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1975-2001 > 50 contributors Information from 35 countries Harmonization of 700 mapping units Map of the Natural Vegetation of Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "1975-2001 > 50 contributors Information from 35 countries Harmonization of 700 mapping units Map of the Natural Vegetation of Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 > 50 contributors Information from 35 countries Harmonization of 700 mapping units Map of the Natural Vegetation of Europe

2 Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Practice Standards and Performance Criteria Frank Klingenstein Uwe Schippmann Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz) Bonn, Germany

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4 203 a.C. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

5 Silphion: probably a Ferula-species Silphion was used as species, for mythical purposes, and as aphrodisiac since 700 BC therefore present on mosaics, signets and coins

6 In 96 BC Cyrene became a Roman province, ruled by one-year governers who may have pushed Silphion harvest beyond sustainable limits. Silphion on coins ? 631 BC AD300 AD Trade decline Roman province The economy of Cyrene depended on the export of Silphion for three centuries extinction Cyrene Silphion: first plant exting by man?

7 Logo of the IUCN Medicinal Plant Specialist Group (MPSG)

8 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP) as commodity = drugs wood roots leaves stems bark herb flowers inflorescens Credit: Dagmar Lange

9 MAP-species: figures ~ 55,000 are estimated to be used world-wide (Spain: 600 out of 5100) ~ 2,500 are traded internationally (Spain: 450) (70) – 90 % in terms of species number 50 – (70) % in terms of quantity are wild collected ~ only a few hundred are commercially cultivated (due to low demand and price) ~ 4,000 are estimated to be threatened

10 Conclusion Cultivation cannot be the principal solution to over-harvesting! The main challenge for conservation: Make wild collection sustainable ! Most MAP species will continue to be wild collected

11 High priority of MAPs for conservation potential for development of new drugs improvement of health, benefits for countries of origin affordable medicine for most people in developing countries improvement of their circumstances harvesting offers income (esp. rural communities, women) sustainable use incentive for their conservation public interest in health care issues raise more awareness for conservation

12 § 1: Objectives conservation of biological diversity sustainable use of its components sharing of the benefits arising out of their utilization Ecosystem approach (man as part of nature) § 10: Sustainable Use of Components of Biological Diversity b) minimize impacts on biodiversity when using biological resources c) customary use in accordance with traditional practices e) cooperation between governmental and private sector Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD; Rio 1992)

13 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; 1973) 300 MAP species are listed 25 due to their wild collection

14 Germany is one of the leading countries of import and export of MAPs Average annual volumes and values for 1991 bis 2000 Country of QuantityValueCountry of QuantityValue import [tonnes][x1000 US$]export [tonnes][x1000 US$] Hong Kong67,000291,200China147,000281,800 Japan51,350136,000Hong Kong 63,150228,800 USA49,600135,500India33,90056,650 Germany45,350110,200Germany15,10070,050 Rep. Korea32,25052,300USA13,500115,500 France21,35052,000Mexico13,00011,250 China13,65041,600Egypt11,75013,850 Italy11,70042,850Chile11,60028,200 Pakistan11,05011,150Bulgaria10,05014,500 Spain9,10027,650Singapore9,60056,600 United Kingdom7,65027,000Morocco8,00013,300 Singapore6,30050,600Pakistan7,8004,950 Total326,300978,150Total344,400893,400 Credit: Dagmar Lange

15 Activities of BfN on MAPs Namibia Botswa na Zimbab we Südafrik a 3 0° 2 0° 1 8° 2 8° Devils Claw Harpagophytum procumbens

16 ? ? GuidelinesPrinciples management plans for field collection Criteria and Performance Indicators for the Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants WHO GACP Good Agricultural Collection Practice EMEA Points to consider... WHO IUCN WWF Conser- vation FAH Standard- verfahrens- anweisung Devils Claw Namibia Arnica Romania Thyme Spain Boldo Chile

17 Guideline Develop management systems for sustainable use of medicinal plant resources that follow adaptive management principles. Verifiers The frequency of collection is documented does not exceed a determined limit is adapted to age and size of the population(s) is adapted to the regeneration of the population(s). Criteria a.Frequency of collection: The frequency of collection of a population in a certain time ensures, that negative impacts on the structure of the population and its reproduction are avoided. b.[...]

18 Criteria & Indicators: Application CertificationAuditing CITES Eco Farming Others ?

19 Criteria & Indicators: Starting point Experience for Non-Timber Forest Products Already field tested e.g. for Bertholletia excelsa, Brazil nut, BO Euterpe oleracea, palm hearts, BR Experience for the Certification of Forest Products: FSC Already existing for timber (in many countries) non timber forest products (a few)

20 Drafting Test Consultation Draft C&I Assessment of projects and case studies Criteria & Indicators: Process enhanced C&I

21 draft K&I Criteria & Indicators: Partners enhanced K&I coordination Assessment of projects and case studies G E R M A N Y fd

22 C&I for MAP: Questions to the audience Which case studies in which regions can be integrated as model projects to test the draft C&I? Who wants to be involved in the C&I process to ensure their practicability in collection, trade and processing? Thank you


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