practice Founding member of GISP Put invasive species on global agenda MoU with CBD GISP recognised, supported by COP Working with IPPC Crop Protection Compendium – PRA Technical assistance strategy Working with other key bodies GISIN IUCN TNC AAFC USDA

30 Solving Invasive Species Problems Green muscle – a mycopesticide for locust control on the market; research to product development Cocoa pod borer in PNG Coffee berry borer in PNG and Papua & Sulawesi Biological control of invasive weeds, e.g. Mikania using rust fungi Capacity building in trade-related IS

31 Management options: Green Muscle® Green Muscle can be used to control Z. variegatus, Schistocercia gregaria, the desert locust and other hoppers Green Muscle is an environmentally-friendly mycoinsecticide of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum developed by the collaborative LUBILOSA project comprising CABI, IITA, GTZ & CILSS/ AGRHYMET.. Commercialised by Biological Control Products SA (Pty) Ltd, South Africa Desert locust infected with Green Muscle ®

32 e.g. Cocoa Pod Borer in PNG a SE Asian problem an ACIAR-CABI-PNG project incursion and emergency response program support, IPM and FPTR in PNG draws on our experience in IPM in Malaysia

33 e.g. Coffee Berry Borer in PNG a global coffee problem an ACIAR-CABI-PNG-Indonesia project management of the pest in Papua and Sulawesi provinces of Indonesia, prevention and emergency response in PNG draws on our experience in CBB IPM worldwide

34 e.g. biological control of Mikania Mikania micrantha – mile-a-minute weed using a co-evolved neo-tropical rust pathogen, Puccinia spegazzinii imported from S. & Central America, evaluated in CABI UK, released in India 2005 P. spegazzini going to China, Taiwan, Fiji

35 e.g. APEC Workshops Three projects – logical sequence in capacity Building of trade-related IS: 1. awareness in biosecurity planning 2. pest surveillance according to ISPM No. 6 3. diagnostics for whiteflies, thrips, mealybugs and leafminers

36 Forging IS Management Synergies through…. Active support for and participation in many key IS-related events (World Conservation Congress, COP, IS conferences, etc.) Partnerships with relevant global and regional bodies (GISP, IUCN, IPPC, CBD, GISIN, APFISN, APEC, etc.) Collaborating with and backstopping regional initiatives and national programs (SPSCBP, AADCP, NZAID, China- CMIAS, Malaysia-MOA, PNG-CCI/CIC/NAQIA, etc) Focused projects in developing CABI MCs, e.g. PNG, China Working with international consortium on a global ISC Co-organising international/regional IS meetings (ICBI2009)

37 6. Summary IS are a significant and growing threat Impact trade, environment and agriculture - sustainable economic development Global dimensions – treaties, conventions Capacity issues, specific problems Expertise, track record, intergovernmental status - CABI an ideal partner

38 Thank you

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